ABCD Study publications are authored by ABCD investigators, collaborators, and non-ABCD researchers. The analysis methodologies, findings, and interpretations expressed in these publications are those of the authors and do not constitute an endorsement by the ABCD Study®.

Please note that the publications listed here include empirical as well as non-empirical papers (e.g., focused review articles, editorials).

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Title Journal Authors Year Details
Toggle Associations Between Resting-State Functional Connectivity and a Hierarchical Dimensional Structure of Psychopathology in Middle Childhood. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Karcher NR, Michelini G, Kotov R, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous research from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study delineated and validated a hierarchical 5-factor structure with a general psychopathology (p) factor at the apex and 5 specific factors (internalizing, somatoform, detachment, neurodevelopmental, externalizing) using parent-reported child symptoms. The present study is the first to examine associations between dimensions from a hierarchical structure and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) networks.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2020/09/17

Authors

Karcher NR, Michelini G, Kotov R, Barch DM

Keywords

Functional connectivity, Hierarchical structure, Neurodevelopmental, Psychopathology, Resting-state, p-factor

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.09.008
Toggle Unpacking Associations between Mood Symptoms and Screen Time in Preadolescents: a Network Analysis. Journal of abnormal child psychology Lin SY, Eaton NR, Schleider JL 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Mounting evidence highlights the link between screen time and adolescent mood problems. However, there are several shortcomings to the extant literature: (1) this link is underexplored in preadolescents, (2) most existing studies look at mood problems using categorical diagnoses rather than from a symptom-level perspective, despite the heterogeneity within mood disorders, (3) few studies have simultaneously examined the links of mood symptoms with different types of screen time, and (4) family/child-level factors that have shown links to youth psychopathology are not typically considered. This study, for the first time, examined the relationships of mood symptoms with different types of screen time, while accounting for theoretically important factors-parental monitoring and the behavioral inhibition/activation systems (BIS/BAS)-in preadolescents aged 9 to 10 from 9986 families participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Using mixed graphical models, we found that screen time involving age-inappropriate content was stably and significantly associated with various elevated mood symptoms, independent from other types of screen time, BIS/BAS, and parental monitoring. Additionally, age-inappropriate screen time was associated with increased overall symptom connectivity. Further, preadolescents engaged in high levels of age-inappropriate screen time reported different symptom profiles (i.e., differences in symptom centralities) from common pediatric mood problems. Our findings underline the multifaceted role (i.e., direct associations with symptoms, a moderator for symptom relationships, associations with distinct symptom profiles) of age-inappropriate screen time in preadolescent mood problems. These findings serve as foundations for future research that may facilitate early detection of preadolescents at risk of mood problems.

Journal

Journal of abnormal child psychology

Published

2020/09/14

Authors

Lin SY, Eaton NR, Schleider JL

Keywords

Depression, Mania, Mood, Network analysis, Preadolescent, Screen time

DOI

10.1007/s10802-020-00703-x
Toggle Altered Neurocognitive Functional Connectivity and Activation Patterns Underlie Psychopathology in Preadolescence. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Lees B, Squeglia LM, McTeague LM, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Neurocognitive deficits are common among youth with mental disorders, and patterns of aberrant brain function generally cross diagnostic boundaries. This study investigated associations between functional neurocircuitry and broad transdiagnostic psychopathology dimensions in the critical preadolescent period when psychopathology is emerging.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2020/09/12

Authors

Lees B, Squeglia LM, McTeague LM, Forbes MK, Krueger RF, Sunderland M, Baillie AJ, Koch F, Teesson M, Mewton L

Keywords

Functional connectivity, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Mental disorder, Neural activation, Preadolescence, Psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.09.007
Toggle Neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive traits in children aged 9 to 10. Journal of abnormal psychology Owens MM, Hyatt CS, Gray JC, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Impulsivity refers to a set of traits that are generally negatively related to critical domains of adaptive functioning and are core features of numerous psychiatric disorders. The current study examined the gray and white matter correlates of five impulsive traits measured using an abbreviated version of the UPPS-P (Urgency, (lack of) Premeditation, (lack of) Perseverance, Sensation-Seeking, Positive Urgency) impulsivity scale in children aged 9 to 10 ( = 11,052) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Linear mixed effect models and elastic net regression were used to examine features of regional gray matter and white matter tractography most associated with each UPPS-P scale; intraclass correlations were computed to examine the similarity of the neuroanatomical correlates among the scales. Positive Urgency showed the most robust association with neuroanatomy, with similar but less robust associations found for Negative Urgency. Perseverance showed little association with neuroanatomy. Premeditation and Sensation Seeking showed intermediate associations with neuroanatomy. Critical regions across measures include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex; critical tracts included the superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Negative Urgency and Positive Urgency showed the greatest neuroanatomical similarity. Some UPPS-P traits share neuroanatomical correlates, while others have distinct correlates or essentially no relation to neuroanatomy. Neuroanatomy tended to account for relatively little variance in UPPS-P traits (i.e., Model R2 < 1%) and effects were spread throughout the brain, highlighting the importance of well powered samples. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Journal

Journal of abnormal psychology

Published

2020/09/07

Authors

Owens MM, Hyatt CS, Gray JC, Miller JD, Lynam DR, Hahn S, Allgaier N, Potter A, Garavan H

Keywords

DOI

10.1037/abn0000627
Toggle Performance of a commercial multi-sensor wearable (Fitbit Charge HR) in measuring physical activity and sleep in healthy children. PloS one Godino JG, Wing D, de Zambotti M, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study sought to assess the performance of the Fitbit Charge HR, a consumer-level multi-sensor activity tracker, to measure physical activity and sleep in children.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2020/09/04

Authors

Godino JG, Wing D, de Zambotti M, Baker FC, Bagot K, Inkelis S, Pautz C, Higgins M, Nichols J, Brumback T, Chevance G, Colrain IM, Patrick K, Tapert SF

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0237719
Toggle Association of Prenatal Opioid Exposure With Precentral Gyrus Volume in Children. JAMA pediatrics Hartwell ML, Croff JM, Morris AS, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

This cross-sectional study identifies structural differences of the precentral gyrus among children with reported prenatal opioid exposure compared with children with no reported exposure, controlling for present social factors.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2020/09/01

Authors

Hartwell ML, Croff JM, Morris AS, Breslin FJ, Dunn K

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0937
Toggle Household Income and Children's Depressive Symptoms: Immigrants' Diminished Returns. International journal of travel medicine and global health Assari S 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Relative to socially privileged groups, socially marginalized people experience weaker health effects of household income and other economic resources, a pattern known as Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs). These MDRs are frequently seen in racial and ethnic minorities, but less is known about the relevance of such MDRs in immigrant families. To investigate the MDRs of household income on children’s depression as a function of immigration, we compared non-immigrant and immigrant children for the effect of household income on children’s depressive symptoms.

Journal

International journal of travel medicine and global health

Published

2020/09/01

Authors

Assari S

Keywords

Depression, Emigration and Immigration, Health Equity, Socioeconomic Status

DOI

10.34172/IJTMGH.2020.27
Toggle Severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: psychiatric and cognitive problems and brain structure in children. BMC medicine Wang H, Rolls ET, Du X, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Two studies have suggested that severe prolonged nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is associated with emotional and behavioral problems in offspring, with smaller sample size and short-term follow-up. Moreover, little information is available on the role of the brain structure in the associations.

Journal

BMC medicine

Published

2020/09/01

Authors

Wang H, Rolls ET, Du X, Du J, Yang D, Li J, Li F, Cheng W, Feng J

Keywords

Cingulate cortex, Cognitive performance, Cortical structure, Nausea and vomiting, Precuneus, Psychiatric problems, Superior medial prefrontal cortex

DOI

10.1186/s12916-020-01701-y
Toggle Commentary: Gender diversity and adolescent mental health - a reflection on Potter et al. (2020). Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Burke SM 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Using a multidimensional measure of gender identity for youths, Potter and colleagues elegantly investigated the prevalence of gender diversity and associated mental health problems in a large sample of young adolescents. The authors address an important need of studies within the behavioral and medical sciences to consider more carefully variations in a person’s subjective experience of gender. Their study shows that individual differences in gender identity significantly relate to adolescent mental health problems. Moreover, findings of the current study, and future follow-up assessments of the ABCD cohort, will, hopefully, add important quantitative, empirical data to the controversial discussions on gender identity development and gender diversity in childhood and adolescence (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59, 2018, 1244; Pediatric gender identity, 2020, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International; International Journal of Transgenderism, 19, 2018, 225).

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2020/08/31

Authors

Burke SM

Keywords

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13309
Toggle Screen media use and sleep disturbance symptom severity in children. Sleep health Hisler GC, Hasler BP, Franzen PL, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Few studies have sought to evaluate how screen media use relates to symptoms of sleep-wake disturbances. To extend these prior studies in a large sample of children, this study examined associations of different types of screen media with symptom severity of different classes of sleep-wake disturbances. This study was preregistered here.

Journal

Sleep health

Published

2020/08/27

Authors

Hisler GC, Hasler BP, Franzen PL, Clark DB, Twenge JM

Keywords

Electronic device use, Screen media, Sleep duration, Sleep onset latency, Sleep-wake disturbances

DOI

10.1016/j.sleh.2020.07.002
Toggle Multivariate Patterns of Brain-Behavior-Environment Associations in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry Modabbernia A, Janiri D, Doucet GE, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is a critical developmental stage. A key challenge is to characterize how variation in adolescent brain organization relates to psychosocial and environmental influences.

Journal

Biological psychiatry

Published

2020/08/24

Authors

Modabbernia A, Janiri D, Doucet GE, Reichenberg A, Frangou S

Keywords

ABCD study, Adolescence, Environment, Neurodevelopment, Neuroimaging, Psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.08.014
Toggle Deep learning identifies morphological determinants of sex differences in the pre-adolescent brain. NeuroImage Adeli E, Zhao Q, Zahr NM, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The application of data-driven deep learning to identify sex differences in developing brain structures of pre-adolescents has heretofore not been accomplished. Here, the approach identifies sex differences by analyzing the minimally processed MRIs of the first 8144 participants (age 9 and 10 years) recruited by the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The identified pattern accounted for confounding factors (i.e., head size, age, puberty development, socioeconomic status) and comprised cerebellar (corpus medullare, lobules III, IV/V, and VI) and subcortical (pallidum, amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampus, insula, putamen) structures. While these have been individually linked to expressing sex differences, a novel discovery was that their grouping accurately predicted the sex in individual pre-adolescents. Another novelty was relating differences specific to the cerebellum to pubertal development. Finally, we found that reducing the pattern to a single score not only accurately predicted sex but also correlated with cognitive behavior linked to working memory. The predictive power of this score and the constellation of identified brain structures provide evidence for sex differences in pre-adolescent neurodevelopment and may augment understanding of sex-specific vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric disorders and presage sex-linked learning disabilities.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2020/08/22

Authors

Adeli E, Zhao Q, Zahr NM, Goldstone A, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Pohl KM

Keywords

Adolescents, Cerebellum, Deep learning, Pubertal development, Sex differences, Study confounders

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117293
Toggle Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study: Impact of Changes From DSM-IV to DSM-5. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Potter AS, Owens MM, Albaugh M, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), used to diagnose psychiatric disorders, was revised to DSM-5 in 2013. Changes were made to the criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 3% in children. Prior revisions to OCD criteria (from DSM-III to DSM-IV) resulted in lower reported prevalence rates, but this is not yet clear with DSM-5. In DSM-5, the definition of obsessions was broadened (Table 1), and the requirement that obsessions cause marked anxiety or distress was removed. Thus we examined rates of OCD within the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study using both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2020/08/12

Authors

Potter AS, Owens MM, Albaugh M, Garavan H, Sher KJ, Kaufman J, Barch DM

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2020.07.904
Toggle Family Income Mediates the Effect of Parental Education on Adolescents' Hippocampus Activation During an N-Back Memory Task. Brain sciences Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Hippocampus, a medial temporal lobe structure, has significant implications in memory formation and learning. Although hippocampus activity is believed to be affected by socioeconomic status (SES), limited knowledge exists on which SES indicators influence hippocampus function. This study explored the separate and combined effects of three SES indicators, namely parental education, family income, and neighborhood income, on adolescents’ hippocampus activation during an N-Back memory task. As some of the effects of parental education may be through income, we also tested if the effect of parental education on hippocampus activation during our N-Back memory task is mediated by family or neighborhood income. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is a national multi-center investigation of American adolescents’ brain development. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of a total sample of 3067 9-10-year-old adolescents were used. The primary outcome was left- hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task (mean beta weight for N-Back run 1 2 back versus 0 back contrast in left hippocampus). The independent variable was parental education. Family income and neighborhood income were two possible mediators. Age, sex, and marital status were the covariates. To test mediation, we used hierarchical linear regression models first without and then with our mediators. Full mediation was defined according to Kenny. The Sobel test was used to confirm statistical mediation. In the absence of family and neighborhood income in the model, higher parental educational attainment was associated with lower level of left hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task. This effect was significant while age, sex, and marital status were controlled. The association between parental educational attainment and hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task was no more significant when we controlled for family and neighborhood income. Instead, family income was associated with hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task. These findings suggested that family income fully mediates the effect of parental educational attainment on left hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task. The effect of parental educational attainment on adolescents’ hippocampus activation during an N-Back memory task is fully explained by family income. That means low family income is why adolescents with low-educated parents show highlighted hippocampus activation during an N-Back memory task. Given the central role of the hippocampus in learning and memory and as income is a modifiable factor by tax and economic policies, income-redistribution policies, fair taxation, and higher minimum wage may have implications for promotion of adolescent equality and social justice. There is a need to focus on family-level economic needs across all levels of neighborhood income.

