ABCD Study publications are authored by ABCD investigators, collaborators, and non-ABCD researchers. The analysis methodologies, findings, and interpretations expressed in these publications are those of the authors and do not constitute an endorsement by the ABCD Study®.

Please note that the publications listed here include empirical as well as non-empirical papers (e.g., focused review articles, editorials).

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Title Journal Authors Year Details
Toggle Psychotic-Like Experiences Associated with Sleep Disturbance and Brain Volumes in Youth: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. JCPP advances Lunsford-Avery JR, Damme KSF, Vargas T, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sleep disturbance is characteristic of schizophrenia and at-risk populations, suggesting a possible etiological role in psychosis. Biological mechanisms underlying associations between sleep and psychosis vulnerability are unclear, although reduced sleep-regulatory brain structure volumes are a proposed contributor. This study is the first to examine relationships between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs; subclinical symptoms reflecting psychosis vulnerability/risk), sleep, and brain volumes in youth.

Journal

JCPP advances

Published

2021/12/02

Authors

Lunsford-Avery JR, Damme KSF, Vargas T, Sweitzer MM, Mittal VA

Keywords

brain volumes, psychosis, psychotic-like experiences, sleep, structural MRI, thalamus

DOI

10.1002/jcv2.12055
Toggle Association of Outdoor Ambient Fine Particulate Matter With Intracellular White Matter Microstructural Properties Among Children. JAMA network open Burnor E, Cserbik D, Cotter DL, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Outdoor particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2.5) is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant that may affect the developing brain. Little is known about associations between PM2.5 and white matter connectivity.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Burnor E, Cserbik D, Cotter DL, Palmer CE, Ahmadi H, Eckel SP, Berhane K, McConnell R, Chen JC, Schwartz J, Jackson R, Herting MM

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.38300
Toggle Parental Education and Children's Sleep Disturbance: Minorities' Diminished Returns. International journal of epidemiologic research Assari S 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

While increased parental education reduces children’s sleep problems, less is known about racial variation in such protection. According to Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, economic resources such as parental education show weaker health effects for minority groups such as Blacks and Latinos than non-Latino Whites, which is due to racism and social stratification. In this study, we investigated the association between parental education and children’s sleep problems, as a proxy of sleep problems, by race.

Journal

International journal of epidemiologic research

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Assari S

Keywords

Children, Parental education, Sleep problems

DOI

10.34172/ijer.2021.06
Toggle Testing whether implicit emotion regulation mediates the association between discrimination and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood: An RDoC perspective. Development and psychopathology Vargas TG, Mittal VA 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Discrimination has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes, though it is unclear how early in life this association becomes apparent. Implicit emotion regulation, developing during childhood, is a foundational skill tied to a range of outcomes. Implicit emotion regulation has yet to be tested as an associated process for mental illness symptoms that can often emerge during this sensitive developmental period. Youth aged 9-11 were recruited for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Associations between psychotic-like experiences, depressive symptoms, and total discrimination (due to race, ethnicity, nationality, weight, or sexual minority status) were tested, as well as associations with implicit emotion regulation measures (emotional updating working memory and inhibitory control). Analyses examined whether associations with symptoms were mediated by implicit emotion regulation. Discrimination related to decreased implicit emotion regulation performance, and increased endorsement of depressive symptoms and psychotic-like experiences. Emotional updating working memory performance partially mediated the association between discrimination and psychotic-like experiences, while emotional inhibitory control did not. Discrimination and implicit emotion regulation could serve as putative transdiagnostic markers of vulnerability. Results support the utility of using multiple units of analysis to improve understanding of complex emerging neurocognitive functions and developmentally sensitive periods.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Vargas TG, Mittal VA

Keywords

depression, discrimination, emotion, emotion regulation, psychosis, systemic

DOI

10.1017/S0954579421000638
Toggle Comparison of European, African, Asian, and Other/Mixed Race American Children for the Association Between Household Income and Perceived Discrimination. International journal of travel medicine and global health Assari S, Ayoubian A, Caldwell CH 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Perceived discrimination is one of the reasons behind racial/ethnic health disparities. However, less is known about racial and ethnic groups differ in social determinants of discrimination. This study aimed to compare the association between household income and perceived discrimination among American children of different racial/ethnic groups.

Journal

International journal of travel medicine and global health

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Assari S, Ayoubian A, Caldwell CH

Keywords

Discrimination, Education, Health, Income, Racism, Socioeconomic Status

DOI

10.34172/ijtmgh.2021.06
Toggle Multimodal Ensemble Deep Learning to Predict Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children. Frontiers in neuroinformatics Menon SS, Krishnamurthy K 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, collectively referred to as disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), are prevalent psychiatric disorders in children. Early diagnosis of DBDs is crucial because they can increase the risks of other mental health and substance use disorders without appropriate psychosocial interventions and treatment. However, diagnosing DBDs is challenging as they are often comorbid with other disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and depression. In this study, a multimodal ensemble three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D CNN) deep learning model was used to classify children with DBDs and typically developing children. The study participants included 419 females and 681 males, aged 108-131 months who were enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Children were grouped based on the presence of DBDs ( = 550) and typically developing ( = 550); assessments were based on the scores from the Child Behavior Checklist and on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children-Present and Lifetime version for DSM-5. The diffusion, structural, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data were used as input data to the 3D CNN. The model achieved 72% accuracy in classifying children with DBDs with 70% sensitivity, 72% specificity, and an F1-score of 70. In addition, the discriminative power of the classifier was investigated by identifying the cortical and subcortical regions primarily involved in the prediction of DBDs using a gradient-weighted class activation mapping method. The classification results were compared with those obtained using the three neuroimaging modalities individually, and a connectome-based graph CNN and a multi-scale recurrent neural network using only the rs-fMRI data.

Journal

Frontiers in neuroinformatics

Published

2021/11/24

Authors

Menon SS, Krishnamurthy K

Keywords

3D CNN, deep learning, disruptive behavior disorders, multimodal ensemble learning, neuroimaging

DOI

10.3389/fninf.2021.742807
Toggle Graph auto-encoding brain networks with applications to analyzing large-scale brain imaging datasets. NeuroImage Liu M, Zhang Z, Dunson DB 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

There has been a huge interest in studying human brain connectomes inferred from different imaging modalities and exploring their relationships with human traits, such as cognition. Brain connectomes are usually represented as networks, with nodes corresponding to different regions of interest (ROIs) and edges to connection strengths between ROIs. Due to the high-dimensionality and non-Euclidean nature of networks, it is challenging to depict their population distribution and relate them to human traits. Current approaches focus on summarizing the network using either pre-specified topological features or principal components analysis (PCA). In this paper, building on recent advances in deep learning, we develop a nonlinear latent factor model to characterize the population distribution of brain graphs and infer their relationships to human traits. We refer to our method as Graph AuTo-Encoding (GATE). We applied GATE to two large-scale brain imaging datasets, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study and the Human Connectome Project (HCP) for adults, to study the structural brain connectome and its relationship with cognition. Numerical results demonstrate huge advantages of GATE over competitors in terms of prediction accuracy, statistical inference, and computing efficiency. We found that the structural connectome has a stronger association with a wide range of human cognitive traits than was apparent using previous approaches.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/11/22

Authors

Liu M, Zhang Z, Dunson DB

Keywords

Brain networks, Graph CNN, Non-linear factor analysis, Replicated networks, Variational auto-encoder

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118750
Toggle Brain structural associations with depression in a large early adolescent sample (the ABCD study®). EClinicalMedicine Shen X, MacSweeney N, Chan SWY, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide with > 50% of cases emerging before the age of 25 years. Large-scale neuroimaging studies in depression implicate robust structural brain differences in the disorder. However, most studies have been conducted in adults and therefore, the temporal origins of depression-related imaging features remain largely unknown. This has important implications for understanding aetiology and informing timings of potential intervention.

Journal

EClinicalMedicine

Published

2021/11/20

Authors

Shen X, MacSweeney N, Chan SWY, Barbu MC, Adams MJ, Lawrie SM, Romaniuk L, McIntosh AM, Whalley HC

Keywords

Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, Adolescent depression, Big data, Brain structure

DOI

10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101204
Toggle Minding the Gap: Adolescent and Parent/Caregiver Reporter Discrepancies on Symptom Presence, Impact of Covariates, and Clinical Implications. Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners Ford SH, McCoy TP 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Primary care practitioners (PCPs) provide care to adolescents in the context of their families. Supporting parent/caregiver knowledge of symptoms can create opportunities for better recognition of symptoms that can then lead to early identification, intervention, and prevention of poor outcomes.

Journal

Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners

Published

2021/11/19

Authors

Ford SH, McCoy TP

Keywords

Adolescent health, advocacy, anhedonia, communication, depressed mood, family-centered care

DOI

10.1016/j.pedhc.2021.09.010
Toggle Brain signatures in children who contemplate suicide: learning from the large-scale ABCD study. Psychological medicine Wiglesworth A, Falke CA, Fiecas M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicide is the second-leading cause of death in youth. Understanding the neural correlates of suicide ideation (SI) in children is crucial to ongoing efforts to understand and prevent youth suicide. This study characterized key neural networks during rest and emotion task conditions in an epidemiologically informed sample of children who report current, past, or no SI.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2021/11/17

Authors

Wiglesworth A, Falke CA, Fiecas M, Luciana M, Cullen KR, Klimes-Dougan B

Keywords

Children, default mode network, fMRI, salience network, suicide

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721004074
Toggle Persistent and distressing psychotic-like experiences using adolescent brain cognitive development℠ study data. Molecular psychiatry Karcher NR, Loewy RL, Savill M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with a range of impairments; a subset of children experiencing PLEs will develop psychiatric disorders, including psychotic disorders. A potential distinguishing factor between benign PLEs versus PLEs that are clinically relevant is whether PLEs are distressing and/or persistent. The current study used three waves of Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ (ABCD) study PLEs assessments to examine the extent to which persistent and/or distressing PLEs were associated with relevant baseline risk factors (e.g., cognition) and functioning/mental health service utilization domains. Four groups varying in PLE persistence and distress endorsement were created based on all available data in ABCD Release 3.0, with group membership not contingent on complete data: persistent distressing PLEs (n = 272), transient distressing PLEs (n = 298), persistent non-distressing PLEs (n = 221), and transient non-distressing PLEs (n = 536) groups. Using hierarchical linear models, results indicated youth with distressing PLEs, whether transient or persistent, showed delayed developmental milestones (β = 0.074, 95%CI:0.013,0.134) and altered structural MRI metrics (β = -0.0525, 95%CI:-0.100,-0.005). Importantly, distress interacted with PLEs persistence for the domains of functioning/mental health service utilization (β = 0.079, 95%CI:0.016,0.141), other reported psychopathology (β = 0.101, 95%CI:0.030,0.170), cognition (β = -0.052, 95%CI:0.-0.099,-0.002), and environmental adversity (β = 0.045, 95%CI:0.003,0.0.86; although no family history effects), with the interaction characterized by greatest impairment in the persistent distressing PLEs group. These results have implications for disentangling the importance of distress and persistence for PLEs with regards to impairments, including functional, pathophysiological, and environmental outcomes. These novel longitudinal data underscore that it is often only in the context of distress that persistent PLEs were related to impairments.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2021/11/16

Authors

Karcher NR, Loewy RL, Savill M, Avenevoli S, Huber RS, Makowski C, Sher KJ, Barch DM

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-021-01373-x
Toggle Neural vulnerability and hurricane-related media are associated with post-traumatic stress in youth. Nature human behaviour Dick AS, Silva K, Gonzalez R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The human toll of disasters extends beyond death, injury and loss. Post-traumatic stress (PTS) can be common among directly exposed individuals, and children are particularly vulnerable. Even children far removed from harm’s way report PTS, and media-based exposure may partially account for this phenomenon. In this study, we examine this issue using data from nearly 400 9- to 11-year-old children collected before and after Hurricane Irma, evaluating whether pre-existing neural patterns moderate associations between hurricane experiences and later PTS. The ‘dose’ of both self-reported objective exposure and media exposure predicted PTS, the latter even among children far from the hurricane. Furthermore, neural responses in brain regions associated with anxiety and stress conferred particular vulnerability. For example, heightened amygdala reactivity to fearful stimuli moderated the association between self-reported media exposure and PTS. Collectively, these findings show that for some youth with measurable vulnerability, consuming extensive disaster-related media may offer an alternative pathway to disaster exposure that transcends geography and objective risk.

Journal

Nature human behaviour

Published

2021/11/15

Authors

Dick AS, Silva K, Gonzalez R, Sutherland MT, Laird AR, Thompson WK, Tapert SF, Squeglia LM, Gray KM, Nixon SJ, Cottler LB, La Greca AM, Gurwitch RH, Comer JS

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41562-021-01216-3
Toggle Widespread attenuating changes in brain connectivity associated with the general factor of psychopathology in 9- and 10-year olds. Translational psychiatry Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Convergent research identifies a general factor (“P factor”) that confers transdiagnostic risk for psychopathology. Large-scale networks are key organizational units of the human brain. However, studies of altered network connectivity patterns associated with the P factor are limited, especially in early adolescence when most mental disorders are first emerging. We studied 11,875 9- and 10-year olds from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, of whom 6593 had high-quality resting-state scans. Network contingency analysis was used to identify altered interconnections associated with the P factor among 16 large-scale networks. These connectivity changes were then further characterized with quadrant analysis that quantified the directionality of P factor effects in relation to neurotypical patterns of positive versus negative connectivity across connections. The results showed that the P factor was associated with altered connectivity across 28 network cells (i.e., sets of connections linking pairs of networks); p values < 0.05 FDR-corrected for multiple comparisons. Higher P factor scores were associated with hypoconnectivity within default network and hyperconnectivity between default network and multiple control networks. Among connections within these 28 significant cells, the P factor was predominantly associated with “attenuating” effects (67%; p < 0.0002), i.e., reduced connectivity at neurotypically positive connections and increased connectivity at neurotypically negative connections. These results demonstrate that the general factor of psychopathology produces attenuating changes across multiple networks including default network, involved in spontaneous responses, and control networks involved in cognitive control. Moreover, they clarify mechanisms of transdiagnostic risk for psychopathology and invite further research into developmental causes of distributed attenuated connectivity.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2021/11/09

Authors

Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, Kessler D, Greathouse T, Rutherford S, Clark DA, Hyde LW, Weigard A, Brislin SJ, Hicks B, Heitzeg M

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-021-01708-w
Toggle Racism May Interrupt Age-related Brain Growth of African American Children in the United States. Journal of pediatrics & child health care Assari S, Mincy R 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Considerable research has documented age-related growth in brain size as a marker of normal brain development. This is particularly important because brain volume has a significant role in overall cognitive performance. However, less research is done on whether age-related changes in the global brain volume differ across diverse racial and ethnic groups. We hypothesized that age-related growth in brain size would be disrupted in African American children who are historically affected by racism.

