ABCD Study publications are authored by ABCD investigators, collaborators, and non-ABCD researchers.
The views expressed in these publications are those of the authors and do not constitute an endorsement by the ABCD Study®

2020
Neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive traits in children aged 9 to 10

Owens MM, Hyatt CS, Gray JC, Miller JD, Lynam DR, Hahn S, Allgaier N, Potter A, Garavan H. (2020). Neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive traits in children aged 9 to 10. J Abnorm Psychol. 2020 Sep 7. doi: 10.1037/abn0000627. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32897083

Impulsivity refers to a set of traits that are generally negatively related to critical domains of adaptive functioning and are core features of numerous psychiatric disorders. The current study examined the gray and white matter correlates of five impulsive traits measured using an abbreviated version of the UPPS-P (Urgency, (lack of) Premeditation, (lack of) Perseverance, Sensation-Seeking, Positive Urgency) impulsivity scale in children aged 9 to 10 (N = 11,052) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Linear mixed effect models and elastic net regression were used to examine features of regional gray matter and white matter tractography most associated with each UPPS-P scale; intraclass correlations were computed to examine the similarity of the neuroanatomical correlates among the scales. Positive Urgency showed the most robust association with neuroanatomy, with similar but less robust associations found for Negative Urgency. Perseverance showed little association with neuroanatomy. Premeditation and Sensation Seeking showed intermediate associations with neuroanatomy. Critical regions across measures include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex; critical tracts included the superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Negative Urgency and Positive Urgency showed the greatest neuroanatomical similarity. Some UPPS-P traits share neuroanatomical correlates, while others have distinct correlates or essentially no relation to neuroanatomy. Neuroanatomy tended to account for relatively little variance in UPPS-P traits (i.e., Model R2 < 1%) and effects were spread throughout the brain, highlighting the importance of well powered samples.

Deep Learning Identifies Morphological Determinants of Sex Differences in the Pre-Adolescent Brain

Adeli E, Zhao Q, Zahr NM, Goldstone A, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Pohl KM. (2020). Deep Learning Identifies Morphological Determinants of Sex Differences in the Pre-Adolescent Brain. Neuroimage. 2020 Aug 22:117293. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117293. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32841716

The application of data-driven deep learning to identify sex differences in developing brain structures of pre-adolescents has heretofore not been accomplished. Here, the approach identifies sex differences by analyzing the minimally processed MRIs of the first 8,144 participants (age 9 and 10 years) recruited by the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The identified pattern accounted for confounding factors (i.e., head size, age, puberty development, socioeconomic status) and comprised cerebellar (corpus medullare, lobules III, IV/V, and VI) and subcortical (pallidum, amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampus, insula, putamen) structures. While these have been individually linked to expressing sex differences, a novel discovery was that their grouping accurately predicted the sex in individual pre-adolescents. Another novelty was relating differences specific to the cerebellum to pubertal development. Finally, we found that reducing the pattern to a single score not only accurately predicted sex but also correlated with cognitive behavior linked to working memory. The predictive power of this score and the constellation of identified brain structures provide evidence for sex differences in pre-adolescent neurodevelopment and may augment understanding of sex-specific vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric disorders and presage sex-linked learning disabilities.

Family Income Mediates the Effect of Parental Education on Adolescents’ Hippocampus Activation During an N-Back Memory Task

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. (2020). Family Income Mediates the Effect of Parental Education on Adolescents’ Hippocampus Activation During an N-Back Memory Task. Brain Sci. 2020 Aug 5;10(8):E520. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10080520. PMID: 32764344