Journal

Brain sciences

Published

2020/08/05

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH

Keywords

adolescents, brain development, fMRI, hippocampus, socioeconomic factors

DOI

10.3390/brainsci10080520
Toggle Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Sex Hormones among Male and Female American Adolescents. Reproductive medicine (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although early sexual initiation and childbearing are major barriers against the upward social mobility of American adolescents, particularly those who belong to a low socioeconomic status (SES) and racial minorities such as Blacks, less is known on how SES and race correlate with adolescents’ sex hormones. An understanding of the associations between race and SES with adolescents’ sex hormones may help better understand why racial, and SES gaps exist in sexual risk behaviors and teen pregnancies. To extend the existing knowledge on social patterning of adolescents’ sex hormones, in the current study, we studied social patterning of sex hormones in a national sample of male and female American adolescents, with a particular interest in the role of race and SES. For this cross-sectional study, data came from the baseline data (wave 1) of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a national longitudinal prospective study of American adolescents. This analysis included 717 male and 576 female non-Hispanic White or Black adolescents ages 9-10. The dependent variables were sex hormones (testosterone for males and estradiol for females). Independent variables were age, race, family marital status, parental education, and financial difficulties. For data analysis, linear regression models were used. Age, race, parental education, and financial difficulties were associated with estradiol in female and testosterone levels in male adolescents. Associations were not identical for males and females, but the patterns were mainly similar. Low SES explained why race is associated with higher estradiol in female adolescents. Marital status of the family did not correlate with any of the sex hormones. Being Black and low SES were associated with a higher level of sex hormones in male and female adolescents. This information may help us understand the social patterning of sexual initiation and childbearing. Addressing racial and economic inequalities in early puberty, sexual initiation, and childbearing is an essential part of closing the racial and economic gaps in the US.

Journal

Reproductive medicine (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2020/08/03

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH

Keywords

childbirth, education, ethnic groups, maternal age, population groups, puberty

DOI

10.3390/reprodmed1020008
Toggle Reward Processing in Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the ABCD Study. The American journal of psychiatry Hawes SW, Waller R, Byrd AL, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Disrupted reward processing is implicated in the etiology of disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and callous-unemotional traits. However, neuroimaging investigations of reward processing underlying these phenotypes remain sparse. The authors examined neural sensitivity in response to reward anticipation and receipt among youths with DBDs, with and without callous-unemotional traits.

Journal

The American journal of psychiatry

Published

2020/07/31

Authors

Hawes SW, Waller R, Byrd AL, Bjork JM, Dick AS, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Tobia MJ, Thomson N, Laird AR, Gonzalez R

Keywords

Callous-Unemotional, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Pediatric, Reward Processing, fMRI

DOI

10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19101092
Toggle Prevalence and correlates of concussion in children: Data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior Dufour SC, Adams RS, Brody DL, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Concussions are one of the most common causes for emergency room use in the United States (US) among youth and adolescents; however, prevalence data on concussion in this population are inconsistent. A growing body of literature has explored associations of a range of variables with pediatric concussion, but they have not been explored simultaneously in a well-powered sample in the US. The present study aimed to present lifetime concussion prevalence, evaluate demographic, psychological, and cognitive correlates of concussion, and assess for differences across these variables based on age of first concussion in a large sample of US children.

Journal

Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

Published

2020/07/24

Authors

Dufour SC, Adams RS, Brody DL, Puente AN, Gray JC

Keywords

Concussion, Neurocognition, Pediatrics, mTBI

DOI

10.1016/j.cortex.2020.07.003
Toggle Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status and Adolescents' Attention: Blacks' Diminished Returns. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Racial minorities, particularly non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) in the US, experience weaker effects from their families’ socioeconomic status on tangible outcomes, a pattern called the Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory. These MDRs are frequently shown in the effects of the families’ socioeconomic status (SES) on NHB adolescents’ school performance. As a result of these MDRs, NHB adolescents from high SES families show a worse than expected school performance. The existing knowledge is, however, minimal about the role of attention in explaining the diminished returns of the families’ SES with regard to the adolescents’ outcomes. To investigate the racial differences in the effects of the subjective family SES on adolescents’ attention, we compared non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB adolescents to assess the effect of the subjective family SES on adolescents’ attention. This was a cross-sectional analysis that included 4188 adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The independent variable was the subjective family SES. The primary outcome was the adolescents’ attention to be measured by the stop-signal task (SST). The attention domain of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was also measured. Overall, a high subjective family SES was associated with a higher task-based and CBCL-based attention. Race showed statistically significant interactions with subjective family SES in terms of adolescents’ attention outcomes. These interactions suggested that a high subjective family SES has smaller tangible effects on increasing the attention of NHB than NHW adolescents. The boosting effect of subjective family SES on attention is diminished for NHB rather than NHW adolescents. To minimize the racial gap in attention-related behaviors, such as school performance, we need to address the diminished returns of resources in the lives of NHB families. Not only should we equalize SES, but also increase the marginal returns of SES for racial minorities, particularly NHB families. Such efforts require public policies that empower NHB families to better leverage their SES resources and turn them into tangible outcomes. In addition, social policies should directly aim to alter the societal barriers that limit NHB families’ ability to effectively utilize their resources. Discrimination, segregation, and racism should be targets of our policy solutions.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2020/07/23

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M

Keywords

adolescents, attention, brain, cognition, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status

DOI

10.3390/children7080080
Toggle Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with preadolescent alcohol sipping in the ABCD study®. Drug and alcohol dependence Lees B, Mewton L, Stapinski LA, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Early alcohol use initiation is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use disorders. Identifying modifiable risk factors for problematic alcohol use can guide prevention initiatives. Globally, approximately 10% of women consume alcohol during pregnancy, however the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring alcohol use patterns has been understudied. The aim of this study was to examine associations between PAE and preadolescent alcohol use behaviors.

Journal

Drug and alcohol dependence

Published

2020/07/23

Authors

Lees B, Mewton L, Stapinski LA, Teesson M, Squeglia LM

Keywords

Alcohol, Children, Pregnancy

DOI

10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108187
Toggle Environmental Risk Factors and Psychotic-like Experiences in Children Aged 9-10. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Karcher NR, Schiffman J, Barch DM 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Research implicates environmental risk factors, including correlates of urbanicity, deprivation, and environmental toxins, in psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). The current study examined associations between several types of environmental risk factors and PLEs in school-age children, whether these associations were specific to PLEs or generalized to other psychopathology, and examined possible neural mechanisms for significant associations.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2020/07/16

Authors

Karcher NR, Schiffman J, Barch DM

Keywords

MRI, deprivation, lead exposure, psychotic-like experiences, urbanicity

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2020.07.003
Toggle Criterion validity and relationships between alternative hierarchical dimensional models of general and specific psychopathology. Journal of abnormal psychology Moore TM, Kaczkurkin AN, Durham EL, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 129(7) of (see record 2020-72912-001). In the article (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000601), an acknowledgment is missing from the author note. The missing acknowledgement is included in the erratum.] Psychopathology can be viewed as a hierarchy of correlated dimensions. Many studies have supported this conceptualization, but they have used alternative statistical models with differing interpretations. In bifactor models, every symptom loads on both the general factor and 1 specific factor (e.g., internalizing), which partitions the total explained variance in each symptom between these orthogonal factors. In second-order models, symptoms load on one of several correlated lower-order factors. These lower-order factors load on a second-order general factor, which is defined by the variance shared by the lower-order factors. Thus, the factors in second-order models are not orthogonal. Choosing between these valid statistical models depends on the hypothesis being tested. Because bifactor models define orthogonal phenotypes with distinct sources of variance, they are optimal for studies of shared and unique associations of the dimensions of psychopathology with external variables putatively relevant to etiology and mechanisms. Concerns have been raised, however, about the reliability of the orthogonal specific factors in bifactor models. We evaluated this concern using parent symptom ratings of 9-10 year olds in the ABCD Study. Psychometric indices indicated that all factors in both bifactor and second-order models exhibited at least adequate construct reliability and estimated replicability. The factors defined in bifactor and second-order models were highly to moderately correlated across models, but have different interpretations. All factors in both models demonstrated significant associations with external criterion variables of theoretical and clinical importance, but the interpretation of such associations in second-order models was ambiguous due to shared variance among factors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Journal

Journal of abnormal psychology

Published

2020/07/16

Authors

Moore TM, Kaczkurkin AN, Durham EL, Jeong HJ, McDowell MG, Dupont RM, Applegate B, Tackett JL, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Kardan O, Akcelik GN, Stier AJ, Rosenberg MD, Hedeker D, Berman MG, Lahey BB

Keywords

DOI

10.1037/abn0000601
Toggle Head, Neck, and Traumatic Brain Injury Among Children Involved in Sports: Results From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Veliz P, Ryan J, Eckner JT 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of head and neck injury (HNI) requiring hospitalization or emergency care and traumatic brain injury with loss of consciousness (TBI-LOC) among youth athletes and nonathletes (ages 9-10 years) using the baseline cohort of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2020/07/14

Authors

Veliz P, Ryan J, Eckner JT

Keywords

Adolescents, Head injury, Sports

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.06.004
Toggle Fine particulate matter exposure during childhood relates to hemispheric-specific differences in brain structure. Environment international Cserbik D, Chen JC, McConnell R, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Emerging findings have increased concern that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM) may be neurotoxic, even at lower levels of exposure. Yet, additional studies are needed to determine if exposure to current PM levels may be linked to hemispheric and regional patterns of brain development in children across the United States.

Journal

Environment international

Published

2020/07/10

Authors

Cserbik D, Chen JC, McConnell R, Berhane K, Sowell ER, Schwartz J, Hackman DA, Kan E, Fan CC, Herting MM

Keywords

Brain, Cognition, Cortical thickness, Fine particulate matter, MRI, Neurodevelopment

DOI

10.1016/j.envint.2020.105933
Toggle African American Children's Diminished Returns of Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status on Fun Seeking. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Akhlaghipour G, Boyce S, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Reward sensitivity (fun-seeking) is a risk factor for a wide range of high-risk behaviors. While high socioeconomic status (SES) is known to reduce reward sensitivity and associated high-risk behaviors, less is known about the differential effects of SES on reward sensitivity. It is plausible to expect weaker protective effects of family SES on reward sensitivity in racial minorities, a pattern called Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs). We compared Caucasian and African American (AA) children for the effects of subjective family SES on children’s fun-seeking. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 7061 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The independent variable was subjective family SES. The main outcome was children’s fun-seeking measured by the behavioral approach system (BAS) and behavioral avoidance system (BIS). Age, gender, marital status, and household size were the covariates. In the overall sample, high subjective family SES was associated with lower levels of fun-seeking. We also found a statistically significant interaction between race and subjective family SES on children’s fun-seeking in the overall sample, suggesting that high subjective family SES is associated with a weaker effect on reducing fun-seeking among AA than Caucasian children. In race-stratified models, high subjective family SES was protective against fun-seeking of Caucasian but not AA children. Subjective family SES reduces the fun-seeking for Caucasian but not AA children.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2020/07/09

Authors

Assari S, Akhlaghipour G, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH

Keywords

adolescents, children, education, emotion regulation, parenting, risk behaviors, socioeconomic status

DOI

10.3390/children7070075
Toggle Neighborhood Deprivation Shapes Motivational-Neurocircuit Recruitment in Children. Psychological science Mullins TS, Campbell EM, Hogeveen J 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Implementing motivated behaviors on the basis of prior reward is central to adaptive human functioning, but aberrant reward-motivated behavior is a core feature of neuropsychiatric illness. Children from disadvantaged neighborhoods have decreased access to rewards, which may shape motivational neurocircuits and risk for psychopathology. Here, we leveraged the unprecedented neuroimaging data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study to test the hypothesis that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage shapes the functional recruitment of motivational neurocircuits in children. Specifically, via the ABCD study’s monetary-incentive-delay task ( = 6,396 children; age: 9-10 years), we found that children from zip codes with a high Area Deprivation Index demonstrate blunted recruitment of striatum (dorsal and ventral nuclei) and pallidum during reward anticipation. In fact, blunted dorsal striatal recruitment during reward anticipation mediated the association between Area Deprivation Index and increased attention problems. These data reveal a candidate mechanism driving elevated risk for psychopathology in children from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Journal

Psychological science

Published

2020/06/30

Authors

Mullins TS, Campbell EM, Hogeveen J

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, childhood, functional MRI, open data, reward processing, socioeconomic status

DOI

10.1177/0956797620929299
Toggle Caffeine intake and cognitive functions in children. Psychopharmacology Zhang H, Lee ZX, Qiu A 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

There is a growing concern over excessive caffeine use and development of caffeine use disorder in children.