Journal

Journal of pediatrics & child health care

Published

2021/11/09

Authors

Assari S, Mincy R

Keywords

MRI, age, brain development, global brain volume, racism, social determinants, structural MRI

DOI

10.26420/jpediatrchildhealthcare.2021.1047
Toggle Brain-wide functional connectivity patterns support general cognitive ability and mediate effects of socioeconomic status in youth. Translational psychiatry Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

General cognitive ability (GCA) is an individual difference dimension linked to important academic, occupational, and health-related outcomes and its development is strongly linked to differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Complex abilities of the human brain are realized through interconnections among distributed brain regions, but brain-wide connectivity patterns associated with GCA in youth, and the influence of SES on these connectivity patterns, are poorly understood. The present study examined functional connectomes from 5937 9- and 10-year-olds in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) multi-site study. Using multivariate predictive modeling methods, we identified whole-brain functional connectivity patterns linked to GCA. In leave-one-site-out cross-validation, we found these connectivity patterns exhibited strong and statistically reliable generalization at 19 out of 19 held-out sites accounting for 18.0% of the variance in GCA scores (cross-validated partial η). GCA-related connections were remarkably dispersed across brain networks: across 120 sets of connections linking pairs of large-scale networks, significantly elevated GCA-related connectivity was found in 110 of them, and differences in levels of GCA-related connectivity across brain networks were notably modest. Consistent with prior work, socioeconomic status was a strong predictor of GCA in this sample, and we found that distributed GCA-related brain connectivity patterns significantly statistically mediated this relationship (mean proportion mediated: 15.6%, p < 2 × 10). These results demonstrate that socioeconomic status and GCA are related to broad and diffuse differences in functional connectivity architecture during early adolescence, potentially suggesting a mechanism through which socioeconomic status influences cognitive development.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2021/11/08

Authors

Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, Clark DA, Greathouse T, Rutherford S, Dickens JR, Shedden K, Gard AM, Hyde LW, Weigard A, Heitzeg M

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-021-01704-0
Toggle Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study Linked External Data (LED): Protocol and practices for geocoding and assignment of environmental data. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Fan CC, Marshall A, Smolker H, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Our brain is constantly shaped by our immediate environments, and while some effects are transient, some have long-term consequences. Therefore, it is critical to identify which environmental risks have evident and long-term impact on brain development. To expand our understanding of the environmental context of each child, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® incorporates the use of geospatial location data to capture a range of individual, neighborhood, and state level data based on the child’s residential location in order to elucidate the physical environmental contexts in which today’s youth are growing up. We review the major considerations and types of geocoded information incorporated by the Linked External Data Environmental (LED) workgroup to expand on the built and natural environmental constructs in the existing and future ABCD Study data releases. Understanding the environmental context of each youth furthers the consortium’s mission to understand factors that may influence individual differences in brain development, providing the opportunity to inform public policy and health organization guidelines for child and adolescent health.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/11/08

Authors

Fan CC, Marshall A, Smolker H, Gonzalez MR, Tapert SF, Barch DM, Sowell E, Dowling GJ, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Ross J, Thompson WK, Herting MM

Keywords

Built environment, Environmental health, Environmental neuroscience, Natural environment, Neighborhood

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101030
Toggle Pubertal timing and functional neurodevelopmental alterations independently mediate the effect of family conflict on adolescent psychopathology. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Petrican R, Miles S, Rudd L, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis that early life adversity (ELA) heightens psychopathology risk by concurrently altering pubertal and neurodevelopmental timing, and associated gene transcription signatures. Analyses focused on threat- (family conflict/neighbourhood crime) and deprivation-related ELAs (parental inattentiveness/unmet material needs), using longitudinal data from 1514 biologically unrelated youths in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Typical developmental changes in white matter microstructure corresponded to widespread BOLD signal variability (BOLD increases (linked to cell communication and biosynthesis genes) and region-specific task-related BOLD increases/decreases (linked to signal transduction, immune and external environmental response genes). Increasing resting-state (RS), but decreasing task-related BOLD predicted normative functional network segregation. Family conflict was the strongest concurrent and prospective contributor to psychopathology, while material deprivation constituted an additive risk factor. ELA-linked psychopathology was predicted by higher Time 1 threat-evoked BOLD (associated with axonal development, myelination, cell differentiation and signal transduction genes), reduced Time 2 RS BOLD (associated with cell metabolism and attention genes) and greater Time 1 to Time 2 control/attention network segregation. Earlier pubertal timing and neurodevelopmental alterations independently mediated ELA effects on psychopathology. Our results underscore the differential roles of the immediate and wider external environment(s) in concurrent and longer-term ELA consequences.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/11/06

Authors

Petrican R, Miles S, Rudd L, Wasiewska W, Graham KS, Lawrence AD

Keywords

BOLD variability, Early life adversity, Externalizing problems, Functional brain networks, Neurodevelopment, Structure-function coupling, Transcriptomics

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101032
Toggle Concussion Among Children in the United States General Population: Incidence and Risk Factors. Frontiers in neurology Cook NE, Iverson GL 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of concussion and risk factors for sustaining concussion among children from the United States general population. This prospective cohort study used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Children were recruited from schools across the US, sampled to reflect the sociodemographic variation of the US population. The current sample includes 11,013 children aged 9 to 10 years old (47.6% girls; 65.5% White) who were prospectively followed for an average of 1 year (mean = 367.9 days, SD = 40.8, range 249-601). The primary outcome was caregiver-reported concussion during a 1 year follow-up period. Logistic regression was used to determine which potential clinical, health history, and behavioral characteristics (assessed at baseline) were prospectively associated with concussion. In the 1 year follow-up period between ages 10 and 11, 1 in 100 children ( = 123, 1.1%) sustained a concussion. In univariate models, three baseline predictors (ADHD, prior concussion, and accident proneness) were significantly associated with sustaining a concussion. In a multivariate model, controlling for all other predictors, only prior concussion remained significantly associated with the occurrence of a concussion during the observation period (Odds Ratio = 5.49, 95% CI: 3.40-8.87). The most robust and only independent prospective predictor of sustaining a concussion was history of a prior concussion. History of concussion is associated with 5.5 times greater odds of sustaining concussion between ages 10 and 11 among children from the general US population.

Journal

Frontiers in neurology

Published

2021/11/01

Authors

Cook NE, Iverson GL

Keywords

epidemiology, head trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, pediatric, traumatic injury

DOI

10.3389/fneur.2021.773927
Toggle Greater radiologic evidence of hypothalamic gliosis predicts adiposity gain in children at risk for obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) Sewaybricker LE, Kee S, Melhorn SJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study investigated, in a large pediatric population, whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) gliosis is associated with baseline or change over 1 year in body adiposity.

Journal

Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

Published

2021/11/01

Authors

Sewaybricker LE, Kee S, Melhorn SJ, Schur EA

Keywords

DOI

10.1002/oby.23286
Toggle History of Depression, Elevated Body Mass Index, and Waist-to-Height Ratio in Preadolescent Children. Psychosomatic medicine Lewis-de Los Angeles WW, Liu RT 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate whether a history of depression or self-injurious thoughts and behaviors predict elevated body mass index (BMI) and elevated waist-to-height ratio in preadolescents.

Journal

Psychosomatic medicine

Published

2021/11/01

Authors

Lewis-de Los Angeles WW, Liu RT

Keywords

DOI

10.1097/PSY.0000000000000982
Toggle Demographic and mental health assessments in the adolescent brain and cognitive development study: Updates and age-related trajectories. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Barch DM, Albaugh MD, Baskin-Sommers A, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study of 11,880 youth incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to mental health across childhood and adolescence in participating youth, as well as information about family mental health history. We have previously described the logic and content of the mental health assessment battery at Baseline and 1-year follow-up. Here, we describe changes to that battery and issues and clarifications that have emerged, as well as additions to the mental health battery at the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year follow-ups. We capitalize on the recent release of longitudinal data for caregiver and youth report of mental health data to evaluate trajectories of dimensions of psychopathology as a function of demographic factors. For both caregiver and self-reported mental health symptoms, males showed age-related decreases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, while females showed an increase in internalizing symptoms with age. Multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (caregiver education, family income, financial adversity, neighborhood poverty) accounted for unique variance in both caregiver and youth-reported externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These data highlight the importance of examining developmental trajectories of mental health as a function of key factors such as sex and socioeconomic environment.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/10/29

Authors

Barch DM, Albaugh MD, Baskin-Sommers A, Bryant BE, Clark DB, Dick AS, Feczko E, Foxe JJ, Gee DG, Giedd J, Glantz MD, Hudziak JJ, Karcher NR, LeBlanc K, Maddox M, McGlade EC, Mulford C, Nagel BJ, Neigh G, Palmer CE, Potter AS, Sher KJ, Tapert SF, Thompson WK, Xie L

Keywords

Assessment, Longitudinal assessment, Mental health, Psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101031
Toggle Contributions of PTSD polygenic risk and environmental stress to suicidality in preadolescents. Neurobiology of stress Daskalakis NP, Schultz LM, Visoki E, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicidal ideation and attempts (i.e., suicidality) are complex behaviors driven by environmental stress, genetic susceptibility, and their interaction. Preadolescent suicidality is a major health problem with rising rates, yet its underlying biology is understudied. Here we studied effects of genetic stress susceptibility, approximated by the polygenic risk score (PRS) for post-traumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD), on preadolescent suicidality in participants from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study®. We further evaluated PTSD-PRS effects on suicidality in the presence of environmental stressors that are established suicide risk factors. Analyses included both European and African ancestry participants using PRS calculated based on summary statistics from ancestry-specific genome-wide association studies. In European ancestry participants (N = 4,619, n = 378 suicidal), PTSD-PRS was associated with preadolescent suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, 95%CI 1-1.25, p = 0.038). Results in African ancestry participants (N = 1,334, n = 130 suicidal) showed a similar direction but were not statistically significant (OR = 1.21, 95%CI 0.93-1.57, p = 0.153). Sensitivity analyses using non-psychiatric polygenic score for height and using cross-ancestry PTSD-PRS did not reveal any association with suicidality, supporting the specificity of the association of ancestry-specific PTSD-PRS with suicidality. Environmental stressors were robustly associated with suicidality across ancestries with moderate effect size for negative life events and family conflict (OR 1.27-1.6); and with large effect size (OR ∼ 4) for sexual-orientation discrimination. When combined with environmental factors, PTSD-PRS showed marginal additive effects in explaining variability in suicidality, with no evidence for G × E interaction. Results support use of cross-phenotype PRS, specifically stress-susceptibility, as a genetic marker for suicidality risk early in the lifespan.

Journal

Neurobiology of stress

Published

2021/10/27

Authors

Daskalakis NP, Schultz LM, Visoki E, Moore TM, Argabright ST, Harnett NG, DiDomenico GE, Warrier V, Almasy L, Barzilay R

Keywords

Child psychiatry, PTSD, Polygenic risk score, Stress, Suicide

DOI

10.1016/j.ynstr.2021.100411
Toggle Shorter Duration and Lower Quality Sleep Have Widespread Detrimental Effects on Developing Functional Brain Networks in Early Adolescence. Cerebral cortex communications Brooks SJ, Katz ES, Stamoulis C 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sleep is critical for cognitive health, especially during complex developmental periods such as adolescence. However, its effects on maturating brain networks that support cognitive function are only partially understood. We investigated the impact of shorter duration and reduced quality sleep, common stressors during development, on functional network properties in early adolescence-a period of significant neural maturation, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from 5566 children (median age = 120.0 months; 52.1% females) in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development cohort. Decreased sleep duration, increased sleep latency, frequent waking up at night, and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms were associated with lower topological efficiency, flexibility, and robustness of visual, sensorimotor, attention, fronto-parietal control, default-mode and/or limbic networks, and with aberrant changes in the thalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cerebellum ( < 0.05). These widespread effects, many of which were body mass index-independent, suggest that unhealthy sleep in early adolescence may impair neural information processing and integration across incompletely developed networks, potentially leading to deficits in their cognitive correlates, including attention, reward, emotion processing and regulation, memory, and executive control. Shorter sleep duration, frequent snoring, difficulty waking up, and daytime sleepiness had additional detrimental network effects in nonwhite participants, indicating racial disparities in the influence of sleep metrics.