Introduction: Hippocampus, a medial temporal lobe structure, has significant implications in memory formation and learning. Although hippocampus activity is believed to be affected by socioeconomic status (SES), limited knowledge exists on which SES indicators influence hippocampus function. Purpose: This study explored the separate and combined effects of three SES indicators, namely parental education, family income, and neighborhood income, on adolescents’ hippocampus activation during an N-Back memory task. As some of the effects of parental education may be through income, we also tested if the effect of parental education on hippocampus activation during our N-Back memory task is mediated by family or neighborhood income. Methods: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is a national multi-center investigation of American adolescents’ brain development. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of a total sample of 3067 9-10-year-old adolescents were used. The primary outcome was left- hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task (mean beta weight for N-Back run 1 2 back versus 0 back contrast in left hippocampus). The independent variable was parental education. Family income and neighborhood income were two possible mediators. Age, sex, and marital status were the covariates. To test mediation, we used hierarchical linear regression models first without and then with our mediators. Full mediation was defined according to Kenny. The Sobel test was used to confirm statistical mediation. Results: In the absence of family and neighborhood income in the model, higher parental educational attainment was associated with lower level of left hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task. This effect was significant while age, sex, and marital status were controlled. The association between parental educational attainment and hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task was no more significant when we controlled for family and neighborhood income. Instead, family income was associated with hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task. These findings suggested that family income fully mediates the effect of parental educational attainment on left hippocampus activation during the N-Back memory task. Conclusions: The effect of parental educational attainment on adolescents’ hippocampus activation during an N-Back memory task is fully explained by family income. That means low family income is why adolescents with low-educated parents show highlighted hippocampus activation during an N-Back memory task. Given the central role of the hippocampus in learning and memory and as income is a modifiable factor by tax and economic policies, income-redistribution policies, fair taxation, and higher minimum wage may have implications for promotion of adolescent equality and social justice. There is a need to focus on family-level economic needs across all levels of neighborhood income.

Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Sex Hormones among Male and Female American Adolescents

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. (2020). Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Sex Hormones among Male and Female American Adolescents. Reprod Med (Basel). 2020 Sep;1(2):108-121. doi: 10.3390/reprodmed1020008. Epub 2020 Aug 3. PMID: 32832919

Although early sexual initiation and childbearing are major barriers against the upward social mobility of American adolescents, particularly those who belong to a low socioeconomic status (SES) and racial minorities such as Blacks, less is known on how SES and race correlate with adolescents’ sex hormones. An understanding of the associations between race and SES with adolescents’ sex hormones may help better understand why racial, and SES gaps exist in sexual risk behaviors and teen pregnancies. To extend the existing knowledge on social patterning of adolescents’ sex hormones, in the current study, we studied social patterning of sex hormones in a national sample of male and female American adolescents, with a particular interest in the role of race and SES. For this cross-sectional study, data came from the baseline data (wave 1) of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a national longitudinal prospective study of American adolescents. This analysis included 717 male and 576 female non-Hispanic White or Black adolescents ages 9-10. The dependent variables were sex hormones (testosterone for males and estradiol for females). Independent variables were age, race, family marital status, parental education, and financial difficulties. For data analysis, linear regression models were used. Age, race, parental education, and financial difficulties were associated with estradiol in female and testosterone levels in male adolescents. Associations were not identical for males and females, but the patterns were mainly similar. Low SES explained why race is associated with higher estradiol in female adolescents. Marital status of the family did not correlate with any of the sex hormones. Being Black and low SES were associated with a higher level of sex hormones in male and female adolescents. This information may help us understand the social patterning of sexual initiation and childbearing. Addressing racial and economic inequalities in early puberty, sexual initiation, and childbearing is an essential part of closing the racial and economic gaps in the US.

Reward Processing in Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the ABCD Study

Hawes SW, Waller R, Byrd AL, Bjork JM, Dick AS, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Tobia MJ, Thomson N, Laird AR, Gonzalez R. (2020). Reward Processing in Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the ABCD Study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, Published Online:31 Jul 2020https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19101092

Objective:
Disrupted reward processing is implicated in the etiology of disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and callous-unemotional traits. However, neuroimaging investigations of reward processing underlying these phenotypes remain sparse. The authors examined neural sensitivity in response to reward anticipation and receipt among youths with DBDs, with and without callous-unemotional traits.

Methods:
Data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study (mean age=9.51 years [SD=0.50]; 49% female). Reward-related activation during the monetary incentive delay task was examined across 16 brain regions, including the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Latent variable modeling was used to examine network-level coactivation. The following diagnostic groups were compared: typically developing youths (N=693) and youths with DBDs (N=995), subdivided into those with callous-unemotional traits (DBD+CU, N=198) and without callous-unemotional traits (DBD only, N=276).

Results:
During reward anticipation, youths in the overall DBD group (with and without callous-unemotional traits) showed decreased dorsal ACC activation compared with typically developing youths. The DBD-only group exhibited reduced ventral and dorsal striatal activity compared with the DBD+CU and typically developing groups. During reward receipt, youths with DBDs showed increased cortical (e.g., OFC) and subcortical (e.g., NAcc) regional activation compared with typically developing youths. The DBD+CU group demonstrated greater activation in several regions compared with those in the typically developing (e.g., amygdala) and DBD-only (e.g., dorsal ACC) groups. At the network level, the DBD-only group showed reduced anticipatory reward activation compared with the typically developing and DBD+CU groups, whereas youths in the DBD+CU group showed increased activation during reward receipt compared with those in the typically developing group.