Journal

Psychopharmacology

Published

2020/06/29

Authors

Zhang H, Lee ZX, Qiu A

Keywords

Caffeine, Children, Cognition, Executive function

DOI

10.1007/s00213-020-05596-8
Toggle Prenatal cannabis exposure and sleep outcomes in children 9-10 years of age in the adolescent brain cognitive development study. Sleep health Winiger EA, Hewitt JK 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Analyze the associations between prenatal cannabis exposure and child sleep outcomes.

Journal

Sleep health

Published

2020/06/28

Authors

Winiger EA, Hewitt JK

Keywords

Cannabis, Development, Prenatal, Sleep

DOI

10.1016/j.sleh.2020.05.006
Toggle The importance of social factors in the association between physical activity and depression in children. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health Conley MI, Hindley I, Baskin-Sommers A, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Physical activity is associated with reduced depression in youth and adults. However, our understanding of how different aspects of youth activities-specifically, the degree to which they are social, team-oriented, and physical-relate to mental health in children is less clear.

Journal

Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health

Published

2020/06/27

Authors

Conley MI, Hindley I, Baskin-Sommers A, Gee DG, Casey BJ, Rosenberg MD

Keywords

Childhood, Depression, Development, Friendships, Physical activity

DOI

10.1186/s13034-020-00335-5
Toggle Neighborhood deprivation, prefrontal morphology and neurocognition in late childhood to early adolescence. NeuroImage Vargas T, Damme KSF, Mittal VA 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Neighborhood deprivation adversely effects neurodevelopment and cognitive function; however, mechanisms remain unexplored. Neighborhood deprivation could be particularly impactful in late childhood/early adolescence, in neural regions with protracted developmental trajectories, e.g., prefrontal cortex (PFC).

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2020/06/25

Authors

Vargas T, Damme KSF, Mittal VA

Keywords

Cognition, Environmental vulnerability, Neighborhood deprivation, Neurodevelopment, Prefrontal cortex

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117086
Toggle Gray matter volumetric correlates of behavioral activation and inhibition system traits in children: An exploratory voxel-based morphometry study of the ABCD project data. NeuroImage Ide JS, Li HT, Chen Y, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Approach and avoidance represent two fundamental behavioral traits that develop early in life. Previous studies have examined the neural correlates of approach and avoidance traits in adults and adolescents. Here, using the data set of the Adolescent Brain Cognition Development project, we investigated the structural cerebral bases of behavioral activation system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) in children. We employed voxel-based morphometry to examine how gray matter volumes (GMV) related specifically to BAS and BIS traits in 11,542 children (5491 girls, age 9-10 years) with 648 and 2697 identified as monozygotic twins (MZ) and dizygotic twins/siblings (DZ), respectively. After accounting for the BIS score, higher BAS scores (residuals) were positively correlated with the GMV of the ventral striatum (VS), and the correlation was stronger in MZ than in DZ and unrelated children, with a heritability (h) of 0.8463. Higher BAS scores were negatively correlated with the GMV of bilateral visual, lateral orbitofrontal, temporal, and inferior frontal cortex, as well as the precuneus. Higher BIS (after accounting for BAS) scores were negatively correlated with the GMVs of the ventral caudate and bilateral putamen/pallidum, hypothalamus, and right anterior insula, and the correlation was stronger in MZ than in DZ and unrelated children, with a heritability of 0.8848. A cluster in the VS showed positive and negative correlation with the BAS and BIS scores, respectively. These findings suggest shared and distinct cerebral volumetric bases of the BAS and BIS traits in children. Whereas both traits have a strong genetic basis, the BAS relative to BIS appears to be more amenable to environmental influences. These findings add to the literature of developmental neuroscience and may help identify genetic risk factors of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2020/06/24

Authors

Ide JS, Li HT, Chen Y, Le TM, Li CSP, Zhornitsky S, Li CR

Keywords

ABCD, BAS, BIS, Heritability, Imaging, VBM

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117085
Toggle Reward Responsiveness in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: African Americans' Diminished Returns of Parental Education. Brain sciences Assari S, Boyce S, Akhlaghipour G, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

(1) Background: Reward responsiveness (RR) is a risk factor for high-risk behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and early sexual initiation, which are all reported to be higher in African American and low socioeconomic status adolescents. At the same time, parental education is one of the main drivers of reward responsiveness among adolescents. It is still unknown if some of this racial and economic gap is attributed to weaker effects of parental education for African Americans, a pattern also called minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs). (2) Aim: We compared non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents for the effects of parent education on adolescents RR, a psychological and cognitive construct that is closely associated with high-risk behaviors such as the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. (3) Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis that included 7072 adolescents from the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study. The independent variable was parent education. The main outcome as adolescents’ RR measured by the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) measure. (4) Results: In the overall sample, high parent education was associated with lower levels of RR. In the overall sample, we found a statistically significant interaction between race and parent education on adolescents’ RR. The observed statistical interaction term suggested that high parent education is associated with a weaker effect on RR for African American than non-Hispanic White adolescents. In race-stratified models, high parent education was only associated with lower RR for non-Hispanic White but not African American adolescents. (5) Conclusion: Parent education reduces RR for non-Hispanic White but not African American adolescents. To minimize the racial gap in brain development and risk-taking behaviors, we need to address societal barriers that diminish the returns of parent education and resources in African American families. We need public and social policies that target structural and societal barriers, such as the unequal distribution of opportunities and resources. To meet such an aim, we need to reduce the negative effects of social stratification, segregation, racism, and discrimination in the daily lives of African American parents and families. Through an approach like this, African American families and parents can effectively mobilize their resources and utilize their human capital to secure the best possible tangible outcomes for their adolescents.

Journal

Brain sciences

Published

2020/06/19

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Akhlaghipour G, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH

Keywords

adolescents, brain, brain development, cognition, education, inhibitory control, parenting, race, reward, risk behaviors, socioeconomic status

DOI

10.3390/brainsci10060391
Toggle African Americans' Diminished Returns of Parental Education on Adolescents' Depression and Suicide in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. European journal of investigation in health, psychology and education Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

To investigate racial and ethnic differences in the protective effects of parental education and marital status against adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempts in the U.S. As proposed by the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs), parental education generates fewer tangible outcomes for non-White compared to White families. Our existing knowledge is very limited regarding diminished returns of parental education and marital status on adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempts. To compare racial groups for the effects of parental education and marital status on adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempt. This cross-sectional study included 7076 non-Hispanic White or African American 8-11 years old adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The independent variables were parental education and marital status. The main outcomes were depressed mood and suicidal attempts based on parents’ reports using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS). Age and gender were the covariates. Race was the moderator. Logistic regression was used to analyze the ABCD data. Overall, parental education was associated with lower odds of depressed mood (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67-0.99; p = 0.037) and having married parents was associated with lower odds of suicidal attempts (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.28-0.91; p = 0.022). In the pooled sample, we found interaction terms between race with parental education and marital status on the outcomes, suggesting that the protective effect of having married parents against depressed mood (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.00-2.37; p = 0.048) and the protective effect of having married parents against suicidal attempts (OR = 6.62; 95% CI = 2.21-19.86; p =0.001) are weaker for African Americans when compared to Whites. The protective effects of parent education and marital status against depressed mood and suicidal attempts are diminished for African American adolescents compared to White adolescents. There is a need for programs and interventions that equalize not only socioeconomic status (SES) but also the marginal returns of SES for racial minority groups. Such efforts require addressing structural and societal barriers that hinder African American families from translating their SES resources and human capital into tangible outcomes. There is a need for studies that can minimize MDRs for African American families, so that every individual and every family can benefit from their resources regardless of their skin color. To achieve such a goal, we need to help middle-class African American families secure tangible outcomes in the presence of SES resources.

Journal

European journal of investigation in health, psychology and education

Published

2020/06/16

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH

Keywords

affect, attempted, depressive disorder, educational status, major, marital status, mood disorders, population groups, racism, social class, social segregation, suicide

DOI

10.3390/ejihpe10020048
Toggle The ABCD study: understanding the development of risk for mental and physical health outcomes. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Karcher NR, Barch DM 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Following in the footsteps of other large “population neuroscience” studies, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ (ABCD) study is the largest in the U.S. assessing brain development. The study is examining approximately 11,875 youth from 21 sites from age 9 to 10 for approximately ten years into young adulthood. The ABCD Study® has completed recruitment for the baseline sample generally using a multi-stage probability sample including a stratified random sample of schools. The dataset has a wealth of measured attributes of youths and their environment, including neuroimaging, cognitive, biospecimen, behavioral, youth self-report and parent self-report metrics, and environmental measures. The initial goal of the ABCD Study was to examine risk and resiliency factors associated with the development of substance use, but the project has expanded far beyond this initial set of questions and will also greatly inform our understanding of the contributions of biospecimens (e.g., pubertal hormones), neural alterations, and environmental factors to the development of both healthy behavior and brain function as well as risk for poor mental and physical outcomes. This review outlines how the ABCD Study was designed to elucidate factors associated with the development of negative mental and physical health outcomes and will provide a selective overview of results emerging from the ABCD Study. Such emerging data includes initial validation of new instruments, important new information about the prevalence and correlates of mental health challenges in middle childhood, and promising data regarding neural correlates of both healthy and disordered behavior. In addition, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities to understanding both healthy development and the emergence of risk from ABCD Study data. Finally, we will overview the future directions of this large undertaking and the ways in which it will shape our understanding of the development of risk for poor mental and physical health outcomes.

Journal

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Published

2020/06/15

Authors

Karcher NR, Barch DM

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41386-020-0736-6
Toggle Replication of Associations With Psychotic-Like Experiences in Middle Childhood From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Schizophrenia bulletin open Karcher NR, Loewy RL, Savill M, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The fields of psychology and psychiatry are increasingly recognizing the importance of replication efforts. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings examining the construct validity and psychometric properties of a psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) measure in middle childhood using an independent subset of the baseline Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) sample. Using a remainder baseline sample of 7013 nine- to eleven-year-old children with complete data, we examined measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex, and examined the associations between the Prodromal Questionnaire Brief-Child Version (PQ-BC) and other measures of PLEs, internalizing symptoms, neuropsychological test performance, and developmental milestones, to determine whether previously obtained results replicated in this nonoverlapping baseline sample subset. The results replicated measurement invariance across ethnicity and sex, and analyses again found higher PQ-BC scores for African American (β = .364, 95% CI = 0.292, 0.435) and Hispanic (β = .255, 95% CI = 0.185, 0.324) groups. We also replicated that higher PQ-BC scores were associated with psychosis risk measures, higher rates of child-reported internalizing symptoms (Distress: β = .378, 95% CI = 0.357,0.398), neuropsychological test performance deficits (eg, working memory; Distress: β = -.069, 95% CI = -0.096, -0.042), and motor (Distress: β = .026, 95% CI = 0.003, 0.049) and speech (Distress: β = .042, 95% CI = 0.018, 0.065) developmental milestone delays. The current results replicated many findings from the original study examining the PQ-BC. We replicated evidence for mean differences in race/ethnicity, and associations with other PLE measures, greater internalizing symptoms, cognitive impairments, and developmental milestone delays. These findings indicate robust and reliable associations between PLEs and hypothesized correlates can be found in middle childhood nonclinical samples.