Journal

Cerebral cortex communications

Published

2021/10/26

Authors

Brooks SJ, Katz ES, Stamoulis C

Keywords

adolescence, brain, connectome, sleep duration, sleep quality

DOI

10.1093/texcom/tgab062
Toggle Large-scale functional brain networks of maladaptive childhood aggression identified by connectome-based predictive modeling. Molecular psychiatry Ibrahim K, Noble S, He G, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Disruptions in frontoparietal networks supporting emotion regulation have been long implicated in maladaptive childhood aggression. However, the association of connectivity between large-scale functional networks with aggressive behavior has not been tested. The present study examined whether the functional organization of the connectome predicts severity of aggression in children. This cross-sectional study included a transdiagnostic sample of 100 children with aggressive behavior (27 females) and 29 healthy controls without aggression or psychiatric disorders (13 females). Severity of aggression was indexed by the total score on the parent-rated Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. During fMRI, participants completed a face emotion perception task of fearful and calm faces. Connectome-based predictive modeling with internal cross-validation was conducted to identify brain networks that predicted aggression severity. The replication and generalizability of the aggression predictive model was then tested in an independent sample of children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Connectivity predictive of aggression was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (medial-frontal, frontoparietal), social functioning (default mode, salience), and emotion processing (subcortical, sensorimotor) (r = 0.31, RMSE = 9.05, p = 0.005). Out-of-sample replication (p < 0.002) and generalization (p = 0.007) of findings predicting aggression from the functional connectome was demonstrated in an independent sample of children from the ABCD study (n = 1791; n = 1701). Individual differences in large-scale functional networks contribute to variability in maladaptive aggression in children with psychiatric disorders. Linking these individual differences in the connectome to variation in behavioral phenotypes will advance identification of neural biomarkers of maladaptive childhood aggression to inform targeted treatments.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2021/10/25

Authors

Ibrahim K, Noble S, He G, Lacadie C, Crowley MJ, McCarthy G, Scheinost D, Sukhodolsky DG

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-021-01317-5
Toggle Editorial: Polygenic Risk Scores in Child Psychiatry, Research Promise, and Potential Clinical Pitfalls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shaw P 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for mental disorders have become a major player in child psychiatry research. PRSs quantify a child’s risk for childhood psychiatric disorders by summing the effects of a multitude of common risk genetic variants across the entire genome. Each genetic variant in isolation contributes a minuscule amount to the disorder, but their combined effect can be substantial. The study by Pat et al. illustrates how PRSs can be used as a starting point to examine the mechanisms that might link common genetic variant risk with symptoms. In their exploration of how genes, cognition, and psychopathology may be tied together, the authors apply meticulous analytic techniques to a rich, open dataset (the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development [ABCD] cohort) and report fascinating results.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2021/10/23

Authors

Shaw P

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2021.10.010
Toggle Investigating the Link Between Depression, Cognition, and Motivation in Late Childhood. Child psychiatry and human development Steinberger DC, Barch DM 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Research has revealed broad cognitive deficits (e.g., memory, learning) in depression, and that motivation may account for this link. We tested the state (i.e., only present during depression), trait (i.e., underlying vulnerability) and scar (i.e., lasting corollary) hypotheses of cognitive dysfunction in depression. We additionally tested subjective motivation as a mediator of the concurrent depression-cognition link. In a longitudinal sample of 11,878 children ages 9-11, we found no evidence of a concurrent state or longitudinal trait or scar relationship between depression and cognition. The pattern of depression-cognition relationships-which precluded a mediator analysis-in our childhood sample is a departure from previous studies. Our findings indicate that cognitive deficits are not strongly associated with depression in childhood, in contrast with the impairment commonly seen in older individuals with depression.

Journal

Child psychiatry and human development

Published

2021/10/22

Authors

Steinberger DC, Barch DM

Keywords

Children, Cognitive function, Depression, Longitudinal analysis, Motivation

DOI

10.1007/s10578-021-01267-7
Toggle Passive Sensing of Preteens' Smartphone Use: An Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Cohort Substudy. JMIR mental health Wade NE, Ortigara JM, Sullivan RM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Concerns abound regarding childhood smartphone use, but studies to date have largely relied on self-reported screen use. Self-reporting of screen use is known to be misreported by pediatric samples and their parents, limiting the accurate determination of the impact of screen use on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Thus, a more passive, objective measurement of smartphone screen use among children is needed.

Journal

JMIR mental health

Published

2021/10/18

Authors

Wade NE, Ortigara JM, Sullivan RM, Tomko RL, Breslin FJ, Baker FC, Fuemmeler BF, Delrahim Howlett K, Lisdahl KM, Marshall AT, Mason MJ, Neale MC, Squeglia LM, Wolff-Hughes DL, Tapert SF, Bagot KS

Keywords

mobile phone, passive sensing, preadolescents, screen time, screen use, smartphone use

DOI

10.2196/29426
Toggle Associations among negative life events, changes in cortico-limbic connectivity, and psychopathology in the ABCD Study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Brieant AE, Sisk LM, Gee DG 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adversity exposure is a risk factor for psychopathology, which most frequently onsets during adolescence, and prior research has demonstrated that alterations in cortico-limbic connectivity may account in part for this association. In a sample of youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (N = 4006), we tested a longitudinal structural equation model to examine the indirect effect of adversity exposure (negative life events) on later psychopathology via changes in cortico-limbic resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). We also examined the potential protective effects of parental acceptance. Generally, cortico-limbic connectivity became more strongly negative between baseline and year 2 follow-up, suggesting that stronger negative correlations within these cortico-limbic networks may reflect a more mature phenotype. Exposure to a greater number of negative life events was associated with stronger negative cortico-limbic rsFC which, in turn, was associated with lower internalizing (but not externalizing) symptoms. The indirect effect of negative life events on internalizing symptoms via cortico-limbic rsFC was significant. Parental acceptance did not moderate the association between negative life events and rsFC. Our findings highlight how stressful childhood experiences may accelerate neurobiological maturation in specific cortico-limbic connections, potentially reflecting an adaptive process that protects against internalizing problems in the context of adversity.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/10/16

Authors

Brieant AE, Sisk LM, Gee DG

Keywords

Adversity, Cortico-limbic, Psychopathology, Resting-state fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101022
Toggle An update on the assessment of culture and environment in the ABCD Study®: Emerging literature and protocol updates over three measurement waves. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Gonzalez R, Thompson EL, Sanchez M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Advances in our understanding of risk and resilience factors in adolescent brain health and development increasingly demand a broad set of assessment tools that consider a youth’s peer, family, school, neighborhood, and cultural contexts in addition to neurobiological, genetic, and biomedical information. The Culture and Environment (CE) Workgroup (WG) of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study curates these important components of the protocol throughout ten years of planned data collection. In this report, the CE WG presents an update on the evolution of the ABCD Study® CE protocol since study inception (Zucker et al., 2018), as well as emerging findings that include CE measures. Background and measurement characteristics of instruments present in the study since baseline have already been described in our 2018 report, and therefore are only briefly described here. New measures introduced since baseline are described in more detail. Descriptive statistics on all measures are presented based on a total sample of 11,000+ youth and their caregivers assessed at baseline and the following two years. Psychometric properties of the measures, including longitudinal aspects of the data, are reported, along with considerations for future measurement waves. The CE WG ABCD® components are an essential part of the overall protocol that permits characterization of the unique cultural and social environment within which each developing brain is transactionally embedded.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/10/16

Authors

Gonzalez R, Thompson EL, Sanchez M, Morris A, Gonzalez MR, Feldstein Ewing SW, Mason MJ, Arroyo J, Howlett K, Tapert SF, Zucker RA

Keywords

Development, acculturation, cultural identity, family effects, social interactions, substance use

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101021
Toggle Risk of lead exposure, subcortical brain structure, and cognition in a large cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children. PloS one Marshall AT, McConnell R, Lanphear BP, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Lead, a toxic metal, affects cognitive development at the lowest measurable concentrations found in children, but little is known about its direct impact on brain development. Recently, we reported widespread decreases in cortical surface area and volume with increased risks of lead exposure, primarily in children of low-income families.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/10/14

Authors

Marshall AT, McConnell R, Lanphear BP, Thompson WK, Herting MM, Sowell ER

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0258469
Toggle Association between parental age, brain structure, and behavioral and cognitive problems in children. Molecular psychiatry Du J, Rolls ET, Gong W, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To investigate the relation between parental age, and behavioral, cognitive and brain differences in the children.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2021/10/14

Authors

Du J, Rolls ET, Gong W, Cao M, Vatansever D, Zhang J, Kang J, Cheng W, Feng J

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-021-01325-5
Toggle Adolescent civic engagement: Lessons from Black Lives Matter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Baskin-Sommers A, Simmons C, Conley M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

In 2020, individuals of all ages engaged in demonstrations condemning police brutality and supporting the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Research that used parent reports and trends commented on in popular media suggested that adolescents under 18 had become increasingly involved in this movement. In the first large-scale quantitative survey of adolescents’ exposure to BLM demonstrations, 4,970 youth (mean = 12.88 y) across the United States highlighted that they were highly engaged, particularly with media, and experienced positive emotions when exposed to the BLM movement. In addition to reporting strong engagement and positive emotions related to BLM demonstrations, Black adolescents in particular reported higher negative emotions when engaging with different types of media and more exposure to violence during in-person BLM demonstrations. Appreciating youth civic engagement, while also providing support for processing complex experiences and feelings, is important for the health and welfare of young people and society.

Journal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Published

2021/10/12

Authors

Baskin-Sommers A, Simmons C, Conley M, Chang SA, Estrada S, Collins M, Pelham W, Beckford E, Mitchell-Adams H, Berrian N, Tapert SF, Gee DG, Casey BJ

Keywords

Black Lives Matter, adolescents, demonstrations, race

DOI

10.1073/pnas.2109860118
Toggle A Comprehensive Overview of the Physical Health of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study Cohort at Baseline. Frontiers in pediatrics Palmer CE, Sheth C, Marshall AT, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Physical health in childhood is crucial for neurobiological as well as overall development, and can shape long-term outcomes into adulthood. The landmark, longitudinal Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD study), was designed to investigate brain development and health in almost 12,000 youth who were recruited when they were 9-10 years old and will be followed through adolescence and early adulthood. The overall goal of this paper is to provide descriptive analyses of physical health measures in the ABCD study at baseline, including but not limited to sleep, physical activity and sports involvement, and body mass index. Further this summary will describe how physical health measures collected from the ABCD cohort compare with current normative data and clinical guidelines. We propose this data set has the potential to facilitate clinical recommendations and inform national standards of physical health in this age group. This manuscript will also provide important information for ABCD users and help guide analyses investigating physical health including new avenues for health disparity research as it pertains to adolescent and young adult development.

Journal

Frontiers in pediatrics

Published

2021/10/05

Authors

Palmer CE, Sheth C, Marshall AT, Adise S, Baker FC, Chang L, Clark DB, Coronado C, Dagher RK, Diaz V, Dowling GJ, Gonzalez MR, Haist F, Herting MM, Huber RS, Jernigan TL, LeBlanc K, Lee K, Lisdahl KM, Neigh G, Patterson MW, Renshaw P, Rhee KE, Tapert S, Thompson WK, Uban K, Sowell ER, Yurgelun-Todd D

Keywords

developmental milestones, middle childhood, physical activity, physical health, puberty, sleep, sociodemographics

DOI

10.3389/fped.2021.734184
Toggle Heritability Analysis in Twins Indicates a Genetic Basis for Velopharyngeal Morphology. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Lee MK, Liu C, Leslie EJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The velopharyngeal mechanism is comprised of several muscular components that act in a coordinated manner to control airflow through the nose and mouth. Proper velopharyngeal function is essential for normal speech, swallowing, and breathing. The genetic basis of normal-range velopharyngeal morphology is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of velopharyngeal dimensions. We measured five velopharyngeal variables (velar length, velar thickness, effective velar length, levator muscle length and pharyngeal depth) from MRIs of 155 monozygotic and 208 dizygotic twin pairs and then calculated heritability for these traits using a structural equation modeling approach. The heritability estimates were statistically significant (95% confidence intervals excluded zero) and ranged from 0.19 to 0.46. There was also evidence of significant genetic correlations between pairs of traits, pointing to the influence of common genetic effects. These results indicate that genetic factors influence variation in clinically relevant velopharyngeal structures.

Journal

The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association

Published

2021/10/04

Authors

Lee MK, Liu C, Leslie EJ, Shaffer JR, Perry JL, Weinberg SM

Keywords

genetics, mRI, soft palate, structural equation modeling, uvula

DOI

10.1177/10556656211045530
Toggle Incipient alcohol use in childhood: Early alcohol sipping and its relations with psychopathology and personality. Development and psychopathology Watts AL, Wood PK, Jackson KM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Prior research has shown that sipping of alcohol begins to emerge during childhood and is potentially etiologically significant for later substance use problems. Using a large, community sample of 9- and 10-year-olds (N = 11,872; 53% female), we examined individual differences in precocious alcohol use in the form of alcohol sipping. We focused explicitly on features that are robust and well-demonstrated correlates of, and antecedents to, alcohol excess and related problems later in the lifespan, including youth- and parent-reported externalizing traits (i.e., impulsivity, behavioral inhibition and activation) and psychopathology. Seventeen percent of the sample reported sipping alcohol outside of a religiously sanctioned activity by age 9 or 10. Several aspects of psychopathology and personality emerged as small but reliable correlates of sipping. Nonreligious sipping was related to youth-reported impulsigenic traits, aspects of behavioral activation, prodromal psychotic-like symptoms, and mood disorder diagnoses, as well as parent-reported externalizing disorder diagnoses. Religious sipping was unexpectedly associated with certain aspects of impulsivity. Together, our findings point to the potential importance of impulsivity and other transdiagnostic indicators of psychopathology (e.g., emotion dysregulation, novelty seeking) in the earliest forms of drinking behavior.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/10/01

Authors

Watts AL, Wood PK, Jackson KM, Lisdahl KM, Heitzeg MM, Gonzalez R, Tapert SF, Barch DM, Sher KJ

Keywords

alcohol sipping, novelty seeking, personality, precocious alcohol use, psychopathology

DOI

10.1017/S0954579420000541
Toggle Callous-unemotional traits and reduced default mode network connectivity within a community sample of children. Development and psychopathology Umbach RH, Tottenham N 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits characterize a subset of youth at risk for persistent and serious antisocial behavior. Differences in resting state connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) have been associated with CU traits in forensic and clinical samples of adolescents and with deficient interpersonal/affective traits (often operationalized as Factor 1 psychopathy traits) in adults. It is unclear whether these brain-behavior associations extend to community-based children. Using mixed model analyses, we tested the associations between CU traits and within-network resting-state connectivity of seven task-activated networks and the DMN using data from 9,636 9-11-year-olds in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Even after accounting for comorbid externalizing problems, higher levels of CU traits were associated with reduced connectivity within the DMN. This finding is consistent with prior literature surrounding psychopathy and CU traits in clinically and forensically based populations, suggesting the correlation likely exists on a spectrum, can be detected in childhood, and is not restricted to children with significant antisocial behavior.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/10/01

Authors

Umbach RH, Tottenham N

Keywords

brain imaging developmental, callous-unemotional, resting state

DOI

10.1017/S0954579420000401
Toggle Longitudinal Impact of Childhood Adversity on Early Adolescent Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the ABCD Study Cohort: Does Race or Ethnicity Moderate Findings? Biological psychiatry global open science Stinson EA, Sullivan RM, Peteet BJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, mental health among youth has been negatively affected. Youth with a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), as well as youth from minoritized racial-ethnic backgrounds, may be especially vulnerable to experiencing COVID-19-related distress. The aims of this study are to examine whether exposure to pre-pandemic ACEs predicts mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in youth and whether racial-ethnic background moderates these effects.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2021/09/29