Journal

Schizophrenia bulletin open

Published

2020/06/12

Authors

Karcher NR, Loewy RL, Savill M, Avenevoli S, Huber RS, Simon TJ, Leckliter IN, Sher KJ, Barch DM

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development, construct validity, middle childhood, psychometric properties, psychotic-like experiences, replication

DOI

10.1093/schizbullopen/sgaa009
Toggle Adverse childhood experiences and psychotic-like experiences are associated above and beyond shared correlates: Findings from the adolescent brain cognitive development study. Schizophrenia research Karcher NR, Niendam TA, Barch DM 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk for psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). However, ACEs and PLEs are also both associated with several shared factors (e.g., internalizing symptoms, suicidality). Few studies have explicitly examined whether the association between ACEs and PLEs remains over and above shared correlates. To address this question, using 10,800 9-11-year-olds, we examined whether ACEs and school-aged PLEs were associated when accounting for shared correlates, and whether there was evidence of mediation in associations between PLEs, ACEs, and these shared factors. Greater number of ACEs were associated with greater PLEs, including several specific ACEs (e.g., bullying). Importantly, ACEs and PLEs were related even when accounting for shared correlates. Further, PLEs partially mediated the relationships between ACEs and both internalizing symptoms and suicidality, including suicidal behavior. The current study helps clarify the nature of the associations between PLEs and ACE and has important clinical implications for addressing PLEs.

Journal

Schizophrenia research

Published

2020/06/08

Authors

Karcher NR, Niendam TA, Barch DM

Keywords

Adverse childhood experiences, Internalizing symptoms, Psychotic-like experiences, Suicidality, Trauma

DOI

10.1016/j.schres.2020.05.045
Toggle Family Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Childhood Trauma: Racial Differences. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) refer to weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as parental educational attainment and family income in generating tangible childhood outcomes for racial and ethnic minorities compared to the majority group, a pattern prevalent in the US. Our existing knowledge is minimal, however, about diminished returns of family SES on reducing exposure to childhood trauma.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2020/06/03

Authors

Assari S

Keywords

ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, stress, stressful life events, trauma

DOI

10.3390/children7060057
Toggle Social Determinants of Delayed Gratification among American Children. Caspian journal of neurological sciences Assari S 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

A wide array of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators tend to show differential effects for members of diverse social groups. Limited knowledge exists on ethnic variation in the effects of family income on delay discounting which is predictor of risk behaviors.

Journal

Caspian journal of neurological sciences

Published

2020/06/01

Authors

Assari S

Keywords

impulsivity behavior, income, population groups

DOI

10.32598/cjns.6.22.2
Toggle Early adolescent gender diversity and mental health in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Potter A, Dube S, Allgaier N, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

There are known associations between mental health symptoms and transgender identity among adults. Whether this relationship extends to early adolescents and to gender domains other than identity is unclear. This study measured dimensions of gender in a large, diverse, sample of youth, and examined associations between diverse gender experiences and mental health.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2020/05/28

Authors

Potter A, Dube S, Allgaier N, Loso H, Ivanova M, Barrios LC, Bookheimer S, Chaarani B, Dumas J, Feldstein-Ewing S, Freedman EG, Garavan H, Hoffman E, McGlade E, Robin L, Johns MM

Keywords

Gender diversity, early adolescent, gender expression, nonconformity, suicidality, transgender

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13248
Toggle Behavioral and Neural Signatures of Working Memory in Childhood. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Rosenberg MD, Martinez SA, Rapuano KM, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Working memory function changes across development and varies across individuals. The patterns of behavior and brain function that track individual differences in working memory during human development, however, are not well understood. Here, we establish associations between working memory, other cognitive abilities, and functional MRI (fMRI) activation in data from over 11,500 9- to 10-year-old children (both sexes) enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study in the United States. Behavioral analyses reveal robust relationships between working memory, short-term memory, language skills, and fluid intelligence. Analyses relating out-of-scanner working memory performance to memory-related fMRI activation in an emotional -back task demonstrate that frontoparietal activity during a working memory challenge indexes working memory performance. This relationship is domain specific, such that fMRI activation related to emotion processing during the emotional -back task, inhibitory control during a stop-signal task (SST), and reward processing during a monetary incentive delay (MID) task does not track memory abilities. Together, these results inform our understanding of individual differences in working memory in childhood and lay the groundwork for characterizing the ways in which they change across adolescence. Working memory is a foundational cognitive ability that changes over time and varies across individuals. Here, we analyze data from over 11,500 9- to 10-year-olds to establish relationships between working memory, other cognitive abilities, and frontoparietal brain activity during a working memory challenge, but not during other cognitive challenges. Our results lay the groundwork for assessing longitudinal changes in working memory and predicting later academic and other real-world outcomes.

Journal

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Published

2020/05/25

Authors

Rosenberg MD, Martinez SA, Rapuano KM, Conley MI, Cohen AO, Cornejo MD, Hagler DJ, Meredith WJ, Anderson KM, Wager TD, Feczko E, Earl E, Fair DA, Barch DM, Watts R, Casey BJ

Keywords

development, fMRI, frontoparietal, n-back, working memory

DOI

10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2841-19.2020
Toggle Parental Education on Youth Inhibitory Control in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: Blacks' Diminished Returns. Brain sciences Assari S 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) youth are at a higher risk of high-risk behaviors compared to non-Hispanic White (NHW) youth. Some of this racial gap is shown to be due to weaker effects of parental educational attainment on reducing the prevalence of behavioral risk factors such as impulsivity, substance use, aggression, obesity, and poor school performance for NHBs, a pattern called Minorities’ Diminished Returns. These diminishing returns may be due to lower than expected effects of parental education on inhibitory control.

Journal

Brain sciences

Published

2020/05/21

Authors

Assari S

Keywords

brain, cognition, ethnicity, inhibitory control, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, youth

DOI

10.3390/brainsci10050312
Toggle Minorities' Diminished Returns of Parental Educational Attainment on Adolescents' Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Boyce S, Caldwell CH, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

To compare racial groups for the effect of parental educational attainment on adolescents’ social, emotional, and behavioral problems. In this cross-sectional study, 10,762 youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study were included. The independent variable was parental educational attainment. The main outcomes were 1) anxious and depressed mood, 2) withdrawn and depressed affect, 3) somatic complaints, 4) social and interpersonal problems, 5) thought problems, 6) rule-breaking behaviors, 7) attention problems, and 8) violent and aggressive behaviors. These scores were generated based on parent-reported behavioral problems measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Race and ethnicity were the moderators. Linear regression was used to analyze the ABCD data. Overall, high parental educational attainment was associated with lower scores across all domains. Race and ethnicity showed statistically significant interactions with parental educational attainment on adolescents’ fewer social, emotional, and behavioral problems (all domains), net of all confounders, indicating smaller tangible gains from their parental educational attainment for Black and Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic White adolescents. The protective effects of parental education against social, emotional, and behavioral problems are systematically diminished for Hispanic and Black than non-Hispanic White adolescents.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2020/05/18

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M

Keywords

ethnic groups, parental educational attainment, socioeconomic factor, socioeconomic status

DOI

10.3390/children7050049
Toggle Parental Family History of Alcohol Use Disorder and Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition in Children From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research Lees B, Aguinaldo L, Squeglia LM, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Youth whose parents have alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at higher risk for earlier initiation and greater magnitude of alcohol use, and have a higher likelihood of developing an AUD than their peers without parental history of AUD. This increased risk may be partly attributable to altered development of inhibitory control and related neural circuitry. This study examined neural activation during a motor response inhibition Stop Signal Task (SST) in substance-naïve youth aged 9 to 10 years with and without parental family history of AUD.

Journal

Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research

Published

2020/05/18

Authors

Lees B, Aguinaldo L, Squeglia LM, Infante MA, Wade NE, Hernandez Mejia M, Jacobus J

Keywords

Alcohol Use Disorder, Family History, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Response Inhibition, Stop Signal Task

DOI

10.1111/acer.14343
Toggle Patterns of sociocognitive stratification and perinatal risk in the child brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Alnæs D, Kaufmann T, Marquand AF, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The expanding behavioral repertoire of the developing brain during childhood and adolescence is shaped by complex brain-environment interactions and flavored by unique life experiences. The transition into young adulthood offers opportunities for adaptation and growth but also increased susceptibility to environmental perturbations, such as the characteristics of social relationships, family environment, quality of schools and activities, financial security, urbanization and pollution, drugs, cultural practices, and values, that all act in concert with our genetic architecture and biology. Our multivariate brain-behavior mapping in 7,577 children aged 9 to 11 y across 585 brain imaging phenotypes and 617 cognitive, behavioral, psychosocial, and socioeconomic measures revealed three population modes of brain covariation, which were robust as assessed by cross-validation and permutation testing, taking into account siblings and twins, identified using genetic data. The first mode revealed traces of perinatal complications, including preterm and twin birth, eclampsia and toxemia, shorter period of breastfeeding, and lower cognitive scores, with higher cortical thickness and lower cortical areas and volumes. The second mode reflected a pattern of sociocognitive stratification, linking lower cognitive ability and socioeconomic status to lower cortical thickness, area, and volumes. The third mode captured a pattern related to urbanicity, with particulate matter pollution (PM) inversely related to home value, walkability, and population density, associated with diffusion properties of white matter tracts. These results underscore the importance of a multidimensional and interdisciplinary understanding, integrating social, psychological, and biological sciences, to map the constituents of healthy development and to identify factors that may precede maladjustment and mental illness.

Journal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Published

2020/05/14

Authors

Alnæs D, Kaufmann T, Marquand AF, Smith SM, Westlye LT

Keywords

childhood/adolescence, neurodevelopment, neuroscience, population imaging, psychology

DOI

10.1073/pnas.2001517117
Toggle Unique longitudinal relationships between symptoms of psychopathology in youth: A cross-lagged panel network analysis in the ABCD study. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Funkhouser CJ, Chacko AA, Correa KA, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The network theory suggests that psychopathology may reflect causal relationships between individual symptoms. Several studies have examined cross-sectional relationships between individual symptoms in youth. However, these studies cannot address the directionality of the temporal relationships hypothesized by the network theory. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal relationships between individual internalizing, externalizing, and attention symptoms in youth.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2020/05/12

Authors

Funkhouser CJ, Chacko AA, Correa KA, Kaiser AJE, Shankman SA

Keywords

Comorbidity, continuity, developmental psychopathology, etiology, symptomatology

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13256
Toggle Pubertal development mediates the association between family environment and brain structure and function in childhood. Development and psychopathology Thijssen S, Collins PF, Luciana M 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Psychosocial acceleration theory suggests that pubertal maturation is accelerated in response to adversity. In addition, suboptimal caregiving accelerates development of the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuit. These findings may be related. Here, we assess whether associations between family environment and measures of the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuit are mediated by pubertal development in more than 2000 9- and 10-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (http://dx.doi.org/10.15154/1412097). Using structural equation modeling, demographic, child-reported, and parent-reported data on family dynamics were compiled into a higher level family environment latent variable. Magnetic resonance imaging preprocessing and compilations were performed by the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study’s data analysis core. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) thickness, area, white matter fractional anisotropy, amygdala volume, and cingulo-opercular network-amygdala resting-state functional connectivity were assessed. For ACC cortical thickness and ACC fractional anisotropy, significant indirect effects indicated that a stressful family environment relates to more advanced pubertal stage and more mature brain structure. For cingulo-opercular network-amygdala functional connectivity, results indicated a trend in the expected direction. For ACC area, evidence for quadratic mediation by pubertal stage was found. Sex-stratified analyses suggest stronger results for girls. Despite small effect sizes, structural measures of circuits important for emotional behavior are associated with family environment and show initial evidence of accelerated pubertal development.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2020/05/01

Authors

Thijssen S, Collins PF, Luciana M

Keywords

accelerated development, amygdala–medial prefrontal cortex circuit, family environment, psychosocial acceleration theory, pubertal development

DOI

10.1017/S0954579419000580
Toggle Childhood Obesity, Cortical Structure, and Executive Function in Healthy Children. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Ronan L, Alexander-Bloch A, Fletcher PC 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The development of executive function is linked to maturation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in childhood. Childhood obesity has been associated with changes in brain structure, particularly in PFC, as well as deficits in executive functions. We aimed to determine whether differences in cortical structure mediate the relationship between executive function and childhood obesity. We analyzed MR-derived measures of cortical thickness for 2700 children between the ages of 9 and 11 years, recruited as part of the NIH Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We related our findings to measures of executive function and body mass index (BMI). In our analysis, increased BMI was associated with significantly reduced mean cortical thickness, as well as specific bilateral reduced cortical thickness in prefrontal cortical regions. This relationship remained after accounting for age, sex, race, parental education, household income, birth-weight, and in-scanner motion. Increased BMI was also associated with lower executive function. Reduced thickness in the rostral medial and superior frontal cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex partially accounted for reductions in executive function. These results suggest that childhood obesity is associated with compromised executive function. This relationship may be partly explained by BMI-associated reduced cortical thickness in the PFC.

Journal

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Published

2020/04/14

Authors

Ronan L, Alexander-Bloch A, Fletcher PC

Keywords

ABCD, childhood obesity, cortical thickness, executive function, prefrontal cortex

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhz257
Toggle Parent versus child report of children's sexual orientation: associations with psychiatric morbidity in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Annals of epidemiology Clark KA, Mennies RJ, Olino TM, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

We sought to document the association between parent’s report and their child’s report of the child’s sexual orientation and associations between this agreement/disagreement and the child’s psychiatric morbidity.

Journal

Annals of epidemiology

Published

2020/04/02

Authors

Clark KA, Mennies RJ, Olino TM, Dougherty LR, Pachankis JE

Keywords

Development, Psychiatric epidemiology, Psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.03.009
Toggle What Is the Link Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep Disturbance? A Multimodal Examination of Longitudinal Relationships and Brain Structure Using Large-Scale Population-Based Cohorts. Biological psychiatry Shen C, Luo Q, Chamberlain SR, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid with sleep disturbances can produce profound disruption in daily life and negatively impact quality of life of both the child and the family. However, the temporal relationship between ADHD and sleep impairment is unclear, as are underlying common brain mechanisms.

Journal

Biological psychiatry

Published

2020/03/31

Authors

Shen C, Luo Q, Chamberlain SR, Morgan S, Romero-Garcia R, Du J, Zhao X, Touchette É, Montplaisir J, Vitaro F, Boivin M, Tremblay RE, Zhao XM, Robaey P, Feng J, Sahakian BJ

Keywords

ADHD, Development, Dyssomnia, Longitudinal study, Neurodevelopmental, Parasomnia

DOI

10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.03.010
Toggle Examining Specificity of Neural Correlates of Childhood Psychotic-like Experiences During an Emotional n-Back Task. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging O'Brien KJ, Barch DM, Kandala S, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during childhood are associated with greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder in adulthood, highlighting the importance of identifying neural correlates of childhood PLEs. Furthermore, impairment of cognitive functions, such as working memory and emotion regulation, has also been linked to psychosis risk as well as to disruptions in several brain regions. However, impairments in these domains have also been linked to other disorders, including depression. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether neural impairments in regions associated with working memory and implicit emotion regulation impairments are specific to PLEs versus depression.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2020/03/19

Authors

O'Brien KJ, Barch DM, Kandala S, Karcher NR

Keywords

Depression, Emotional n-back, Implicit emotion regulation, Neuroimaging, Psychotic-like experiences, Working memory

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.012
Toggle Risk and protective factors for childhood suicidality: a US population-based study. The lancet. Psychiatry Janiri D, Doucet GE, Pompili M, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood suicidal ideation and behaviours are poorly understood. We examined correlates of suicidality in a US population-based sample of children participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The ABCD study aims to examine trajectories of mental health from childhood to adulthood and collects information on multiple domains, including mental and physical wellbeing, brain imaging, behavioural and cognitive characteristics, and social and family environment. We sought to identify and rank risk and protective factors for childhood suicidal thoughts and behaviours across these multiple domains and evaluate their association with self-agreement and caregiver agreement in reporting suicidality.

Journal

The lancet. Psychiatry

Published

2020/03/12

Authors

Janiri D, Doucet GE, Pompili M, Sani G, Luna B, Brent DA, Frangou S

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30049-3
Toggle An item response theory analysis of the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version: Developing a screening form that informs understanding of self-reported psychotic-like experiences in childhood. Journal of abnormal psychology Karcher NR, Perino MT, Barch DM 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version (PQ-BC) has been developed as a tool for identifying psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in school-age children. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the PQ-BC, examined how well the PQ-BC estimates the latent construct of PLEs (θ̂), and began the process of developing a screening form informed by item response theory (IRT). Utilizing the baseline ( = 11,129) sample from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, we examined which PQ-BC items provide the most information and best discriminate individuals experiencing PLEs. Using hierarchical linear models (HLMs), we found that θ̂ scores were significantly associated with several previously identified predictors of psychosis spectrum symptoms (i.e., history of psychosis, internalizing symptoms, cognitive impairments, developmental milestone delays, and resting-state functional connectivity impairments) at baseline and Year 1 ( = 5,532). Using item-level information and discrimination parameters of the PQ-BC from the baseline sample, we created a 7-item screening form. HLMs generally found significant associations between screening form scores for both baseline and Year 1 with the aforementioned predictors. The analyses provide evidence for the validity of a screening form derived from the PQ-BC using IRT-derived parameters. This screening form could prove useful when the full measure is not feasible. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Journal

Journal of abnormal psychology

Published

2020/02/27

Authors

Karcher NR, Perino MT, Barch DM

Keywords

DOI

10.1037/abn0000502
Toggle Parental and social factors in relation to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognitive function. Translational psychiatry Zhang H, Lee ZX, White T, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Parental and social factors have long-term impact on the neurodevelopment of offspring, but tend to highly covary with each other. Thus, it is difficult to parse out which parental and social factor contributes most to neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study aimed to assess clusters of parental and social factors associated with child psychopathology, behavioral problems, and cognition. This study employed the data of 11,875 children (9 to 11 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 39 environmental measures and 30 child behavior and cognitive measures separately to identify clusters of parental and social factors and clusters of child psychopathology, behaviour, and cognition. Regression analysis was used to examine independent effects of each cluster of parental and social factors on child psychopathology, behavioral problems, and cognition. Greater Parent Psychopathology cluster was associated with greater Child Psychopathology cluster. Moreover, greater Socioeconomic Status cluster was associated with greater child General Cognition and Executive Function but less Behavioral Inhibition clusters. Greater Proximal Social Environment and Interaction cluster were associated with less child Impulsive Behavior and Behavioral Inhibition, but greater Behavioral Activation cluster. The environmental clusters related to birth outcomes, maternal tobacco, and drug use were not significantly related to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognition. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic status, parental psychopathology, and social environment and interactions are the strongest risks for behavioral problems and cognitive performance in a general child population. Intervention programs should target modifiable factors within these domains.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2020/02/26

Authors

Zhang H, Lee ZX, White T, Qiu A

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-020-0761-6
Toggle Sleep Disturbance Predicts Depression Symptoms in Early Adolescence: Initial Findings From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Goldstone A, Javitz HS, Claudatos SA, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and mental health in adolescents.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2020/02/08

Authors

Goldstone A, Javitz HS, Claudatos SA, Buysse DJ, Hasler BP, de Zambotti M, Clark DB, Franzen PL, Prouty DE, Colrain IM, Baker FC

Keywords

Adolescent, Children, Longitudinal, Mental health, Minority, Sleep duration

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.12.005
Toggle Prevalence and Family-Related Factors Associated With Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Self-injury in Children Aged 9 to 10 Years. JAMA network open DeVille DC, Whalen D, Breslin FJ, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although suicide is a leading cause of death for children in the United States, and the rate of suicide in childhood has steadily increased, little is known about suicidal ideation and behaviors in children.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2020/02/05

Authors

DeVille DC, Whalen D, Breslin FJ, Morris AS, Khalsa SS, Paulus MP, Barch DM

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20956
Toggle Sleep duration, brain structure, and psychiatric and cognitive problems in children. Molecular psychiatry Cheng W, Rolls E, Gong W, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Low sleep duration in adults is correlated with psychiatric and cognitive problems. We performed for the first time a large-scale analysis of sleep duration in children, and how this relates to psychiatric problems including depression, to cognition, and to brain structure. Structural MRI was analyzed in relation to sleep duration, and psychiatric and cognitive measures in 11,067 9-11-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, using a linear mixed model, mediation analysis, and structural equation methods in a longitudinal analysis. Dimensional psychopathology (including depression, anxiety, impulsive behavior) in the children was negatively correlated with sleep duration. Dimensional psychopathology in the parents was also correlated with short sleep duration in their children. The brain areas in which higher volume was correlated with longer sleep duration included the orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal and temporal cortex, precuneus, and supramarginal gyrus. Longitudinal data analysis showed that the psychiatric problems, especially the depressive problems, were significantly associated with short sleep duration 1 year later. Further, mediation analysis showed that depressive problems significantly mediate the effect of these brain regions on sleep. Higher cognitive scores were associated with higher volume of the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Public health implications are that psychopathology in the parents should be considered in relation to sleep problems in children. Moreover, we show that brain structure is associated with sleep problems in children, and that this is related to whether or not the child has depressive problems.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2020/02/03

Authors

Cheng W, Rolls E, Gong W, Du J, Zhang J, Zhang XY, Li F, Feng J

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-020-0663-2
Toggle Associations Among Body Mass Index, Cortical Thickness, and Executive Function in Children. JAMA pediatrics Laurent JS, Watts R, Adise S, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

A total of 25.7 million children in the United States are classified as overweight or obese. Obesity is associated with deficits in executive function, which may contribute to poor dietary decision-making. Less is known about the associations between being overweight or obese and brain development.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2020/02/01

Authors

Laurent JS, Watts R, Adise S, Allgaier N, Chaarani B, Garavan H, Potter A, Mackey S

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.4708
Toggle White Matter Tract Integrity, Involvement in Sports, and Depressive Symptoms in Children. Child psychiatry and human development Gorham LS, Barch DM 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

White matter tract integrity, measured via fractional anisotropy (FA), may serve as a mediating variable between exercise and depression. To study this, we examined data from 3973 children participating in the ABCD study. Parents of children completed the Sports and Activities questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist, and children completed a diffusion MRI scan, providing information about the FA of the parahippocampal cingulum and fornix. Results showed that involvement in sports was associated with reduced depression in boys. The number of activities and sports that a child was involved in was negatively related to FA of the left fornix but was unrelated to FA of other tracts. FA of these white matter tracts was also unrelated to depressive symptoms. This suggests that while white matter tract integrity is associated with exercise, it may not be part of a pathway linking exercise to depression levels in preadolescent boys.

Journal

Child psychiatry and human development

Published

2020/01/25

Authors

Gorham LS, Barch DM

Keywords

Children, Depression, Diffusion MRI, Exercise, White matter tract integrity

DOI

10.1007/s10578-020-00960-3
Toggle Disruptive Behavior Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits, and Regional Gray Matter Volume in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Waller R, Hawes SW, Byrd AL, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Neurobiological differences linked to socioemotional and cognitive processing are well documented in youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), especially youths with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The current study expanded this literature by examining gray matter volume (GMV) differences among youths with DBD with CU traits (DBDCU+), youths with DBD without CU traits (DBD-only), and youths that were typically developing (TD).

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2020/01/22

Authors

Waller R, Hawes SW, Byrd AL, Dick AS, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Tobia MJ, Bottenhorn KL, Laird AR, Gonzalez R

Keywords

ABCD, Amygdala, Antisocial behavior, Callous-unemotional traits, Gray matter volume, Hippocampus

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.01.002
Toggle Association of lead-exposure risk and family income with childhood brain outcomes. Nature medicine Marshall AT, Betts S, Kan EC, et al. 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Socioeconomic factors influence brain development and structure, but most studies have overlooked neurotoxic insults that impair development, such as lead exposure. Childhood lead exposure affects cognitive development at the lowest measurable concentrations, but little is known about its impact on brain development during childhood. We examined cross-sectional associations among brain structure, cognition, geocoded measures of the risk of lead exposure and sociodemographic characteristics in 9,712 9- and 10-year-old children. Here we show stronger negative associations of living in high-lead-risk census tracts in children from lower- versus higher-income families. With increasing risk of exposure, children from lower-income families exhibited lower cognitive test scores, smaller cortical volume and smaller cortical surface area. Reducing environmental insults associated with lead-exposure risk might confer greater benefit to children experiencing more environmental adversity, and further understanding of the factors associated with high lead-exposure risk will be critical for improving such outcomes in children.