Authors

Stinson EA, Sullivan RM, Peteet BJ, Tapert SF, Baker FC, Breslin FJ, Dick AS, Gonzalez MR, Guillaume M, Marshall AT, McCabe CJ, Pelham WE, Van Rinsveld A, Sheth CS, Sowell ER, Wade NE, Wallace AL, Lisdahl KM

Keywords

Adolescence, Adverse childhood experiences, COVID-19, Health disparities, Mental health, Pandemic

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.08.007
Toggle Recalibrating expectations about effect size: A multi-method survey of effect sizes in the ABCD study. PloS one Owens MM, Potter A, Hyatt CS, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Effect sizes are commonly interpreted using heuristics established by Cohen (e.g., small: r = .1, medium r = .3, large r = .5), despite mounting evidence that these guidelines are mis-calibrated to the effects typically found in psychological research. This study’s aims were to 1) describe the distribution of effect sizes across multiple instruments, 2) consider factors qualifying the effect size distribution, and 3) identify examples as benchmarks for various effect sizes. For aim one, effect size distributions were illustrated from a large, diverse sample of 9/10-year-old children. This was done by conducting Pearson’s correlations among 161 variables representing constructs from all questionnaires and tasks from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study® baseline data. To achieve aim two, factors qualifying this distribution were tested by comparing the distributions of effect size among various modifications of the aim one analyses. These modified analytic strategies included comparisons of effect size distributions for different types of variables, for analyses using statistical thresholds, and for analyses using several covariate strategies. In aim one analyses, the median in-sample effect size was .03, and values at the first and third quartiles were .01 and .07. In aim two analyses, effects were smaller for associations across instruments, content domains, and reporters, as well as when covarying for sociodemographic factors. Effect sizes were larger when thresholding for statistical significance. In analyses intended to mimic conditions used in “real-world” analysis of ABCD data, the median in-sample effect size was .05, and values at the first and third quartiles were .03 and .09. To achieve aim three, examples for varying effect sizes are reported from the ABCD dataset as benchmarks for future work in the dataset. In summary, this report finds that empirically determined effect sizes from a notably large dataset are smaller than would be expected based on existing heuristics.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/09/23

Authors

Owens MM, Potter A, Hyatt CS, Albaugh M, Thompson WK, Jernigan T, Yuan D, Hahn S, Allgaier N, Garavan H

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0257535
Toggle Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in preadolescent children: A US population-based study. Translational psychiatry Lawrence HR, Burke TA, Sheehan AE, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The present study evaluated sociodemographic and diagnostic predictors of suicidal ideation and attempts in a nationally representative sample of preadolescent youth enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Rates and predictors of psychiatric treatment utilization among suicidal youth also were examined. Eleven thousand eight hundred and seventy-five 9- and 10-year-old children residing in the United States were assessed. Children and their parents/guardians provided reports of children’s lifetime history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and psychiatric disorders. Parents also reported on sociodemographic characteristics and mental health service utilization. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate sociodemographic and diagnostic correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts among youth with suicidal ideation, and treatment utilization among youth with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Lifetime prevalence rates were 14.33% for suicidal ideation and 1.26% for suicide attempts. Youth who identified as male, a sexual minority, or multiracial had greater odds of suicidal ideation, and sexual minority youth and youth with a low family income had greater odds of suicide attempts. Comorbid psychopathology was associated with higher odds of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. In youth, 34.59% who have suicidal ideation and 54.82% who had attempted suicide received psychiatric treatment. Treatment utilization among suicidal youth was lower among those who identified as female, Black, and Hispanic. Suicidal ideation and attempts among preadolescent children are concerningly high and targeted assessment and preventative efforts are needed, especially for males, racial, ethnic, and sexual minority youth, and those youth experiencing comorbidity.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2021/09/22

Authors

Lawrence HR, Burke TA, Sheehan AE, Pastro B, Levin RY, Walsh RFL, Bettis AH, Liu RT

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-021-01593-3
Toggle Vertex-wise multivariate genome-wide association study identifies 780 unique genetic loci associated with cortical morphology. NeuroImage Shadrin AA, Kaufmann T, van der Meer D, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Brain morphology has been shown to be highly heritable, yet only a small portion of the heritability is explained by the genetic variants discovered so far. Here we extended the Multivariate Omnibus Statistical Test (MOSTest) and applied it to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of vertex-wise structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical measures from N=35,657 participants in the UK Biobank. We identified 695 loci for cortical surface area and 539 for cortical thickness, in total 780 unique genetic loci associated with cortical morphology robustly replicated in 8,060 children of mixed ethnicity from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study®. This reflects more than 8-fold increase in genetic discovery at no cost to generalizability compared to the commonly used univariate GWAS methods applied to region of interest (ROI) data. Functional follow up including gene-based analyses implicated 10% of all protein-coding genes and pointed towards pathways involved in neurogenesis and cell differentiation. Power analysis indicated that applying the MOSTest to vertex-wise structural MRI data triples the effective sample size compared to conventional univariate GWAS approaches. The large boost in power obtained with the vertex-wise MOSTest together with pronounced replication rates and highlighted biologically meaningful pathways underscores the advantage of multivariate approaches in the context of highly distributed polygenic architecture of the human brain.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/09/21

Authors

Shadrin AA, Kaufmann T, van der Meer D, Palmer CE, Makowski C, Loughnan R, Jernigan TL, Seibert TM, Hagler DJ, Smeland OB, Motazedi E, Chu Y, Lin A, Cheng W, Hindley G, Thompson WK, Fan CC, Holland D, Westlye LT, Frei O, Andreassen OA, Dale AM

Keywords

Cortical surface area, Cortical thickness, Distributed polygenic architecture, Genome-wide association study, Multivariate vertex-wise analysis

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118603
Toggle Covariate Correcting Networks for Identifying Associations Between Socioeconomic Factors and Brain Outcomes in Children Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2021 Cho H, Park G, Isaiah A, et al. 2021
Link to Publication

Abstract

Brain development in adolescence is synthetically influenced by various factors such as age, education, and socioeconomic conditions. To identify an independent effect from a variable of interest (e.g., socioeconomic conditions), statistical models such as General Linear Model (GLM) are typically adopted to account for covariates (e.g., age and gender). However, statistical models may be vulnerable with insufficient sample size and outliers, and multiple tests for a whole brain analysis lead to inevitable false-positives without sufficient sensitivity. Hence, it is necessary to develop a unified framework for multiple tests that robustly fits the observation and increases sensitivity. We therefore propose a unified flexible neural network that optimizes on the contribution from the main variable of interest as introduced in original GLM, which leads to improved statistical outcomes. The results on group analysis with fractional anisotropy (FA) from Diffusion Tensor Images from Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study demonstrate that the proposed method provides much more selective and meaningful detection of ROIs related to socioeconomic status over conventional methods.

Journal

Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2021

Published

2021/09/21

Authors

Cho H, Park G, Isaiah A, et al.

Keywords

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87234-2_40
Toggle Sleep Disturbances, Obesity, and Cognitive Function in Childhood: A Mediation Analysis. Current developments in nutrition Mattey-Mora PP, Nelson EJ 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood cognitive development is influenced by biological and environmental factors. One such factor, obesity, impairs cognitive development and is associated with sleep disturbances.

Journal

Current developments in nutrition

Published

2021/09/15

Authors

Mattey-Mora PP, Nelson EJ

Keywords

BMI, childhood, cognitive function, crystallized cognition, fluid cognition, mediation analysis, obesity, sleep disturbances

DOI

10.1093/cdn/nzab119
Toggle Identifying profiles of brain structure and associations with current and future psychopathology in youth. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Mattoni M, Wilson S, Olino TM 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Brain structure is often studied as a marker of youth psychopathology by examining associations between volume or thickness of individual regions and specific diagnoses. However, these univariate approaches do not address whether the effect of a particular region may depend on the structure of other regions. Here, we identified subgroups of individuals with distinct profiles of brain structure and examined how these profiles were associated with concurrent and future youth psychopathology. We used latent profile analysis to identify distinct neuroanatomical profiles of subcortical region volume and orbitofrontal cortical thickness in the ABCD study (N = 9376, mean age = 9.91, SD = 0.62). We identified a five-profile solution consisting of a reduced subcortical volume profile, a reduced orbitofrontal thickness profile, a reduced limbic and elevated striatal volume profile, an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and reduced striatal volume profile, and an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and subcortical volume profile. While controlling for age, sex, and intracranial volume, profiles exhibited differences in concurrent psychopathology measured dimensionally and categorically and in psychopathology at 1-year follow-up measured dimensionally. Results show that profiles of brain structure have incremental validity for associations with youth psychopathology beyond intracranial volume.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/09/14

Authors

Mattoni M, Wilson S, Olino TM

Keywords

ABCD study, Brain profile, Brain structure, Latent profile analysis, Youth psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101013
Toggle Multimodal MR Images-Based Diagnosis of Early Adolescent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Multiple Kernel Learning. Frontiers in neuroscience Zhou X, Lin Q, Gui Y, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common brain diseases among children. The current criteria of ADHD diagnosis mainly depend on behavior analysis, which is subjective and inconsistent, especially for children. The development of neuroimaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drives the discovery of brain abnormalities in structure and function by analyzing multimodal neuroimages for computer-aided diagnosis of brain diseases. This paper proposes a multimodal machine learning framework that combines the Boruta based feature selection and Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) to integrate the multimodal features of structural and functional MRIs and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) for the diagnosis of early adolescent ADHD. The rich and complementary information of the macrostructural features, microstructural properties, and functional connectivities are integrated at the kernel level, followed by a support vector machine classifier for discriminating ADHD from healthy children. Our experiments were conducted on the comorbidity-free ADHD subjects and covariable-matched healthy children aged 9-10 chosen from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. This paper is the first work to combine structural and functional MRIs with DTI for early adolescents of the ABCD study. The results indicate that the kernel-level fusion of multimodal features achieves 0.698 of AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and 64.3% of classification accuracy for ADHD diagnosis, showing a significant improvement over the early feature fusion and unimodal features. The abnormal functional connectivity predictors, involving default mode network, attention network, auditory network, and sensorimotor mouth network, thalamus, and cerebellum, as well as the anatomical regions in basal ganglia, are found to encode the most discriminative information, which collaborates with macrostructure and diffusion alterations to boost the performances of disorder diagnosis.

Journal

Frontiers in neuroscience

Published

2021/09/14

Authors

Zhou X, Lin Q, Gui Y, Wang Z, Liu M, Lu H

Keywords

DTI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disorder diagnosis, early adolescent, multimodal MR images, multiple kernel learning, resting-state functional MRI, structural MRI

DOI

10.3389/fnins.2021.710133
Toggle General . specific vulnerabilities: polygenic risk scores and higher-order psychopathology dimensions in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Psychological medicine Waszczuk MA, Miao J, Docherty AR, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) capture genetic vulnerability to psychiatric conditions. However, PRSs are often associated with multiple mental health problems in children, complicating their use in research and clinical practice. The current study is the first to systematically test which PRSs associate broadly with all forms of childhood psychopathology, and which PRSs are more specific to one or a handful of forms of psychopathology.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2021/09/14

Authors

Waszczuk MA, Miao J, Docherty AR, Shabalin AA, Jonas KG, Michelini G, Kotov R

Keywords

Child Behavior Checklist, childhood psychopathology, general factor, genetic, polygenic

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721003639
Toggle Screen time and early adolescent mental health, academic, and social outcomes in 9- and 10- year old children: Utilizing the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development ℠ (ABCD) Study. PloS one Paulich KN, Ross JM, Lessem JM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

In a technology-driven society, screens are being used more than ever. The high rate of electronic media use among children and adolescents begs the question: is screen time harming our youth? The current study draws from a nationwide sample of 11,875 participants in the United States, aged 9 to 10 years, from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®). We investigate relationships between screen time and mental health, behavioral problems, academic performance, sleep habits, and peer relationships by conducting a series of correlation and regression analyses, controlling for SES and race/ethnicity. We find that more screen time is moderately associated with worse mental health, increased behavioral problems, decreased academic performance, and poorer sleep, but heightened quality of peer relationships. However, effect sizes associated with screen time and the various outcomes were modest; SES was more strongly associated with each outcome measure. Our analyses do not establish causality and the small effect sizes observed suggest that increased screen time is unlikely to be directly harmful to 9-and-10-year-old children.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/09/08

Authors

Paulich KN, Ross JM, Lessem JM, Hewitt JK

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0256591
Toggle Genetic variation in endocannabinoid signaling is associated with differential network-level functional connectivity in youth. Journal of neuroscience research Sisk LM, Rapuano KM, Conley MI, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of emotional responses such as fear, and a number of studies have implicated endocannabinoid signaling in anxiety. The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) C385A polymorphism, which is associated with enhanced endocannabinoid signaling in the brain, has been identified across species as a potential protective factor from anxiety. In particular, adults with the variant FAAH 385A allele have greater fronto-amygdala connectivity and lower anxiety symptoms. Whether broader network-level differences in connectivity exist, and when during development this neural phenotype emerges, remains unknown and represents an important next step in understanding how the FAAH C385A polymorphism impacts neurodevelopment and risk for anxiety disorders. Here, we leveraged data from 3,109 participants in the nationwide Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study℠ (10.04 ± 0.62 years old; 44.23% female, 55.77% male) and a cross-validated, data-driven approach to examine associations between genetic variation and large-scale resting-state brain networks. Our findings revealed a distributed brain network, comprising functional connections that were both significantly greater (95% CI for p values = [<0.001, <0.001]) and lesser (95% CI for p values = [0.006, <0.001]) in A-allele carriers relative to non-carriers. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between genotype and the summarized connectivity of functional connections that were greater in A-allele carriers, such that non-carriers with connectivity more similar to A-allele carriers (i.e., greater connectivity) had lower anxiety symptoms (β = -0.041, p = 0.030). These findings provide novel evidence of network-level changes in neural connectivity associated with genetic variation in endocannabinoid signaling and suggest that genotype-associated neural differences may emerge at a younger age than genotype-associated differences in anxiety.