Journal

Nature medicine

Published

2020/01/13

Authors

Marshall AT, Betts S, Kan EC, McConnell R, Lanphear BP, Sowell ER

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41591-019-0713-y
Toggle Editorial: Family History of Depression and Child Striatal Volumes in the ABCD Study: Promise and Perils of Neuroimaging Research With Large Samples. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Beauchaine TP 2020
PubMed Record

Abstract

Every generation of psychopathologists is confronted with critical issues that, if left unaddressed, impede progress in both science and practice. As just one example, progress in psychiatry was hindered for many years by problems with diagnostic validity. Surmounting these problems required painstaking efforts to operationalize diagnostic criteria and to formulate effective structured interviews. More recently, critical issues facing psychiatry include tackling the so-called replication crisis, and mapping the overwhelming etiological complexity of psychopathology-two interrelated challenges. Many highly cited findings from past decades have failed to replicate, have not been subjected to replication, or have overestimated effect sizes considerably. Such findings apply to virtually all areas of psychiatric research, spanning genetics, central and peripheral biomarkers, and interventions..

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2020/01/10

Authors

Beauchaine TP

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2020.01.002
Toggle Factor structure, measurement and structural invariance, and external validity of an abbreviated youth version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Psychological assessment Watts AL, Smith GT, Barch DM, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

The current study examines the measurement properties and validity of a novel, abbreviated youth version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale that was developed to maintain measurement consistency with the existing adult short form. Specifically, we examined this scale’s (a) factor structure; (b) measurement and structural invariance across four demographic characteristics: gender, ethnicity, household income, and parental education; and (c) correlates using a subset of 4,521 preadolescent (9- and 10-year old) children (53% male) from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a large, community-based sample. Our findings supported a correlated 5-factor model, as well as a hierarchical model that recaptured the covariation among these 5 lower-order factors in three higher-order factors. Both of these models are consistent with the commonly observed structure of the UPPS-P among adults. We established measurement invariance across all demographic characteristics. Finally, our UPPS-P scales evidenced good convergent and discriminant validity with a broad swath of theoretically relevant external criteria, including self- and parent-reported personality and psychopathology, as well as lab-based neurocognitive tasks. Our findings indicate that we can assess multidimensional impulsivity in children reliably and validly by means of self-report, allowing assessment of this critical domain at early stages of development. We hope that this measure will facilitate the study of impulsivity in large-scale samples to begin to understand the evolution and long-term consequences of impulsivity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Journal

Psychological assessment

Published

2019/12/16

Authors

Watts AL, Smith GT, Barch DM, Sher KJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1037/pas0000791
Toggle Differential Relationships of Child Anxiety and Depression to Child Report and Parent Report of Electronic Media Use. Child psychiatry and human development Fors PQ, Barch DM 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Child depression and anxiety have been associated with electronic media use, but the comorbidity between the two has rarely been accounted for in analyses. We examined both child and parent reports of electronic media use in relation to parent-reported child depression and anxiety. Using survey and interview data collected for 9- to 11-year-olds from the 21-site adolescent brain cognitive development study, we conducted generalized linear mixed models. Our results demonstrated that electronic media use was more strongly associated with depression than anxiety, and that accounting for depression significantly reduced the relationship between electronic media use and anxiety. Different categories of electronic media showed differential relationships to anxiety and depression, with video gaming and video chatting related to anxiety, but video watching related to depression. These findings provide important data to ground theories of the mechanisms that contribute to these associations.

Journal

Child psychiatry and human development

Published

2019/12/01

Authors

Fors PQ, Barch DM

Keywords

Anxiety, Children, Depression, Electronic media use, Technology

DOI

10.1007/s10578-019-00892-7
Toggle Correction of respiratory artifacts in MRI head motion estimates. NeuroImage Fair DA, Miranda-Dominguez O, Snyder AZ, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Head motion represents one of the greatest technical obstacles in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain. Accurate detection of artifacts induced by head motion requires precise estimation of movement. However, head motion estimates may be corrupted by artifacts due to magnetic main field fluctuations generated by body motion. In the current report, we examine head motion estimation in multiband resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study and comparison ‘single-shot’ datasets. We show that respirations contaminate movement estimates in functional MRI and that respiration generates apparent head motion not associated with functional MRI quality reductions. We have developed a novel approach using a band-stop filter that accurately removes these respiratory effects from motion estimates. Subsequently, we demonstrate that utilizing a band-stop filter improves post-processing fMRI data quality. Lastly, we demonstrate the real-time implementation of motion estimate filtering in our FIRMM (Framewise Integrated Real-Time MRI Monitoring) software package.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2019/11/25

Authors

Fair DA, Miranda-Dominguez O, Snyder AZ, Perrone A, Earl EA, Van AN, Koller JM, Feczko E, Tisdall MD, van der Kouwe A, Klein RL, Mirro AE, Hampton JM, Adeyemo B, Laumann TO, Gratton C, Greene DJ, Schlaggar BL, Hagler DJ, Watts R, Garavan H, Barch DM, Nigg JT, Petersen SE, Dale AM, Feldstein-Ewing SW, Nagel BJ, Dosenbach NUF

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116400
Toggle Screen time and problem behaviors in children: exploring the mediating role of sleep duration. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity Guerrero MD, Barnes JD, Chaput JP, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous research examining the relationship between screen time (ST) and psychological health outcomes have primarily focused on one type of ST (i.e., television), while little research has considered other types of screens (e.g., videos, movies, social media), screen content (e.g., violent video games), or potential mediating variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess ST types and content and their association with problem behaviors, and to determine whether these relationships were mediated by sleep duration.

Journal

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity

Published

2019/11/14

Authors

Guerrero MD, Barnes JD, Chaput JP, Tremblay MS

Keywords

Aggressive behavior, Mature-rated video games, Negative binomial structural equation modeling, Rule-breaking behavior, Television/movies, Video games

DOI

10.1186/s12966-019-0862-x
Toggle Prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood. Journal of affective disorders Donohue MR, Tillman R, Perino MT, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Maladaptive guilt can develop by age three and is associated with severe affective psychopathology in adolescents and adults. Yet, little is known about its prevalence prior to adolescence, or which children are at greatest risk of developing this symptom. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood.

Journal

Journal of affective disorders

Published

2019/11/13

Authors

Donohue MR, Tillman R, Perino MT, Whalen DJ, Luby J, Barch DM

Keywords

Family conflict, Maladaptive guilt, Maternal depression, Negative parenting, Prevalence

DOI

10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.075
Toggle Brain Volume Abnormalities in Youth at High Risk for Depression: Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Pagliaccio D, Alqueza KL, Marsh R, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children of parents with depression are two to three times more likely to develop major depressive disorder than children without parental history; however, subcortical brain volume abnormalities characterizing major depressive disorder risk remain unclear. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study provides an opportunity to identify subcortical differences associated with parental depressive history.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2019/10/18

Authors

Pagliaccio D, Alqueza KL, Marsh R, Auerbach RP

Keywords

ABCD, adolescent depression, dorsal striatum, subcortical brain volume, ventral striatum

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2019.09.032
Toggle Delineating and validating higher-order dimensions of psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Translational psychiatry Michelini G, Barch DM, Tian Y, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Hierarchical dimensional systems of psychopathology promise more informative descriptions for understanding risk and predicting outcome than traditional diagnostic systems, but it is unclear how many major dimensions they should include. We delineated the hierarchy of childhood and adult psychopathology and validated it against clinically relevant measures. Participants were 9987 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Factor analyses of items from the Child Behavior Checklist and Adult Self-Report were run to delineate hierarchies of dimensions. We examined the familial aggregation of the psychopathology dimensions, and the ability of different factor solutions to account for risk factors, real-world functioning, cognitive functioning, and physical and mental health service utilization. A hierarchical structure with a general psychopathology (‘p’) factor at the apex and five specific factors (internalizing, somatoform, detachment, neurodevelopmental, and externalizing) emerged in children. Five similar dimensions emerged also in the parents. Child and parent p-factors correlated highly (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and smaller but significant correlations emerged for convergent dimensions between parents and children after controlling for p-factors (r = 0.09-0.21, p < 0.001). A model with child p-factor alone explained mental health service utilization (R = 0.23, p < 0.001), but up to five dimensions provided incremental validity to account for developmental risk and current functioning in children (R = 0.03-0.19, p < 0.001). In this first investigation comprehensively mapping the psychopathology hierarchy in children and adults, we delineated a hierarchy of higher-order dimensions associated with a range of clinically relevant validators. These findings hold important implications for psychiatric nosology and future research in this sample.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2019/10/17

Authors

Michelini G, Barch DM, Tian Y, Watson D, Klein DN, Kotov R

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-019-0593-4
Toggle Author Correction: No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the ABCD study. Nature human behaviour Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

Journal

Nature human behaviour

Published

2019/10/01

Authors

Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, Thompson WK, Hawes SW, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Laird AR, Gonzalez R

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41562-019-0756-6
Toggle Identifying reproducible individual differences in childhood functional brain networks: An ABCD study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Marek S, Tervo-Clemmens B, Nielsen AN, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

The 21-site Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study provides an unparalleled opportunity to characterize functional brain development via resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and to quantify relationships between RSFC and behavior. This multi-site data set includes potentially confounding sources of variance, such as differences between data collection sites and/or scanner manufacturers, in addition to those inherent to RSFC (e.g., head motion). The ABCD project provides a framework for characterizing and reproducing RSFC and RSFC-behavior associations, while quantifying the extent to which sources of variability bias RSFC estimates. We quantified RSFC and functional network architecture in 2,188 9-10-year old children from the ABCD study, segregated into demographically-matched discovery (N = 1,166) and replication datasets (N = 1,022). We found RSFC and network architecture to be highly reproducible across children. We did not observe strong effects of site; however, scanner manufacturer effects were large, reproducible, and followed a “short-to-long” association with distance between regions. Accounting for potential confounding variables, we replicated that RSFC between several higher-order networks was related to general cognition. In sum, we provide a framework for how to characterize RSFC-behavior relationships in a rigorous and reproducible manner using the ABCD dataset and other large multi-site projects.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2019/09/19

Authors

Marek S, Tervo-Clemmens B, Nielsen AN, Wheelock MD, Miller RL, Laumann TO, Earl E, Foran WW, Cordova M, Doyle O, Perrone A, Miranda-Dominguez O, Feczko E, Sturgeon D, Graham A, Hermosillo R, Snider K, Galassi A, Nagel BJ, Ewing SWF, Eggebrecht AT, Garavan H, Dale AM, Greene DJ, Barch DM, Fair DA, Luna B, Dosenbach NUF

Keywords

ABCD, Cognitive ability, Development, Functional connectivity, Reproducibility, Resting state fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100706
Toggle Ensuring the Best Use of Data: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. JAMA pediatrics Compton WM, Dowling GJ, Garavan H 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2019/09/01

Authors

Compton WM, Dowling GJ, Garavan H

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.2081
Toggle Author Correction: No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the nationally representative ABCD study. Nature human behaviour Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

Journal

Nature human behaviour

Published

2019/09/01

Authors

Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, Thompson WK, Hawes SW, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Laird AR, Gonzalez R

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41562-019-0709-0
Toggle Prediction of neurocognition in youth from resting state fMRI. Molecular psychiatry Sripada C, Rutherford S, Angstadt M, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Difficulties with higher-order cognitive functions in youth are a potentially important vulnerability factor for the emergence of problematic behaviors and a range of psychopathologies. This study examined 2013 9-10 year olds in the first data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development 21-site consortium study in order to identify resting state functional connectivity patterns that predict individual-differences in three domains of higher-order cognitive functions: General Ability, Speed/Flexibility, and Learning/Memory. For General Ability scores in particular, we observed consistent cross-site generalizability, with statistically significant predictions in 14 out of 15 held-out sites. These results survived several tests for robustness including replication in split-half analysis and in a low head motion subsample. We additionally found that connectivity patterns involving task control networks and default mode network were prominently implicated in predicting differences in General Ability across participants. These findings demonstrate that resting state connectivity can be leveraged to produce generalizable markers of neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, they highlight the importance of task control-default mode network interconnections as a major locus of individual differences in cognitive functioning in early adolescence.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2019/08/19

Authors

Sripada C, Rutherford S, Angstadt M, Thompson WK, Luciana M, Weigard A, Hyde LH, Heitzeg M

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-019-0481-6
Toggle 24-Hour Movement Behaviors and Impulsivity. Pediatrics Guerrero MD, Barnes JD, Walsh JJ, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine individual and concurrent associations between meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (9-11 hours of sleep per night, ≤2 hours of recreational screen time (ST) per day, and at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day) and dimensions of impulsivity.