Journal

Journal of neuroscience research

Published

2021/09/08

Authors

Sisk LM, Rapuano KM, Conley MI, Greene AS, Horien C, Rosenberg MD, Scheinost D, Constable RT, Glatt CE, Casey BJ, Gee DG

Keywords

anxiety, brain development, brain networks, endocannabinoid signaling, functional connectivity

DOI

10.1002/jnr.24946
Toggle Cortical Thickness in bilingual and monolingual children: Relationships to language use and language skill. NeuroImage Vaughn KA, Nguyen MVH, Ronderos J, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

There is a growing body of evidence based on adult neuroimaging that suggests that the brain adapts to bilingual experiences to support language proficiency. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a useful source of data for evaluating this claim during childhood, as it involves data from a large sample of American children. Using the baseline ABCD Study data collected at ages nine and ten, the goal of this study was to identify differences in cortical thickness between bilinguals and monolinguals and to evaluate how variability in English vocabulary and English use within bilinguals might explain these group differences. We identified bilingual participants as children who spoke a non-English language and were exposed to the non-English language at home. We then identified a matched sample of English monolingual participants based on age, sex, pubertal status, parent education, household income, non-verbal IQ, and handedness. Bilinguals had thinner cortex than monolinguals in widespread cortical regions. Within bilinguals, more English use was associated with greater frontal and parietal cortical thickness; greater English vocabulary was associated with greater frontal and temporal cortical thickness. These findings replicate and extend previous research with bilingual children and highlight unexplained cortical thickness differences between bilinguals and monolinguals.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/09/07

Authors

Vaughn KA, Nguyen MVH, Ronderos J, Hernandez AE

Keywords

Bilingual, Child, Cortical Thickness, MRI

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118560
Toggle Motivation and Cognitive Abilities as Mediators Between Polygenic Scores and Psychopathology in Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Pat N, Riglin L, Anney R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Fundamental questions in biological psychiatry concern the mechanisms that mediate between genetic liability and psychiatric symptoms. Genetic liability for many common psychiatric disorders often confers transdiagnostic risk to develop a wide variety of psychopathological symptoms through yet unknown pathways. This study examined the psychological and cognitive pathways that might mediate the relationship between genetic liability (indexed by polygenic scores; PS) and broad psychopathology (indexed by p factor and its underlying dimensions).

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2021/09/07

Authors

Pat N, Riglin L, Anney R, Wang Y, Barch DM, Thapar A, Stringaris A

Keywords

ADHD, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development, MDD, polygenic score, transdiagnostic psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2021.08.019
Toggle Children's Knowledge of Cannabis and Other Substances in States with Different Cannabis Use Regulations. Substance use & misuse Ross JM, Rieselbach MM, Hewitt JK, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

: Public acceptance of cannabis continues to increase across the US, yet there has been little research on how cannabis legalization affects young children. The present study compared knowledge of cannabis and other substances among children living in states with different cannabis laws and examined whether the association between such substance knowledge and externalizing behavior varies by state cannabis regulations. : Participants were from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®) at the baseline assessment ( = 11,875, ages 9-11, collected from 2016 to 2018). Chi-square difference tests were used to compare nested models testing group differences in knowledge of substances and the association between externalizing disorder/behavior and substance knowledge as a function of state legality of cannabis use (recreational, medical, low THC/CBD, none). : Children living in states with more permissive cannabis laws had a greater knowledge of cannabis and reported more alcohol experimentation. In contrast, knowledge regarding alcohol, tobacco, and other illicit drugs was not greater in children from states with more permissive cannabis laws. Externalizing disorder/behavior was not significantly associated with cannabis knowledge in any group and not significantly different across groups. The association between externalizing disorder/behavior and illicit drug knowledge was significant only in states with the recreational and medical use laws but did not differ significantly across groups. : Children living in environments with more permissive cannabis regulations have greater knowledge of cannabis, but not other substances, and report more experimentation with alcohol.

Journal

Substance use & misuse

Published

2021/09/05

Authors

Ross JM, Rieselbach MM, Hewitt JK, Banich MT, Rhee SH

Keywords

Cannabis, children, policies

DOI

10.1080/10826084.2021.1972316
Toggle Sociodemographic Correlates of Contemporary Screen Time Use among 9- and 10-Year-Old Children. The Journal of pediatrics Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Iyer P, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine sociodemographic correlates of contemporary screen time use among a diverse population-based sample of 9- and 10-year-old children.

Journal

The Journal of pediatrics

Published

2021/09/02

Authors

Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Iyer P, Chu J, Baker FC, Pettee Gabriel K, Garber AK, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K

Keywords

adolescents, pediatrics, screen time, smart phone, social media, television

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.08.077
Toggle Smaller Hippocampal Volume Among Black and Latinx Youth Living in High-Stigma Contexts. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Hatzenbuehler ML, Weissman DG, McKetta S, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine whether structural and individual forms of stigma are associated with neurodevelopment in children.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2021/09/02

Authors

Hatzenbuehler ML, Weissman DG, McKetta S, Lattanner MR, Ford JV, Barch DM, McLaughlin KA

Keywords

hippocampal volume, neurodevelopment, population neuroscience, stigma

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2021.08.017
Toggle Early Adolescent Substance Use Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Longitudinal Survey in the ABCD Study Cohort. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Pelham WE, Tapert SF, Gonzalez MR, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Evaluate changes in early adolescent substance use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using a prospective, longitudinal, nationwide cohort.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Pelham WE, Tapert SF, Gonzalez MR, McCabe CJ, Lisdahl KM, Alzueta E, Baker FC, Breslin FJ, Dick AS, Dowling GJ, Guillaume M, Hoffman EA, Marshall AT, McCandliss BD, Sheth CS, Sowell ER, Thompson WK, Van Rinsveld AM, Wade NE, Brown SA

Keywords

Anxiety, COVID-19, Depression, Drinking, Drug use, Stress

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.06.015
Toggle Predicting fluid intelligence in adolescence from structural MRI with deep learning methods Intelligence Saha S, Pagnozzi A, Bradford D, et al. 2021
Link to Publication

Abstract

Background
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of unsegmented structural T1w MR images of adolescent brain for predicting uncorrected/actual fluid intelligence scores without any predefined feature extraction. We also examined whether prediction of uncorrected scores is simply a harder problem from both biological and technical point of view, than prediction of residualised scores.

Methods
ABCD (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development) study data was used from 7709 children aged 9–10, including T1-weighted MRIs and fluid intelligence scores, with data split into training (n = 3739), validation (n = 415) and test (n = 3555) subsets. We developed several deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) models for both actual and residualised fluid intelligence score prediction from the MR images. State of the art, conventional or reverse 2D/3D CNN architectures were developed to perform the regression task and optimised based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r. The models were then compared with published results on the same dataset.

Results
Our proposed model achieved prediction accuracies of r = 0.18 (p < 0.001) for the validation and r = 0.1 (p < 0.05) for the test, for actual IQ prediction. Our results showed that, although we achieved ~10 times higher correlation for the residualised score prediction than the correlations reported by previous CNN studies, using the same unsegmented MR images, it could not exceed the actual IQ prediction performance. This suggests that the image features associated with covariates aided up in the uncorrected score prediction rather than making the task harder.

Conclusion
Our deep learning CNN was able to establish a weak but stable correlation between structural brain features and raw fluid intelligence. To improve neuroimaging-based fluid intelligence prediction performance, future studies will be required to explore ensembled regression strategies with multiple machine learning algorithms on multimodal MRIs.

Journal

Intelligence

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Saha S, Pagnozzi A, Bradford D, et al.

Keywords

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2021.101568
Toggle The relationship between brain structure and general psychopathology in preadolescents. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Mewton L, Lees B, Squeglia LM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

An emerging body of literature has indicated that broad, transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology are associated with alterations in brain structure across the life span. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between brain structure and broad dimensions of psychopathology in the critical preadolescent period when psychopathology is emerging.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Mewton L, Lees B, Squeglia LM, Forbes MK, Sunderland M, Krueger R, Koch FC, Baillie A, Slade T, Hoy N, Teesson M

Keywords

Generalized psychopathology, brain structure, externalizing, internalizing, preadolescence

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13513
Toggle Neural response to monetary loss among youth with disruptive behavior disorders and callous-unemotional traits in the ABCD study. NeuroImage. Clinical Byrd AL, Hawes SW, Waller R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Etiological models highlight reduced punishment sensitivity as a core risk factor for disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The current study examined neural sensitivity to the anticipation and receipt of loss, one key aspect of punishment sensitivity, among youth with DBD, comparing those with and without CU traits. Data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (N = 11,874; Mage = 9.51; 48% female). Loss-related fMRI activity during the monetary incentive delay task was examined across 16 empirically-derived a priori brain regions (e.g., striatum, amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) and compared across the following groups: (1) typically developing (n = 693); (2) DBD (n = 995), subdivided into those (3) with CU traits (DBD + CU, n = 198), and (4) without CU traits (DBD-only, n = 276). Latent variable modeling was also employed to examine network-level activity. There were no significant between-group differences in brain activity to loss anticipation or receipt. Null findings were confirmed with and without covariates, using alternative grouping approaches, and in dimensional models. Network-level analyses also demonstrated comparable activity across groups during loss anticipation and receipt. Findings suggest that differences in punishment sensitivity among youth with DBD are unrelated to loss anticipation or receipt. More precise characterizations of other aspects punishment sensitivity are needed to understand risk for DBD and CU traits.

Journal

NeuroImage. Clinical

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Byrd AL, Hawes SW, Waller R, Delgado MR, Sutherland MT, Dick AS, Trucco EM, Riedel MC, Pacheco-Colón I, Laird AR, Gonzalez R

Keywords

ABCD, Antisocial behavior, Callous-unemotional, Conduct problems, Imaging, Punishment sensitivity, fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102810
Toggle Widespread Positive Direct and Indirect Effects of Regular Physical Activity on the Developing Functional Connectome in Early Adolescence. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Brooks SJ, Parks SM, Stamoulis C 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is a period of profound but incompletely understood changes in the brain’s neural circuitry (the connectome), which is vulnerable to risk factors such as unhealthy weight, but may be protected by positive factors such as regular physical activity. In 5955 children (median age = 120 months; 50.86% females) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort, we investigated direct and indirect (through impact on body mass index [BMI]) effects of physical activity on resting-state networks, the backbone of the functional connectome that ubiquitously affects cognitive function. We estimated significant positive effects of regular physical activity on network connectivity, efficiency, robustness and stability (P ≤ 0.01), and on local topologies of attention, somatomotor, frontoparietal, limbic, and default-mode networks (P < 0.05), which support extensive processes, from memory and executive control to emotional processing. In contrast, we estimated widespread negative BMI effects in the same network properties and brain regions (P < 0.05). Additional mediation analyses suggested that physical activity could also modulate network topologies leading to better control of food intake, appetite and satiety, and ultimately lower BMI. Thus, regular physical activity may have extensive positive effects on the development of the functional connectome, and may be critical for improving the detrimental effects of unhealthy weight on cognitive health.

Journal

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Published

2021/08/26

Authors

Brooks SJ, Parks SM, Stamoulis C

Keywords

BMI, adolescence, brain networks, functional connectome, physical activity

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhab126
Toggle Association Between Discrimination Stress and Suicidality in Preadolescent Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Argabright ST, Visoki E, Moore TM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Youth suicide rates in the United States have been increasing in recent years, especially in Black Americans, the reasons for which are unclear. Environmental adversity is key in youth suicidality; hence there is a need to study stressors that have a disproportionate impact on Black youths. We aimed to disentangle the unique contribution of racial/ethnic discrimination from other adversities associated with childhood suicidal ideation and attempts (suicidality).

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2021/08/20

Authors

Argabright ST, Visoki E, Moore TM, Ryan DT, DiDomenico GE, Njoroge WFM, Taylor JH, Guloksuz S, Gur RC, Gur RE, Benton TD, Barzilay R

Keywords

child psychiatry, discrimination, exposome, race, suicide

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2021.08.011
Toggle Similar but distinct - Effects of different socioeconomic indicators on resting state functional connectivity: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study®. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Early socioeconomic status (SES) has consistently been associated with child health and cognitive outcomes, in addition to alterations in brain function and connectivity. The goal of the present study was to probe the effects of different facets of SES (parent education, income, and neighborhood disadvantage), that likely represent varying aspects of the environment, on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). We investigated this question in a large sample of 9475 children (aged 9-10 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Specifically, we analyzed the association between household SES (parent education, income-to-needs ratio) and neighborhood disadvantage, and system-level rsFC using within-sample split-half replication. We then tested whether the associations were unique to each SES measure, and whether household SES and neighborhood disadvantage had interactive effects on rsFC. SES measures had both common and distinct effects on rsFC, with sensory-motor systems (e.g., sensorimotor network) and cognitive networks (e.g., front-parietal network) particularly implicated. Further, the association between neighborhood disadvantage and sensorimotor network connectivity was less pronounced in the presence of high income-to-needs. Findings demonstrate that different facets of SES have distinct and interacting effects on rsFC, highlighting the importance of considering different indicators when studying the effects of SES on the brain.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/08/14

Authors

Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S

Keywords

ABCD study, Adolescence, Disadvantage, Education, Income, Neighborhood socioeconomic status, Resting state functional connectivity, Socioeconomic status, fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101005
Toggle Relationships between apparent cortical thickness and working memory across the lifespan - Effects of genetics and socioeconomic status. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Krogsrud SK, Mowinckel AM, Sederevicius D, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Working memory (WM) supports several higher-level cognitive abilities, yet we know less about factors associated with development and decline in WM compared to other cognitive processes. Here, we investigated lifespan changes in WM capacity and their structural brain correlates, using a longitudinal sample including 2358 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and WM scores from 1656 participants (4.4-86.4 years, mean follow-up interval 4.3 years). 8764 participants (9.0-10.9 years) with MRI, WM scores and genetic information from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study were used for follow-up analyses. Results showed that both the information manipulation component and the storage component of WM improved during childhood and adolescence, but the age-decline could be fully explained by reductions in passive storage capacity alone. Greater WM function in development was related to apparent thinner cortex in both samples, also when general cognitive function was accounted for. The same WM-apparent thickness relationship was found for young adults. The WM-thickness relationships could not be explained by SNP-based co-heritability or by socioeconomic status. A larger sample with genetic information may be necessary to disentangle the true gene-environment effects. In conclusion, WM capacity changes greatly through life and has anatomically extended rather than function-specific structural cortical correlates.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/08/08

Authors

Krogsrud SK, Mowinckel AM, Sederevicius D, Vidal-Piñeiro D, Amlien IK, Wang Y, Sørensen Ø, Walhovd KB, Fjell AM

Keywords

Cortical thickness, Development, Digit span, Heritability, Lifespan, Working memory

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.100997
Toggle Association of Local Variation in Neighborhood Disadvantage in Metropolitan Areas With Youth Neurocognition and Brain Structure. JAMA pediatrics Hackman DA, Cserbik D, Chen JC, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Neighborhood disadvantage is an important social determinant of health in childhood and adolescence. Less is known about the association of neighborhood disadvantage with youth neurocognition and brain structure, and particularly whether associations are similar across metropolitan areas and are attributed to local differences in disadvantage.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2021/08/02

Authors

Hackman DA, Cserbik D, Chen JC, Berhane K, Minaravesh B, McConnell R, Herting MM

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0426
Toggle Prevalence of Perceived Racism and Discrimination Among US Children Aged 10 and 11 Years: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA pediatrics Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Sajjad OM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This cross-sectional study uses data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study to assess the prevalence of perceived racism and discrimination among US children aged 10 through 11 years.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2021/08/01

Authors

Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Sajjad OM, Benabou SE, Bibbins-Domingo K

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.1022
Toggle Genetic and environmental influences on executive functions and intelligence in middle childhood. Developmental science Freis SM, Morrison CL, Lessem JM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence (IQ) are phenotypically correlated. In twin studies, latent variables for EFs and IQ display moderate to high heritability estimates; however, they show variable genetic correlations in twin studies spanning childhood to middle age. We analyzed data from over 11,000 children (9- to 10-year-olds, including 749 twin pairs) in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to examine the phenotypic and genetic relations between EFs and IQ in childhood. We identified two EF factors-Common EF and Updating-Specific-which were both related to IQ (rs = 0.64-0.81). Common EF and IQ were heritable (53%-67%), and their genetic correlation (rG = 0.86) was not significantly different than 1. These results suggest that EFs and IQ are phenotypically but not genetically separable in middle childhood, meaning that this phenotypic separability may be influenced by environmental factors.