Journal

Pediatrics

Published

2019/08/14

Authors

Guerrero MD, Barnes JD, Walsh JJ, Chaput JP, Tremblay MS, Goldfield GS

Keywords

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-0187
Toggle Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. NeuroImage Hagler DJ, Hatton S, Cornejo MD, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years to characterize normative brain and cognitive development, the many factors that influence brain development, and the effects of those factors on mental health and other outcomes. The study employs state-of-the-art multimodal brain imaging, cognitive and clinical assessments, bioassays, and careful assessment of substance use, environment, psychopathological symptoms, and social functioning. The data is a resource of unprecedented scale and depth for studying typical and atypical development. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the baseline neuroimaging processing and subject-level analysis methods used by ABCD. Processing and analyses include modality-specific corrections for distortions and motion, brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), analysis of brain microstructure using diffusion MRI (dMRI), task-related analysis of functional MRI (fMRI), and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI. This manuscript serves as a methodological reference for users of publicly shared neuroimaging data from the ABCD Study.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2019/08/12

Authors

Hagler DJ, Hatton S, Cornejo MD, Makowski C, Fair DA, Dick AS, Sutherland MT, Casey BJ, Barch DM, Harms MP, Watts R, Bjork JM, Garavan HP, Hilmer L, Pung CJ, Sicat CS, Kuperman J, Bartsch H, Xue F, Heitzeg MM, Laird AR, Trinh TT, Gonzalez R, Tapert SF, Riedel MC, Squeglia LM, Hyde LW, Rosenberg MD, Earl EA, Howlett KD, Baker FC, Soules M, Diaz J, de Leon OR, Thompson WK, Neale MC, Herting M, Sowell ER, Alvarez RP, Hawes SW, Sanchez M, Bodurka J, Breslin FJ, Morris AS, Paulus MP, Simmons WK, Polimeni JR, van der Kouwe A, Nencka AS, Gray KM, Pierpaoli C, Matochik JA, Noronha A, Aklin WM, Conway K, Glantz M, Hoffman E, Little R, Lopez M, Pariyadath V, Weiss SR, Wolff-Hughes DL, DelCarmen-Wiggins R, Feldstein Ewing SW, Miranda-Dominguez O, Nagel BJ, Perrone AJ, Sturgeon DT, Goldstone A, Pfefferbaum A, Pohl KM, Prouty D, Uban K, Bookheimer SY, Dapretto M, Galvan A, Bagot K, Giedd J, Infante MA, Jacobus J, Patrick K, Shilling PD, Desikan R, Li Y, Sugrue L, Banich MT, Friedman N, Hewitt JK, Hopfer C, Sakai J, Tanabe J, Cottler LB, Nixon SJ, Chang L, Cloak C, Ernst T, Reeves G, Kennedy DN, Heeringa S, Peltier S, Schulenberg J, Sripada C, Zucker RA, Iacono WG, Luciana M, Calabro FJ, Clark DB, Lewis DA, Luna B, Schirda C, Brima T, Foxe JJ, Freedman EG, Mruzek DW, Mason MJ, Huber R, McGlade E, Prescot A, Renshaw PF, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Allgaier NA, Dumas JA, Ivanova M, Potter A, Florsheim P, Larson C, Lisdahl K, Charness ME, Fuemmeler B, Hettema JM, Maes HH, Steinberg J, Anokhin AP, Glaser P, Heath AC, Madden PA, Baskin-Sommers A, Constable RT, Grant SJ, Dowling GJ, Brown SA, Jernigan TL, Dale AM

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescent, Data sharing, Magnetic resonance imaging, Processing pipeline

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116091
Toggle Demographic, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of BMI in youth: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Psychological medicine Gray JC, Schvey NA, Tanofsky-Kraff M 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous research has implicated demographic, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive variables in the onset and maintenance of pediatric overweight/obesity. No adequately-powered study has simultaneously modeled these variables to assess their relative associations with body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) in a nationally representative sample of youth.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2019/07/10

Authors

Gray JC, Schvey NA, Tanofsky-Kraff M

Keywords

Adolescent, BMI, obesity, pediatric, youth

DOI

10.1017/S0033291719001545
Toggle Association of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure With Psychosis Proneness Among Children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA psychiatry Fine JD, Moreau AL, Karcher NR, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

This cohort study uses data from the ongoing Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study to assess the association of maternal use of cannabis before and after knowledge of pregnancy with psychosis proneness in children.

Journal

JAMA psychiatry

Published

2019/07/01

Authors

Fine JD, Moreau AL, Karcher NR, Agrawal A, Rogers CE, Barch DM, Bogdan R

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0076
Toggle Association Between Childhood Anhedonia and Alterations in Large-scale Resting-State Networks and Task-Evoked Activation. JAMA psychiatry Pornpattananangkul N, Leibenluft E, Pine DS, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Anhedonia can present in children and predict detrimental clinical outcomes.

Journal

JAMA psychiatry

Published

2019/06/01

Authors

Pornpattananangkul N, Leibenluft E, Pine DS, Stringaris A

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0020
Toggle No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the nationally representative ABCD study. Nature human behaviour Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Learning a second language in childhood is inherently advantageous for communication. However, parents, educators and scientists have been interested in determining whether there are additional cognitive advantages. One of the most exciting yet controversial findings about bilinguals is a reported advantage for executive function. That is, several studies suggest that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals on tasks assessing cognitive abilities that are central to the voluntary control of thoughts and behaviours-the so-called ‘executive functions’ (for example, attention, inhibitory control, task switching and resolving conflict). Although a number of small- and large-sample studies have reported a bilingual executive function advantage (see refs. for a review), there have been several failures to replicate these findings, and recent meta-analyses have called into question the reliability of the original empirical claims. Here we show, in a very large, demographically representative sample (n = 4,524) of 9- to 10-year-olds across the United States, that there is little evidence for a bilingual advantage for inhibitory control, attention and task switching, or cognitive flexibility, which are key aspects of executive function. We also replicate previously reported disadvantages in English vocabulary in bilinguals. However, these English vocabulary differences are substantially mitigated when we account for individual differences in socioeconomic status or intelligence. In summary, notwithstanding the inherently positive benefits of learning a second language in childhood, we found little evidence that it engenders additional benefits to executive function development.

Journal

Nature human behaviour

Published

2019/05/20

Authors

Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, Thompson WK, Hawes SW, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Laird AR, Gonzalez R

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41562-019-0609-3
Toggle Cerebral circulation time derived from fMRI signals in large blood vessels. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Yao JF, Wang JH, Yang HS, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

The systemic low-frequency oscillation (sLFO) functional (f)MRI signals extracted from the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) are found to have valuable physiological information.

Journal

Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI

Published

2019/04/29

Authors

Yao JF, Wang JH, Yang HS, Liang Z, Cohen-Gadol AA, Rayz VL, Tong Y

Keywords

BOLD signal, cerebral circulation time, fMRI signal, internal carotid artery, low-frequency oscillations, superior sagittal sinus

DOI

10.1002/jmri.26765
Toggle Stress exposures, neurodevelopment and health measures in the ABCD study. Neurobiology of stress Hoffman EA, Clark DB, Orendain N, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a large, longitudinal study of brain development and child health, is uniquely positioned to explore relationships among stress, neurodevelopment, and psychiatric symptomatology, including substance use and addiction. There is much we do not know about how adverse experiences affect the developing brain and cognitive, social, emotional, and academic outcomes. The data collected by the ABCD Study will allow the examination of the relationships among these variables in adolescence, including the effects of stressors (e.g., abuse, neglect, household challenges, parental substance use) on psychological adjustment and other stress responses. A comprehensive protocol that includes physical and mental health, substance use, culture and environment, neurocognitive assessments, biospecimen analyses, and structural and functional neuroimaging will provide opportunities for learning about the impacts of stressors on health and other outcomes in the context of adolescent development. This knowledge could lead to the development of interventions that reduce or even reverse the impacts of stressors.

Journal

Neurobiology of stress

Published

2019/03/19

Authors

Hoffman EA, Clark DB, Orendain N, Hudziak J, Squeglia LM, Dowling GJ

Keywords

Adolescent, Development, Stress

DOI

10.1016/j.ynstr.2019.100157
Toggle Assessing callous-unemotional traits: development of a brief, reliable measure in a large and diverse sample of preadolescent youth. Psychological medicine Hawes SW, Waller R, Thompson WK, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are critical to developmental, diagnostic, and clinical models of antisocial behaviors (AB). However, assessments of CU traits within large-scale longitudinal and neurobiologically focused investigations remain remarkably sparse. We sought to develop a brief measure of CU traits using items from widely administered instruments that could be linked to neuroimaging, genetic, and environmental data within already existing datasets and future studies.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2019/03/08

Authors

Hawes SW, Waller R, Thompson WK, Hyde LW, Byrd AL, Burt SA, Klump KL, Gonzalez R

Keywords

Antisocial behaviors, callous-unemotional traits, conduct disorder

DOI

10.1017/S0033291719000278
Toggle Involvement in Sports, Hippocampal Volume, and Depressive Symptoms in Children. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Gorham LS, Jernigan T, Hudziak J, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Recent studies have found that higher levels of exercise are associated with fewer symptoms of depression among young people. In addition, research suggests that exercise may modify hippocampal volume, a brain region that has been found to show reduced volume in depression. However, it is not clear whether this relationship emerges as early as preadolescence.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2019/02/04

Authors

Gorham LS, Jernigan T, Hudziak J, Barch DM

Keywords

Children, Depression, Exercise, Hippocampus, Neuroimaging, Structural

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.011
Toggle Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Psychotic-like Experiences in Childhood: Results From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry Karcher NR, O'Brien KJ, Kandala S, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during childhood are associated with greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder (and other mental disorders), highlighting the importance of identifying neural correlates of childhood PLEs. Three major cortical networks-the cingulo-opercular network (CON), default mode network (DMN), and frontoparietal network-are consistently implicated in psychosis and PLEs in adults. However, it is unclear whether variation in functional connectivity is associated with PLEs in school-aged children.

Journal

Biological psychiatry

Published

2019/01/26

Authors

Karcher NR, O'Brien KJ, Kandala S, Barch DM

Keywords

Delusional ideation, Perceptual distortions, Psychotic-like experiences, Resting-state functional connectivity, Subcortical connectivity, Within-network connectivity

DOI

10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.01.013
Toggle Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among US Children Aged 9 to 10 Years: Data From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA pediatrics Rozzell K, Moon DY, Klimek P, et al. 2019
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study extrapolates data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders in US preadolescent children.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2019/01/01

Authors

Rozzell K, Moon DY, Klimek P, Brown T, Blashill AJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.3678
Toggle Sexual minority children: Mood disorders and suicidality disparities. Journal of affective disorders Blashill AJ, Calzo JP 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sexual minority (gay, lesbian, and bisexual) individuals experience elevated mood disorders and suicidality compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, to date, these sexual orientation disparities have yet to be examined among middle childhood-aged participants.

Journal

Journal of affective disorders

Published

2018/12/17

Authors

Blashill AJ, Calzo JP

Keywords

Children, Mood disorders, Sexual minority, Sexual orientation, Suicide

DOI

10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.040
Toggle The structure of cognition in 9 and 10 year-old children and associations with problem behaviors: Findings from the ABCD study's baseline neurocognitive battery. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Thompson WK, Barch DM, Bjork JM, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is poised to be the largest single-cohort long-term longitudinal study of neurodevelopment and child health in the United States. Baseline data on N= 4521 children aged 9-10 were released for public access on November 2, 2018. In this paper we performed principal component analyses of the neurocognitive assessments administered to the baseline sample. The neurocognitive battery included seven measures from the NIH Toolbox as well as five other tasks. We implemented a Bayesian Probabilistic Principal Components Analysis (BPPCA) model that incorporated nesting of subjects within families and within data collection sites. We extracted varimax-rotated component scores from a three-component model and associated these scores with parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) internalizing, externalizing, and stress reactivity. We found evidence for three broad components that encompass general cognitive ability, executive function, and learning/memory. These were significantly associated with CBCL scores in a differential manner but with small effect sizes. These findings set the stage for longitudinal analysis of neurocognitive and psychopathological data from the ABCD cohort as they age into the period of maximal adolescent risk-taking.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/12/13

Authors

Thompson WK, Barch DM, Bjork JM, Gonzalez R, Nagel BJ, Nixon SJ, Luciana M

Keywords

Adolescence, Child behavior checklist, Externalizing, Internalizing, NIH toolbox, Neurocognition, Principal components analysis, Stress reactivity

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.12.004
Toggle Child Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Cohort Study. JAMA pediatrics Calzo JP, Blashill AJ 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

This survey study queried children and parents on the child’s sexual orientation and gender identity.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2018/11/01

Authors

Calzo JP, Blashill AJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.2496
Toggle Screen media activity and brain structure in youth: Evidence for diverse structural correlation networks from the ABCD study. NeuroImage Paulus MP, Squeglia LM, Bagot K, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i.e. the notion that coordinated patterns of structural change related to specific behaviors. Moreover, the utility of this approach was tested by determining the association between these structural correlation networks and psychopathology or cognition. ABCD participants with usable structural imaging and SMA data (N = 4277 of 4524) were subjected to a Group Factor Analysis (GFA) to identify latent variables that relate SMA to cortical thickness, sulcal depth, and gray matter volume. Subject scores from these latent variables were used in generalized linear mixed-effect models to investigate associations between SMA and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, as well as fluid and crystalized intelligence. Four SMA-related GFAs explained 37% of the variance between SMA and structural brain indices. SMA-related GFAs correlated with brain areas that support homologous functions. Some but not all SMA-related factors corresponded with higher externalizing (Cohen’s d effect size (ES) 0.06-0.1) but not internalizing psychopathology and lower crystalized (ES: 0.08-0.1) and fluid intelligence (ES: 0.04-0.09). Taken together, these findings support the notion of SMA related maturational coupling or structural correlation networks in the brain and provides evidence that individual differences of these networks have mixed consequences for psychopathology and cognitive performance.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2018/10/16

Authors

Paulus MP, Squeglia LM, Bagot K, Jacobus J, Kuplicki R, Breslin FJ, Bodurka J, Morris AS, Thompson WK, Bartsch H, Tapert SF

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.040
Toggle Associations between 24 hour movement behaviours and global cognition in US children: a cross-sectional observational study. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health Walsh JJ, Barnes JD, Cameron JD, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods for brain development, and the behaviours during a typical 24 h period contribute to cognitive performance. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth recommend at least 60 min physical activity per day, 2 h or less recreational screen time per day, and 9-11 h sleep per night in children aged 8-11 years. We investigated the relationship between adherence to these recommendations and global cognition.

Journal

The Lancet. Child & adolescent health

Published

2018/09/27

Authors

Walsh JJ, Barnes JD, Cameron JD, Goldfield GS, Chaput JP, Gunnell KE, Ledoux AA, Zemek RL, Tremblay MS

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30278-5
Toggle Convergent influences of lifestyle behaviour on neurocognitive development in children. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health Bustamante EE 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

The Lancet. Child & adolescent health

Published

2018/09/27

Authors

Bustamante EE

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30305-5
Toggle Assessment of the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version for Measurement of Self-reported Psychoticlike Experiences in Childhood. JAMA psychiatry Karcher NR, Barch DM, Avenevoli S, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood psychoticlike experiences (PLEs) are associated with greater odds of a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder during adulthood. However, no known, well-validated self-report tools have been designed to measure childhood PLEs.

Journal

JAMA psychiatry

Published

2018/08/01

Authors

Karcher NR, Barch DM, Avenevoli S, Savill M, Huber RS, Simon TJ, Leckliter IN, Sher KJ, Loewy RL

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1334
Toggle Implications of the ABCD study for developmental neuroscience. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Feldstein Ewing SW, Bjork JM, Luciana M 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) will capture a breadth of multi-faceted biobehavioral, environmental, familial, and genetic longitudinal developmental open-access data from over 11,000 9-10 year olds throughout the United States of America (USA) for an envisioned ten-year span. This will subsequently represent the largest study ever attempted with this level of brain phenotypic detail. This study holds the opportunity for exciting advances in the understanding of typical adolescent neurodevelopment, discovery of neurodevelopmental underpinnings of mental illness, as well as the neurodevelopmental influences of (and on) social factors, substance use, and critically – their interaction. This project will certainly take unprecedented steps in informing the nature of adolescence and the developing brain. The scale and open-access features of ABCD also necessarily entail areas for consideration to enhance the integrity of the ABCD study, and protect against potential misuse and misinterpretation of ABCD data. Ultimately, with the open-source data, all scientists in the broader community have as much responsibility as the investigators within the Consortium to treat these data with care. It will be fascinating to see what dynamic data these paths generate. ABCD is poised to exemplify how large-scale longitudinal developmental neuroscientific studies can be designed and efficiently conducted.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/08/01

Authors

Feldstein Ewing SW, Bjork JM, Luciana M

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.05.003
Toggle Outreach and innovation: Communication strategies for the ABCD Study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Hoffman EA, Howlett KD, Breslin F, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a large, longitudinal study of brain development and child health, relies on the engagement of communities, educators, and families to ensure its success. To that end, community and partner relationships, development of targeted messages and materials for specific audiences (educators, families, youth, scientists), and continued and consistent outreach must be an integral part of the Consortium activities. The ABCD Consortium has made these efforts a priority and developed a framework to raise awareness about the study and promote sustained broad-base support from diverse stakeholders.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/04/16

Authors

Hoffman EA, Howlett KD, Breslin F, Dowling GJ

Keywords

Adolescent, Communication, Development, Engagement, Outreach

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.001
Toggle Recruiting the ABCD sample: Design considerations and procedures. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Garavan H, Bartsch H, Conway K, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

The ABCD study is a new and ongoing project of very substantial size and scale involving 21 data acquisition sites. It aims to recruit 11,500 children and follow them for ten years with extensive assessments at multiple timepoints. To deliver on its potential to adequately describe adolescent development, it is essential that it adopt recruitment procedures that are efficient and effective and will yield a sample that reflects the nation’s diversity in an epidemiologically informed manner. Here, we describe the sampling plans and recruitment procedures of this study. Participants are largely recruited through the school systems with school selection informed by gender, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity. Procedures for school selection designed to mitigate selection biases, dynamic monitoring of the accumulating sample to correct deviations from recruitment targets, and a description of the recruitment procedures designed to foster a collaborative attitude between the researchers, the schools and the local communities, are provided.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/04/16

Authors

Garavan H, Bartsch H, Conway K, Decastro A, Goldstein RZ, Heeringa S, Jernigan T, Potter A, Thompson W, Zahs D

Keywords

Adolescence, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development, Recruitment, Study design

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.004
Toggle A description of the ABCD organizational structure and communication framework. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Auchter AM, Hernandez Mejia M, Heyser CJ, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is designed to be the largest study of brain development and child health in the United States, performing comprehensive assessments of 11,500 children repeatedly for 10 years. An endeavor of this magnitude requires an organized framework of governance and communication that promotes collaborative decision-making and dissemination of information. The ABCD consortium structure, built upon the Matrix Management approach of organizational theory, facilitates the integration of input from all institutions, numerous internal workgroups and committees, federal partners, and external advisory groups to make use of a broad range of expertise to ensure the study’s success.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/04/16

Authors

Auchter AM, Hernandez Mejia M, Heyser CJ, Shilling PD, Jernigan TL, Brown SA, Tapert SF, Dowling GJ

Keywords

Adolescence, Development, Governance, Longitudinal, Neuroimaging, Organizational framework

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.003
Toggle A brief validated screen to identify boys and girls at risk for early marijuana use. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Loeber R, Clark DB, Ahonen L, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths’ risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking. To focus the analyses on a single target substance use outcome pertinent to the stated goals of the ABCD Study, early-onset marijuana use was selected. Utilizing data collected prior to the initiation of the ABCD Study, four longitudinal data sets were used in nine secondary data analyses to test, replicate and validate a brief screening assessment for boys and girls to identify those at risk for early-onset marijuana use by ages 14-15. The combination of child externalizing problems reported by the parent (4 items: destroys things belonging to his/her family or others; disobedience at school; lying or cheating; steals outside the home) and parent smoking (1 item) proved to be the optimal screen. This was largely replicated across the four data sets. Indicators of predictive efficiency were modest in magnitude and statistically significant in 8 out of the 9 analyses. The results informed the screen’s optimal threshold for identifying children at risk for early-onset marijuana use. The addition of child internalizing problems did not improve these predictions. Further analyses showed the predictive utility of the screen for several other substance use outcomes at ages 15 to 18, including alcohol and nicotine use. The results support the use of a short screening assessment to identify youth at risk for early-onset substance use in the ABCD Study and other research.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/04/07

Authors

Loeber R, Clark DB, Ahonen L, FitzGerald D, Trucco EM, Zucker RA

Keywords

Adolescence, Marijuana use, Risk screening

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.011
Toggle Current, future and potential use of mobile and wearable technologies and social media data in the ABCD study to increase understanding of contributors to child health. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Bagot KS, Matthews SA, Mason M, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

Mobile and wearable technologies and novel methods of data collection are innovating health-related research. These technologies and methods allow for multi-system level capture of data across environmental, physiological, behavioral, and psychological domains. In the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, there is great potential for harnessing the acceptability, accessibility, and functionality of mobile and social technologies for in-vivo data capture to precisely measure factors, and interactions between factors, that contribute to childhood and adolescent neurodevelopment and psychosocial and health outcomes. Here we discuss advances in mobile and wearable technologies and methods of analysis of geospatial, ecologic, social network and behavioral data. Incorporating these technologies into the ABCD study will allow for interdisciplinary research on the effects of place, social interactions, environment, and substance use on health and developmental outcomes in children and adolescents.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/03/28

Authors

Bagot KS, Matthews SA, Mason M, Squeglia LM, Fowler J, Gray K, Herting M, May A, Colrain I, Godino J, Tapert S, Brown S, Patrick K

Keywords

ABCD, Child development, Child health, Mobile technology, Social media, Wearable sensors

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.008
Toggle Assessment of culture and environment in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study: Rationale, description of measures, and early data. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Zucker RA, Gonzalez R, Feldstein Ewing SW, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental maturation takes place in a social environment in addition to a neurobiological one. Characterization of social environmental factors that influence this process is therefore an essential component in developing an accurate model of adolescent brain and neurocognitive development, as well as susceptibility to change with the use of marijuana and other drugs. The creation of the Culture and Environment (CE) measurement component of the ABCD protocol was guided by this understanding. Three areas were identified by the CE Work Group as central to this process: influences relating to CE Group membership, influences created by the proximal social environment, influences stemming from social interactions. Eleven measures assess these influences, and by time of publication, will have been administered to well over 7,000 9-10 year-old children and one of their parents. Our report presents baseline data on psychometric characteristics (mean, standard deviation, range, skewness, coefficient alpha) of all measures within the battery. Effectiveness of the battery in differentiating 9-10 year olds who were classified as at higher and lower risk for marijuana use in adolescence was also evaluated. Psychometric characteristics on all measures were good to excellent; higher vs. lower risk contrasts were significant in areas where risk differentiation would be anticipated.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/03/17

Authors

Zucker RA, Gonzalez R, Feldstein Ewing SW, Paulus MP, Arroyo J, Fuligni A, Morris AS, Sanchez M, Wills T

Keywords

Acculturation, Cultural identity, Family effects, Social interaction, Substance use

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.004
Toggle Biospecimens and the ABCD study: Rationale, methods of collection, measurement and early data. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Uban KA, Horton MK, Jacobus J, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study – of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids – will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses. The present manuscript describes the rationales for inclusion and selection of the specific biospecimens, methodological considerations for each measure, future plans for assessment of biospecimens during follow-up visits, and preliminary ABCD data to illustrate methodological considerations.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/03/16

Authors

Uban KA, Horton MK, Jacobus J, Heyser C, Thompson WK, Tapert SF, Madden PAF, Sowell ER

Keywords

ABCD study, Biospecimens, Environmental exposures, Genetics, Gonadal hormones, Substance use

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.005
Toggle The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study: Imaging acquisition across 21 sites. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Casey BJ, Cannonier T, Conley MI, et al. 2018
PubMed Record

Abstract

The ABCD study is recruiting and following the brain development and health of over 10,000 9-10 year olds through adolescence. The imaging component of the study was developed by the ABCD Data Analysis and Informatics Center (DAIC) and the ABCD Imaging Acquisition Workgroup. Imaging methods and assessments were selected, optimized and harmonized across all 21 sites to measure brain structure and function relevant to adolescent development and addiction. This article provides an overview of the imaging procedures of the ABCD study, the basis for their selection and preliminary quality assurance and results that provide evidence for the feasibility and age-appropriateness of procedures and generalizability of findings to the existent literature.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2018/03/14

Authors

Casey BJ, Cannonier T, Conley MI, Cohen AO, Barch DM, Heitzeg MM, Soules ME, Teslovich T, Dellarco DV, Garavan H, Orr CA, Wager TD, Banich MT, Speer NK, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Dick AS, Bjork JM, Thomas KM, Chaarani B, Mejia MH, Hagler DJ, Daniela Cornejo M, Sicat CS, Harms MP, Dosenbach NUF, Rosenberg M, Earl E, Bartsch H, Watts R, Polimeni JR, Kuperman JM, Fair DA, Dale AM

Keywords

Addiction, Adolescence, Development, Impulsivity, Memory, Reward

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.001