Journal

Developmental science

Published

2021/07/29

Authors

Freis SM, Morrison CL, Lessem JM, Hewitt JK, Friedman NP

Keywords

cognitive control, executive control, general cognitive ability, heritability, inhibition, working memory

DOI

10.1111/desc.13150
Toggle Substance use patterns in 9-10 year olds: Baseline findings from the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study. Drug and alcohol dependence Lisdahl KM, Tapert S, Sher KJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development ™ Study (ABCD Study®) is an open-science, multi-site, prospective, longitudinal study following over 11,800 9- and 10-year-old youth into early adulthood. The ABCD Study aims to prospectively examine the impact of substance use (SU) on neurocognitive and health outcomes. Although SU initiation typically occurs during teen years, relatively little is known about patterns of SU in children younger than 12.

Journal

Drug and alcohol dependence

Published

2021/07/29

Authors

Lisdahl KM, Tapert S, Sher KJ, Gonzalez R, Nixon SJ, Feldstein Ewing SW, Conway KP, Wallace A, Sullivan R, Hatcher K, Kaiver C, Thompson W, Reuter C, Bartsch H, Wade NE, Jacobus J, Albaugh MD, Allgaier N, Anokhin AP, Bagot K, Baker FC, Banich MT, Barch DM, Baskin-Sommers A, Breslin FJ, Brown SA, Calhoun V, Casey BJ, Chaarani B, Chang L, Clark DB, Cloak C, Constable RT, Cottler LB, Dagher RK, Dapretto M, Dick A, Do EK, Dosenbach NUF, Dowling GJ, Fair DA, Florsheim P, Foxe JJ, Freedman EG, Friedman NP, Garavan HP, Gee DG, Glantz MD, Glaser P, Gonzalez MR, Gray KM, Grant S, Haist F, Hawes S, Heeringa SG, Hermosillo R, Herting MM, Hettema JM, Hewitt JK, Heyser C, Hoffman EA, Howlett KD, Huber RS, Huestis MA, Hyde LW, Iacono WG, Isaiah A, Ivanova MY, James RS, Jernigan TL, Karcher NR, Kuperman JM, Laird AR, Larson CL, LeBlanc KH, Lopez MF, Luciana M, Luna B, Maes HH, Marshall AT, Mason MJ, McGlade E, Morris AS, Mulford C, Nagel BJ, Neigh G, Palmer CE, Paulus MP, Pecheva D, Prouty D, Potter A, Puttler LI, Rajapakse N, Ross JM, Sanchez M, Schirda C, Schulenberg J, Sheth C, Shilling PD, Sowell ER, Speer N, Squeglia L, Sripada C, Steinberg J, Sutherland MT, Tomko R, Uban K, Vrieze S, Weiss SRB, Wing D, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Zucker RA, Heitzeg MM

Keywords

ABCD study, Alcohol, Alcohol sipping, Caffeine, Cannabis, Children, Externalizing behaviors, Nicotine

DOI

10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108946
Toggle Prenatal caffeine exposure: association with neurodevelopmental outcomes in 9- to 11-year-old children. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Zhang R, Manza P, Volkow ND 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Despite the widespread use of caffeine including consumption during pregnancy, the effect of prenatal caffeine exposure on child brain development and behavior is unclear.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2021/07/27

Authors

Zhang R, Manza P, Volkow ND

Keywords

ABCD study, Prenatal caffeine exposure, brain structural development, childhood obesity, childhood outcomes, psychopathology

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13495
Toggle Is executive dysfunction a risk marker or consequence of psychopathology? A test of executive function as a prospective predictor and outcome of general psychopathology in the adolescent brain cognitive development study®. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Romer AL, Pizzagalli DA 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

A general psychopathology (‘p’) factor captures shared variation across mental disorders. One hypothesis is that poor executive function (EF) contributes to p. Although EF is related to p concurrently, it is unclear whether EF predicts or is a consequence of p. For the first time, we examined prospective relations between EF and p in 9845 preadolescents (aged 9-12) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study® longitudinally over two years. We identified higher-order factor models of psychopathology at baseline and one- and two-year follow-up waves. Consistent with previous research, a cross-sectional inverse relationship between EF and p emerged. Using residualized-change models, baseline EF prospectively predicted p factor scores two years later, controlling for prior p, sex, age, race/ethnicity, parental education, and family income. Baseline p factor scores also prospectively predicted change in EF two years later. Tests of specificity revealed that bi-directional prospective relations between EF and p were largely generalizable across externalizing, internalizing, neurodevelopmental, somatization, and detachment symptoms. EF consistently predicted change in externalizing and neurodevelopmental symptoms. These novel results suggest that executive dysfunction is both a risk marker and consequence of general psychopathology. EF may be a promising transdiagnostic intervention target to prevent the onset and maintenance of psychopathology.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/07/22

Authors

Romer AL, Pizzagalli DA

Keywords

Executive function, General psychopathology, Longitudinal, Risk factor, Transdiagnostic, p Factor

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.100994
Toggle Heterogeneity Within Youth With Childhood-Onset Conduct Disorder in the ABCD Study. Frontiers in psychiatry Brislin SJ, Martz ME, Cope LM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine if personality traits can be used to characterize subgroups of youth diagnosed with childhood-onset conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 11,552 youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Data used in this report came from doi: 10.15154/1504041 ( age 9.92; 45.3% female, 49.6% white, 19.0% Hispanic). A subset of this sample ( = 365) met criteria for CD. Latent profile analyses (LPA) were performed on this subgroup ( = 365) to define profiles of individuals with CD based on self-report measures of impulsivity, punishment sensitivity, reward response, and callous-unemotional traits. Follow up analyses determined if these groups differed on clinically relevant variables including psychopathology, environmental risk factors, social risk factors, and neurocognitive functioning. Participants with a CD diagnosis scored significantly higher on psychological, environmental, social, and neurocognitive risk factors. The LPA revealed three unique profiles, which differed significantly on liability for broad psychopathology and domain-specific liability for externalizing psychopathology but were largely matched on environmental and social risk factors. These unique configurations provide a useful way to further parse clinically relevant subgroups within youth who meet criteria for childhood-onset CD, setting the stage for prospective longitudinal research using these latent profiles to better understand the development of youth with childhood-onset CD.

Journal

Frontiers in psychiatry

Published

2021/07/16

Authors

Brislin SJ, Martz ME, Cope LM, Hardee JE, Weigard A, Heitzeg MM

Keywords

BIS/BAS, CU traits, UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale, conduct disorder, impulsivity, latent profile analysis

DOI

10.3389/fpsyt.2021.701199
Toggle Psychotic-like Experiences and Polygenic Liability in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Karcher NR, Paul SE, Johnson EC, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) often precede the development of later severe psychopathology. This study examined whether childhood PLEs are associated with several psychopathology-related polygenic scores (PGSs) and additionally examined possible neural and behavioral mechanisms.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2021/07/13

Authors

Karcher NR, Paul SE, Johnson EC, Hatoum AS, Baranger DAA, Agrawal A, Thompson WK, Barch DM, Bogdan R

Keywords

Educational attainment, MRI, Polygenic, Psychopathology, Psychotic-like experiences, Schizophrenia

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.06.012
Toggle Imaging and health metrics in incidental cerebellar tonsillar ectopia: findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD). Neuroradiology Nwotchouang BST, Ibrahimy A, Loth DM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Incidental cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (ICTE) that meets the radiographic criterion for Chiari malformation type I (CMI) is an increasingly common finding in the clinical setting, but its significance is unclear. The present study examined posterior cranial fossa (PCF) morphometrics and a broad range of health instruments of pediatric ICTE cases and matched controls extracted from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) dataset.

Journal

Neuroradiology

Published

2021/07/11

Authors

Nwotchouang BST, Ibrahimy A, Loth DM, Labuda E, Labuda N, Eppleheimer M, Labuda R, Bapuraj JR, Allen PA, Klinge P, Loth F

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) pediatric study, Brain morphometrics, Chiari malformation type I, Incidental cerebellar tonsillar ectopia, Magnetic resonance imaging

DOI

10.1007/s00234-021-02759-y
Toggle Psychiatric comorbidity of eating disorders in children between the ages of 9 and 10. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Convertino AD, Blashill AJ 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Eating disorders exhibit high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, most notably mood, substance use, and anxiety disorders. However, most studies examining psychiatric comorbidity are conducted in adolescents and adults. Therefore, the comorbidity among children living with eating disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize co-occurring psychiatric disorders with eating disorders in a US sample of children aged 9-10 years old utilizing the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2021/07/05

Authors

Convertino AD, Blashill AJ

Keywords

Eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, binge eating, bulimia nervosa

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13484
Toggle Distinct Regionalization Patterns of Cortical Morphology are Associated with Cognitive Performance Across Different Domains. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Palmer CE, Zhao W, Loughnan R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Cognitive performance in children is predictive of academic and social outcomes; therefore, understanding neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognition during development may be important for improving quality of life. The belief that a single, psychological construct underlies many cognitive processes is pervasive throughout society. However, it is unclear if there is a consistent neural substrate underlying many cognitive processes. Here, we show that a distributed configuration of cortical surface area and apparent thickness, when controlling for global imaging measures, is differentially associated with cognitive performance on different types of tasks in a large sample (N = 10 145) of 9-11-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive DevelopmentSM (ABCD) study. The minimal overlap in these regionalization patterns of association has implications for competing theories about developing intellectual functions. Surprisingly, not controlling for sociodemographic factors increased the similarity between these regionalization patterns. This highlights the importance of understanding the shared variance between sociodemographic factors, cognition and brain structure, particularly with a population-based sample such as ABCD.

Journal

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Published

2021/07/05

Authors

Palmer CE, Zhao W, Loughnan R, Zou J, Fan CC, Thompson WK, Dale AM, Jernigan TL

Keywords

adolescence, cognition, cortical morphology, development, multivariate, neuroimaging

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhab054
Toggle Morphometrical Brain Markers of Sex Difference. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Brennan D, Wu T, Fan J 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Many major neuropsychiatric pathologies, some of which appear in adolescence, show differentiated prevalence, onset, and symptomatology across the biological sexes. Therefore, mapping differences in brain structure between males and females during this critical developmental period may provide information about the neural mechanisms underlying the dimorphism of these pathologies. Utilizing a large dataset collected through the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, we investigated the differences of adolescent (9-10 years old) male and female brains (n = 8325) by using a linear Support-Vector Machine Classifier to predict sex based on morphometry and image intensity values of structural brain imaging data. The classifier correctly classified the sex of 86% individuals with the insula, the precentral and postcentral gyri, and the pericallosal sulcus as the most discernable features. These results demonstrate the existence of complex, yet robustly measurable morphometrical brain markers of sex difference.

Journal

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Published

2021/07/05

Authors

Brennan D, Wu T, Fan J

Keywords

ABCD, brain morphology, machine learning, sex dimorphism

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhab037
Toggle Motor abnormalities, depression risk, and clinical course in adolescence. Biological psychiatry global open science Damme KSF, Park JS, Vargas T, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Motor abnormalities, such as psychomotor agitation and retardation, are widely recognized as core features of depression. However, it is not currently known if motor abnormalities connote risk for depression.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2021/07/03

Authors

Damme KSF, Park JS, Vargas T, Walther S, Shankman SA, Mittal VA

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.06.011
Toggle Symptom-Based Profiling and Multimodal Neuroimaging of a Large Preteenage Population Identifies Distinct Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-like Subtypes With Neurocognitive Differences. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Wu X, Yu G, Zhang K, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by both internalizing (anxiety) and externalizing (compulsivity) symptoms. Currently, little is known about their interrelationships and their relative contributions to disease heterogeneity. Our goal is to resolve affective and cognitive symptom heterogeneity related to internalized and externalized symptom dimensions by determining subtypes of children with OCD symptoms, and to identify any corresponding neural differences.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2021/07/02

Authors

Wu X, Yu G, Zhang K, Feng J, Zhang J, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW

Keywords

ABCD Study, Anxiety, Compulsivity, Heterogeneity, Pediatric OCD, Subtypes

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.06.011
Toggle Association of Multigenerational Family History of Depression With Lifetime Depressive and Other Psychiatric Disorders in Children: Results from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA psychiatry van Dijk MT, Murphy E, Posner JE, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Three-generation family studies of depression have established added risk of psychopathology for offspring with 2 previous generations affected with depression compared with 1 or none. Because of their rigorous methodology, there are few of these studies, and existing studies are limited by sample sizes. Consequently, the 3-generation family risk paradigm established in family studies can be a critical neuropsychiatric tool if similar transmission patterns are reliably demonstrated with the family history method.

Journal

JAMA psychiatry

Published

2021/07/01

Authors

van Dijk MT, Murphy E, Posner JE, Talati A, Weissman MM

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0350
Toggle Child reward neurocircuitry and parental substance use history: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Addictive behaviors Kwarteng AE, Rahman MM, Gee DG, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Substance use research has focused on family history of alcohol use disorders but less on other addictions in biological family members. We examined how parental substance use history relates to reward system functioning, specifically nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and putamen activation at age 9-10 in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. This research hopes to address limitations in prior literature by focusing analyses on a large, substance-naïve sample.

Journal

Addictive behaviors

Published

2021/06/29

Authors

Kwarteng AE, Rahman MM, Gee DG, Infante MA, Tapert SF, Curtis BL

Keywords

ABCD Study, Monetary Incentive Delay task, Reward anticipation, Substance use history, fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107034
Toggle Concurrent and prospective associations between fitbit wearable-derived RDoC arousal and regulatory constructs and adolescent internalizing symptoms. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Nelson BW, Flannery JE, Flournoy J, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is characterized by alterations in biobehavioral functioning, during which individuals are at heightened risk for onset of psychopathology, particularly internalizing disorders. Researchers have proposed using digital technologies to index daily biobehavioral functioning, yet there is a dearth of research examining how wearable metrics are associated with mental health.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2021/06/29

Authors

Nelson BW, Flannery JE, Flournoy J, Duell N, Prinstein MJ, Telzer E

Keywords

Adolescence, fitbit, heart rate, internalizing symptoms, sleep, steps, wearables

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13471
Toggle Contemporary screen time usage among children 9-10-years-old is associated with higher body mass index percentile at 1-year follow-up: A prospective cohort study. Pediatric obesity Nagata JM, Iyer P, Chu J, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

There is a paucity of prospective research exploring the relationship among contemporary screen time modalities (e.g., video streaming, video chatting, texting and social networking) and body mass index (BMI) percentile. The objective of this study was to determine the prospective associations between screen time behaviours in a large and demographically diverse population-based cohort of 9-10-year-old children and BMI percentile at 1-year follow-up.

Journal

Pediatric obesity

Published

2021/06/28

Authors

Nagata JM, Iyer P, Chu J, Baker FC, Gabriel KP, Garber AK, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K, Ganson KT

Keywords

adolescents, body mass index, obesity, paediatrics, screen time, smart phone, social media, television, weight

DOI

10.1111/ijpo.12827
Toggle QSIPrep: an integrative platform for preprocessing and reconstructing diffusion MRI data. Nature methods Cieslak M, Cook PA, He X, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is the primary method for noninvasively studying the organization of white matter in the human brain. Here we introduce QSIPrep, an integrative software platform for the processing of diffusion images that is compatible with nearly all dMRI sampling schemes. Drawing on a diverse set of software suites to capitalize on their complementary strengths, QSIPrep facilitates the implementation of best practices for processing of diffusion images.

Journal

Nature methods

Published

2021/06/21

Authors

Cieslak M, Cook PA, He X, Yeh FC, Dhollander T, Adebimpe A, Aguirre GK, Bassett DS, Betzel RF, Bourque J, Cabral LM, Davatzikos C, Detre JA, Earl E, Elliott MA, Fadnavis S, Fair DA, Foran W, Fotiadis P, Garyfallidis E, Giesbrecht B, Gur RC, Gur RE, Kelz MB, Keshavan A, Larsen BS, Luna B, Mackey AP, Milham MP, Oathes DJ, Perrone A, Pines AR, Roalf DR, Richie-Halford A, Rokem A, Sydnor VJ, Tapera TM, Tooley UA, Vettel JM, Yeatman JD, Grafton ST, Satterthwaite TD

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41592-021-01185-5
Toggle Brain structure is linked to the association between family environment and behavioral problems in children in the ABCD study. Nature communications Gong W, Rolls ET, Du J, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children’s behavioral problems have been associated with their family environments. Here, we investigate whether specific features of brain structures could relate to this link. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 8756 children aged 9-11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Developmental study, we show that high family conflict and low parental monitoring scores are associated with children’s behavioral problems, as well as with smaller cortical areas of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and middle temporal gyrus. A longitudinal analysis indicates that psychiatric problems scores are associated with increased family conflict and decreased parental monitoring 1 year later, and mediate associations between the reduced cortical areas and family conflict, and parental monitoring scores. These results emphasize the relationships between the brain structure of children, their family environments, and their behavioral problems.

Journal

Nature communications

Published

2021/06/18

Authors

Gong W, Rolls ET, Du J, Feng J, Cheng W

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41467-021-23994-0
Toggle Meaningful associations in the adolescent brain cognitive development study. NeuroImage Dick AS, Lopez DA, Watts AL, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is the largest single-cohort prospective longitudinal study of neurodevelopment and children’s health in the United States. A cohort of n = 11,880 children aged 9-10 years (and their parents/guardians) were recruited across 22 sites and are being followed with in-person visits on an annual basis for at least 10 years. The study approximates the US population on several key sociodemographic variables, including sex, race, ethnicity, household income, and parental education. Data collected include assessments of health, mental health, substance use, culture and environment and neurocognition, as well as geocoded exposures, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and whole-genome genotyping. Here, we describe the ABCD Study aims and design, as well as issues surrounding estimation of meaningful associations using its data, including population inferences, hypothesis testing, power and precision, control of covariates, interpretation of associations, and recommended best practices for reproducible research, analytical procedures and reporting of results.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/06/18

Authors

Dick AS, Lopez DA, Watts AL, Heeringa S, Reuter C, Bartsch H, Fan CC, Kennedy DN, Palmer C, Marshall A, Haist F, Hawes S, Nichols TE, Barch DM, Jernigan TL, Garavan H, Grant S, Pariyadath V, Hoffman E, Neale M, Stuart EA, Paulus MP, Sher KJ, Thompson WK

Keywords

Adolescent brain cognitive development study, Covariate Adjustments, Effect Sizes, Genetics, Hypothesis testing, Population neuroscience, Reproducibility

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118262
Toggle Baseline brain function in the preadolescents of the ABCD Study. Nature neuroscience Chaarani B, Hahn S, Allgaier N, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a 10-year longitudinal study of children recruited at ages 9 and 10. A battery of neuroimaging tasks are administered biennially to track neurodevelopment and identify individual differences in brain function. This study reports activation patterns from functional MRI (fMRI) tasks completed at baseline, which were designed to measure cognitive impulse control with a stop signal task (SST; N = 5,547), reward anticipation and receipt with a monetary incentive delay (MID) task (N = 6,657) and working memory and emotion reactivity with an emotional N-back (EN-back) task (N = 6,009). Further, we report the spatial reproducibility of activation patterns by assessing between-group vertex/voxelwise correlations of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation. Analyses reveal robust brain activations that are consistent with the published literature, vary across fMRI tasks/contrasts and slightly correlate with individual behavioral performance on the tasks. These results establish the preadolescent brain function baseline, guide interpretation of cross-sectional analyses and will enable the investigation of longitudinal changes during adolescent development.

Journal

Nature neuroscience

Published

2021/06/07

Authors

Chaarani B, Hahn S, Allgaier N, Adise S, Owens MM, Juliano AC, Yuan DK, Loso H, Ivanciu A, Albaugh MD, Dumas J, Mackey S, Laurent J, Ivanova M, Hagler DJ, Cornejo MD, Hatton S, Agrawal A, Aguinaldo L, Ahonen L, Aklin W, Anokhin AP, Arroyo J, Avenevoli S, Babcock D, Bagot K, Baker FC, Banich MT, Barch DM, Bartsch H, Baskin-Sommers A, Bjork JM, Blachman-Demner D, Bloch M, Bogdan R, Bookheimer SY, Breslin F, Brown S, Calabro FJ, Calhoun V, Casey BJ, Chang L, Clark DB, Cloak C, Constable RT, Constable K, Corley R, Cottler LB, Coxe S, Dagher RK, Dale AM, Dapretto M, Delcarmen-Wiggins R, Dick AS, Do EK, Dosenbach NUF, Dowling GJ, Edwards S, Ernst TM, Fair DA, Fan CC, Feczko E, Feldstein-Ewing SW, Florsheim P, Foxe JJ, Freedman EG, Friedman NP, Friedman-Hill S, Fuemmeler BF, Galvan A, Gee DG, Giedd J, Glantz M, Glaser P, Godino J, Gonzalez M, Gonzalez R, Grant S, Gray KM, Haist F, Harms MP, Hawes S, Heath AC, Heeringa S, Heitzeg MM, Hermosillo R, Herting MM, Hettema JM, Hewitt JK, Heyser C, Hoffman E, Howlett K, Huber RS, Huestis MA, Hyde LW, Iacono WG, Infante MA, Irfanoglu O, Isaiah A, Iyengar S, Jacobus J, James R, Jean-Francois B, Jernigan T, Karcher NR, Kaufman A, Kelley B, Kit B, Ksinan A, Kuperman J, Laird AR, Larson C, LeBlanc K, Lessov-Schlagger C, Lever N, Lewis DA, Lisdahl K, Little AR, Lopez M, Luciana M, Luna B, Madden PA, Maes HH, Makowski C, Marshall AT, Mason MJ, Matochik J, McCandliss BD, McGlade E, Montoya I, Morgan G, Morris A, Mulford C, Murray P, Nagel BJ, Neale MC, Neigh G, Nencka A, Noronha A, Nixon SJ, Palmer CE, Pariyadath V, Paulus MP, Pelham WE, Pfefferbaum D, Pierpaoli C, Prescot A, Prouty D, Puttler LI, Rajapaske N, Rapuano KM, Reeves G, Renshaw PF, Riedel MC, Rojas P, de la Rosa M, Rosenberg MD, Ross MJ, Sanchez M, Schirda C, Schloesser D, Schulenberg J, Sher KJ, Sheth C, Shilling PD, Simmons WK, Sowell ER, Speer N, Spittel M, Squeglia LM, Sripada C, Steinberg J, Striley C, Sutherland MT, Tanabe J, Tapert SF, Thompson W, Tomko RL, Uban KA, Vrieze S, Wade NE, Watts R, Weiss S, Wiens BA, Williams OD, Wilbur A, Wing D, Wolff-Hughes D, Yang R, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Zucker RA, Potter A, Garavan HP

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41593-021-00867-9
Toggle Polygenic risk scores for alcohol involvement relate to brain structure in substance-naïve children: Results from the ABCD study. Genes, brain, and behavior Hatoum AS, Johnson EC, Baranger DAA, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Brain imaging-derived structural correlates of alcohol involvement have largely been speculated to arise as a consequence of alcohol exposure. However, they may also reflect predispositional risk. In substance naïve children of European ancestry who completed the baseline session of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (n = 3013), mixed-effects models estimated whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for problematic alcohol use (PAU-PRS) and drinks per week (DPW-PRS) are associated with magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain structure phenotypes (i.e., total and regional: cortical thickness, surface area and volume; subcortical volume; white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity). Follow-up analyses evaluated whether any identified regions were also associated with polygenic risk among substance naïve children of African ancestry (n = 898). After adjustment for multiple testing correction, polygenic risk for PAU was associated with lower volume of the left frontal pole and greater cortical thickness of the right supramarginal gyrus (|βs| > 0.009; ps < 0.001; ps  < 0.046; r s < 0.004). PAU PRS and DPW PRS showed nominally significant associations with a host of other regional brain structure phenotypes (e.g., insula surface area and volume). None of these regions showed any, even nominal association among children of African ancestry. Genomic liability to alcohol involvement may manifest as variability in brain structure during middle childhood prior to alcohol use initiation. Broadly, alcohol-related variability in brain morphometry may partially reflect predisposing genomic influence. Larger discovery genome-wide association studies and target samples of diverse ancestries are needed to determine whether observed associations may generalize across ancestral origins.

Journal

Genes, brain, and behavior

Published

2021/06/06

Authors

Hatoum AS, Johnson EC, Baranger DAA, Paul SE, Agrawal A, Bogdan R

Keywords

DTI, adolescence, alcohol use, alcohol use disorder, cortical gray matter, drug naive, imaging genetics, multi-site study, polygenic risk scores, subcortical gray matter

DOI

10.1111/gbb.12756
Toggle Evaluation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medications, Externalizing Symptoms, and Suicidality in Children. JAMA network open Shoval G, Visoki E, Moore TM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood suicidality (ie, suicidal ideation or attempts) rates are increasing, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and externalizing symptoms are common risk factors associated with suicidality. More data are needed to describe associations of ADHD pharmacotherapy with childhood suicidality.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2021/06/01

Authors

Shoval G, Visoki E, Moore TM, DiDomenico GE, Argabright ST, Huffnagle NJ, Alexander-Bloch AF, Waller R, Keele L, Benton TD, Gur RE, Barzilay R

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11342
Toggle Parents' Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Children's Cognitive Performance: Complexities by Race, Ethnicity, and Cognitive Domain. Urban science (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Boyce S, Mistry R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To examine racial/ethnic variations in the effect of parents’ subjective neighborhood safety on children’s cognitive performance.

Journal

Urban science (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2021/06/01

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Mistry R, Thomas A, Nicholson HL, Cobb RJ, Cuevas AG, Lee DB, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH, Curry TJ, Zimmerman MA

Keywords

children, cognition, cognitive performance, ethnicity, population groups, race

DOI

10.3390/urbansci5020046
Toggle Responsible Use of Open-Access Developmental Data: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Psychological science Simmons C, Conley MI, Gee DG, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

Psychological science

Published

2021/05/27

Authors

Simmons C, Conley MI, Gee DG, Baskin-Sommers A, Barch DM, Hoffman EA, Huber RS, Iacono WG, Nagel BJ, Palmer CE, Sheth CS, Sowell ER, Thompson WK, Casey BJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1177/09567976211003564
Toggle Prediction of suicidal ideation and attempt in 9 and 10 year-old children using transdiagnostic risk features. PloS one Harman G, Kliamovich D, Morales AM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The objective of the current study was to build predictive models for suicidal ideation in a sample of children aged 9-10 using features previously implicated in risk among older adolescent and adult populations. This case-control analysis utilized baseline data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, collected from 21 research sites across the United States (N = 11,369). Several regression and ensemble learning models were compared on their ability to classify individuals with suicidal ideation and/or attempt from healthy controls, as assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version. When comparing control participants (mean age: 9.92±0.62 years; 4944 girls [49%]) to participants with suicidal ideation (mean age: 9.89±0.63 years; 451 girls [40%]), both logistic regression with feature selection and elastic net without feature selection predicted suicidal ideation with an AUC of 0.70 (CI 95%: 0.70-0.71). The random forest with feature selection trained to predict suicidal ideation predicted a holdout set of children with a history of suicidal ideation and attempt (mean age: 9.96±0.62 years; 79 girls [41%]) from controls with an AUC of 0.77 (CI 95%: 0.76-0.77). Important features from these models included feelings of loneliness and worthlessness, impulsivity, prodromal psychosis symptoms, and behavioral problems. This investigation provided an unprecedented opportunity to identify suicide risk in youth. The use of machine learning to examine a large number of predictors spanning a variety of domains provides novel insight into transdiagnostic factors important for risk classification.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/05/25

Authors

Harman G, Kliamovich D, Morales AM, Gilbert S, Barch DM, Mooney MA, Feldstein Ewing SW, Fair DA, Nagel BJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0252114
Toggle Sex Differences in Psychopathology in a Large Cohort of Nine and Ten-Year-Olds. Psychiatry research Loso HM, Dube SL, Chaarani B, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The current study quantified sex differences in psychopathology among 9 and 10-year-olds, examined sex differences among those with clinically elevated symptoms and investigated if puberty moderates the relationship between sex and psychopathology. Data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD)® Study’s NDA data release 2.0. Results suggest that males have higher scores and greater frequency of clinically meaningful levels of psychopathology across several domains. Puberty did not interact with sex to affect psychopathology. However, as puberty advanced, the percentage of males and females with elevated scores increased.

Journal

Psychiatry research

Published

2021/05/24

Authors

Loso HM, Dube SL, Chaarani B, Garavan H, Albaugh M, Ivanova M, Potter A

Keywords

Epidemiology, Pediatric mental health, Psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114026
Toggle Feasibility of Race by Sex Intersectionality Research on Suicidality in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Intersectional research on childhood suicidality requires studies with a reliable and valid measure of suicidality, as well as a large sample size that shows some variability of suicidality across sex by race intersectional groups.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2021/05/23

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M

Keywords

children, race, sex, suicidality, suicide

DOI

10.3390/children8060437
Toggle Commentary: Reply to 'Transgender and mental health' by Philip Graham. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Potter A 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The letter to the editor from Philip Graham regarding the manuscript ‘Early adolescent gender diversity and mental health in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study’ (Potter et al., 2021) raises several points that highlight the complexity of the conversation around gender development in youth. While there is an agreement between the original manuscript and much of the letter, some of the issues raised warrant further discussion and clarification.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2021/05/19

Authors

Potter A

Keywords

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13441
Toggle Race, Family Conflict and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among 9-10-Year-Old American Children Int J Environ Res Public Health Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Family conflict is known to operate as a major risk factor for children’s suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is unknown whether this effect is similar or different in Black and White children.

Objectives: We compared Black and White children for the association between family conflict and STBs in a national sample of 9-10-year-old American children.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. This study included 9918 White or Black children between the ages of 9 and 10 living in married households. The predictor variable was family conflict. Race was the moderator. The outcome variable was STBs, treated as a count variable, reflecting positive STB items that were endorsed. Covariates included ethnicity, sex, age, immigration status, family structure, parental education, and parental employment, and household income. Poisson regression was used for data analysis.

Results: Of all participants, 7751 were Whites, and 2167 were Blacks. In the pooled sample and in the absence of interaction terms, high family conflict was associated with higher STBs. A statistically significant association was found between Black race and family conflict, suggesting that the association between family conflict and STBs is stronger in Black than White children.

Conclusion: The association between family conflict and STBs is stronger in Black than White children. Black children with family conflict may be at a higher risk of STBs than White children with the same family conflict level. These findings align with the literature on the more significant salience of social relations as determinants of mental health of Black than White people. Reducing family conflict should be regarded a significant element of suicide prevention for Black children in the US.

Journal

Int J Environ Res Public Health

Published

2021/05/18

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH

Keywords

children; family relations; race; suicidal thoughts and behaviors; suicide

DOI

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18105399
Toggle Parental Educational Attainment, the Superior Temporal Cortical Surface Area, and Reading Ability among American Children: A Test of Marginalization-Related Diminished Returns. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that parental educational attainment is associated with a larger superior temporal cortical surface area associated with higher reading ability in children. Simultaneously, the marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) framework suggests that, due to structural racism and social stratification, returns of parental education are smaller for black and other racial/ethnic minority children compared to their white counterparts.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2021/05/18

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Thomas A, Cobb RJ, Hudson D, Curry TJ, Nicholson HL, Cuevas AG, Mistry R, Chavous TM, Caldwell CH, Zimmerman MA

Keywords

adolescents, brain development, child, cortical surface, magnetic resonance imaging, population groups, reading, school performance, socioeconomic factors

DOI

10.3390/children8050412
Toggle Association between Hippocampal Volume and Working Memory in 10,000+ 9-10-Year-Old Children: Sex Differences. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Assari S, Boyce S, Jovanovic T 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study tested sex differences in the association between hippocampal volume and working memory of a national sample of 9-10-year-old children in the US. As the hippocampus is functionally lateralized (especially in task-related activities), we explored the results for the right and the left hippocampus.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2021/05/18

Authors

Assari S, Boyce S, Jovanovic T

Keywords

children, list sorting working memory, right and left hippocampal volume, sex, sex difference

DOI

10.3390/children8050411
Toggle Associations of family income with cognition and brain structure in USA children: prevention implications. Molecular psychiatry Tomasi D, Volkow ND 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Poverty, as assessed by several socioeconomic (SES) factors, has been linked to worse cognitive performance and reduced cortical brain volumes in children. However, the relative contributions of the various SES factors on brain development and the mediating effects between cognition and brain morphometry have not been investigated. Here we used cross-sectional data from the ABCD Study to evaluate associations among various SES and demographic factors, brain morphometrics, and cognition and their reproducibility in two independent subsamples of 3892 children. Among the SES factors, family income (FI) best explained individual differences in cognitive test scores (stronger for crystallized than for fluid cognition), cortical volume (CV), and thickness (CT). Other SES factors that showed significant associations with cognition and brain morphometrics included parental education and neighborhood deprivation, but when controlling for FI, their effect sizes were negligible and their regional brain patterns were not reproducible. Mediation analyses showed that cognitive scores, which we used as surrogate markers of the children’s level of cognitive stimulation, partially mediated the association of FI and CT, whereas the mediations of brain morphometrics on the association of FI and cognition were not significant. These results suggest that lack of supportive/educational stimulation in children from low-income families might drive the reduced CV and CT. Thus, strategies to enhance parental supportive stimulation and the quality of education for children in low-income families could help counteract the negative effects of poverty on children’s brain development.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2021/05/14

Authors

Tomasi D, Volkow ND

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-021-01130-0
Toggle Polygenic Risk for Insomnia in Adolescents of Diverse Ancestry. Frontiers in genetics Ma T, Chen H, Lu Q, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Insomnia is a common mental disorder, affecting nearly one fifth of the pre-adult population in the United States. The recent, largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted on the United Kingdom Biobank cohort identified hundreds of significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), allowing the epidemiologists to quantify individual genetic predisposition in the subsequent studies the polygenic risk scoring technique. The nucleotide polymorphisms and risk scoring, while being able to generalize to other adult populations of European origin, are not yet tested on pediatric and adolescent populations of diverse racial-ethnic backgrounds, and our study intends to fill these gaps. We took the summary of the same United Kingdom Biobank study and conducted a polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis on a multi-ethnicity, pre-adult population provided by the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The PRSs according to the significant nucleotide polymorphisms found in white British adults is a strong predictor of insomnia in children of similar European background but lacks power in non-European groups. Through polygenic risk scoring, the knowledge of insomnia genetics summarized from a white adult study population is transferable to a younger age group, which aids the search of actionable targets of early insomnia prevention. Yet population stratification may prevent the easy generalization across ethnic lines; therefore, it is necessary to conduct group specific studies to aid people of non-European genetic background.

Journal

Frontiers in genetics

Published

2021/05/10

Authors

Ma T, Chen H, Lu Q, Tong X

Keywords

adolescent, ancestry, genetic, insomnia, polygenic risk score

DOI

10.3389/fgene.2021.654717
Toggle Amygdalar Activation as a Neurobiological Marker of Differential Sensitivity in the Effects of Family Rearing Experiences on Socioemotional Adjustment in Youths. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Liu S, Oshri A, Kogan SM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Substantial heterogeneity exists in how rearing environments influence youths’ socioemotional outcomes. This heterogeneity, as suggested by the biological sensitivity to context theory and the differential susceptibility theory, is associated with emotional reactivity patterns and underlying neural functions. The present study investigated amygdalar reactivity to emotional stimuli as a neural signature that amplified the influence of rearing environments on youths’ socioemotional outcomes.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2021/05/05

Authors

Liu S, Oshri A, Kogan SM, Wickrama KAS, Sweet L

Keywords

Amygdala, Differential susceptibility, Early-life stress, Family rearing environments, Internalizing and externalizing symptoms, Parenting

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.04.017
Toggle A Researcher's Guide to the Measurement and Modeling of Puberty in the ABCD Study at Baseline. Frontiers in endocrinology Cheng TW, Magis-Weinberg L, Guazzelli Williamson V, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, diverse, longitudinal, and multi-site study of 11,880 adolescents in the United States. The ABCD Study provides open access to data about pubertal development at a large scale, and this article is a researcher’s guide that both describes its pubertal variables and outlines recommendations for use. These considerations are contextualized with reference to cross-sectional empirical analyses of pubertal measures within the baseline ABCD dataset by Herting, Uban, and colleagues (2021). We discuss strategies to capitalize on strengths, mitigate weaknesses, and appropriately interpret study limitations for researchers using pubertal variables within the ABCD dataset, with the aim of building toward a robust science of adolescent development.

Journal

Frontiers in endocrinology

Published

2021/05/05

Authors

Cheng TW, Magis-Weinberg L, Guazzelli Williamson V, Ladouceur CD, Whittle SL, Herting MM, Uban KA, Byrne ML, Barendse MEA, Shirtcliff EA, Pfeifer JH

Keywords

DHEA, adolescent brain cognitive development study, estradiol, puberty, salivary hormones, testosterone

DOI

10.3389/fendo.2021.608575
Toggle Rates of Incidental Findings in Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children. JAMA neurology Li Y, Thompson WK, Reuter C, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Incidental findings (IFs) are unexpected abnormalities discovered during imaging and can range from normal anatomic variants to findings requiring urgent medical intervention. In the case of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), reliable data about the prevalence and significance of IFs in the general population are limited, making it difficult to anticipate, communicate, and manage these findings.

Journal

JAMA neurology

Published

2021/05/01

Authors

Li Y, Thompson WK, Reuter C, Nillo R, Jernigan T, Dale A, Sugrue LP, , Brown J, Dougherty RF, Rauschecker A, Rudie J, Barch DM, Calhoun V, Hagler D, Hatton S, Tanabe J, Marshall A, Sher KJ, Heeringa S, Hermosillo R, Banich MT, Squeglia L, Bjork J, Zucker R, Neale M, Herting M, Sheth C, Huber R, Reeves G, Hettema JM, Howlett KD, Cloak C, Baskin-Sommers A, Rapuano K, Gonzalez R, Karcher N, Laird A, Baker F, James R, Sowell E, Dick A, Hawes S, Sutherland M, Bagot K, Bodurka J, Breslin F, Morris A, Paulus M, Gray K, Hoffman E, Weiss S, Rajapakse N, Glantz M, Nagel B, Ewing SF, Goldstone A, Pfefferbaum A, Prouty D, Rosenberg M, Bookheimer S, Tapert S, Infante M, Jacobus J, Giedd J, Shilling P, Wade N, Uban K, Haist F, Heyser C, Palmer C, Kuperman J, Hewitt J, Cottler L, Isaiah A, Chang L, Edwards S, Ernst T, Heitzeg M, Puttler L, Sripada C, Iacono W, Luciana M, Clark D, Luna B, Schirda C, Foxe J, Freedman E, Mason M, McGlade E, Renshaw P, Yurgelun-Todd D, Albaugh M, Allgaier N, Chaarani B, Potter A, Ivanova M, Lisdahl K, Do E, Maes H, Bogdan R, Anokhin A, Dosenbach N, Glaser P, Heath A, Casey BJ, Gee D, Garavan HP, Dowling G, Brown S

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.0306
Toggle Association of adverse prenatal exposure burden with child psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. PloS one Roffman JL, Sipahi ED, Dowling KF, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Numerous adverse prenatal exposures have been individually associated with risk for psychiatric illness in the offspring. However, such exposures frequently co-occur, raising questions about their cumulative impact. We evaluated effects of cumulative adverse prenatal exposure burden on psychopathology risk in school-aged children.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/04/28

Authors

Roffman JL, Sipahi ED, Dowling KF, Hughes DE, Hopkinson CE, Lee H, Eryilmaz H, Cohen LS, Gilman J, Doyle AE, Dunn EC

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0250235
Toggle Extracurricular Activities, Screen Media Activity, and Sleep May Be Modifiable Factors Related to Children's Cognitive Functioning: Evidence From the ABCD Study. Child development Kirlic N, Colaizzi JM, Cosgrove KT, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study used a machine learning framework in conjunction with a large battery of measures from 9,718 school-age children (ages 9-11) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to identify factors associated with fluid cognitive functioning (FCF), or the capacity to learn, solve problems, and adapt to novel situations. The identified algorithm explained 14.74% of the variance in FCF, replicating previously reported socioeconomic and mental health contributors to FCF, and adding novel and potentially modifiable contributors, including extracurricular involvement, screen media activity, and sleep duration. Pragmatic interventions targeting these contributors may enhance cognitive performance and protect against their negative impact on FCF in children.

Journal

Child development

Published

2021/04/26

Authors

Kirlic N, Colaizzi JM, Cosgrove KT, Cohen ZP, Yeh HW, Breslin F, Morris AS, Aupperle RL, Singh MK, Paulus MP

Keywords

DOI

10.1111/cdev.13578