Conclusions:
These findings advance our understanding of unique neuroetiologic pathways to DBDs and callous-unemotional traits.

The Main and Interactive Associations between Demographic Factors and Psychopathology and Treatment Utilization in Youth: A Test of Intersectionality in the ABCD Study

Mennies RJ, Birk SL, Norris LA, Olino TM. (2020). The Main and Interactive Associations between Demographic Factors and Psychopathology and Treatment Utilization in Youth: A Test of Intersectionality in the ABCD Study.
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2020 Jul 31. doi: 10.1007/s10802-020-00687-8. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32737734

Demographic factors may be associated with youth psychopathology due to social-contextual factors that may also pose barriers to intervention. Further, in line with intersectionality theory, youth with multiple non-dominant identities may be most likely to experience psychopathology and face barriers to care. This study examined rates of parent-reported psychopathology and mental health treatment utilization as a function of several demographic characteristics (in isolation and in concert) in a population-based, demographically diverse sample of 11,875 9- to 10-year-old youth. Results indicated most consistently that lower SES was associated with greater rates of psychopathology and greater likelihood of treatment utilization; that Asian American youth (relative to all other racial groups) and Hispanic/Latinx (relative to non-Hispanic/Latinx) youth were less likely to have a history of psychopathology or to have utilized treatment; and that male youth had greater rates of lifetime Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and were more likely to have utilized treatment. There was more modest support for interactive effects between demographic factors on psychopathology, which are discussed. The present study provides some support for differential rates of parent-reported psychopathology and treatment utilization as a function of demographic identities in youth. Potential explanations for these differences (e.g., cultural differences in symptom presentation; underreporting of symptoms) are discussed.

Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with preadolescent alcohol sipping in the ABCD study®

Lees B, Mewton L, Stapinski LA, Teesson M, Squeglia LM. (2020). Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with preadolescent alcohol sipping in the ABCD study®.  Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 Sep 1;214:108187. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108187. Epub 2020 Jul 23. PMID: 32731083

Background: Early alcohol use initiation is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use disorders. Identifying modifiable risk factors for problematic alcohol use can guide prevention initiatives. Globally, approximately 10% of women consume alcohol during pregnancy, however the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring alcohol use patterns has been understudied. The aim of this study was to examine associations between PAE and preadolescent alcohol use behaviors.

Methods: Cross-sectional data were utilized from 10,119 children aged 9.0-10.9 years (M = 9.9, SD = 0.6) enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study®, based in the United States. Linear mixed models tested associations between PAE and endorsement of non-religious alcohol sipping in offspring, when adjusting for confounding factors.

Results: In total, 2675 (26.4 %) youth were prenatally exposed to alcohol. Among PAE youth, total standard drinks consumed during pregnancy ranged from 0.4-90.0 drinks (M = 26.8, SD = 24.5). Compared to unexposed youth, those with any alcohol exposure during early pregnancy (∼0-7 weeks) were 1.7 times (95 % CI 1.4-2.0, p < .0001) more likely to endorse sipping alcohol by ages 9-10, while youth with low-level doses of alcohol throughout the entire pregnancy were 2.9 times (95 % CI 1.9-4.6, p < .0001) more likely to endorse sipping, when adjusting for confounding factors. A dose-dependent association between total standard drinks consumed during pregnancy and youth sipping endorsement was observed (β = 0.2, 95 % CI 0.1-0.2, p < .0001).

Conclusions: This study shows that any alcohol use during pregnancy may play an important role in very early alcohol use experimentation among offspring by ages 9-10.

Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status and Adolescents’ Attention: Blacks’ Diminished Returns

Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M. (2020). Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status and Adolescents’ Attention: Blacks’ Diminished Returns. Children (Basel). 2020 Jul 23;7(8):E80. doi: 10.3390/children7080080. PMID: 32718077

Background: Racial minorities, particularly non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) in the US, experience weaker effects from their families’ socioeconomic status on tangible outcomes, a pattern called the Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory. These MDRs are frequently shown in the effects of the families’ socioeconomic status (SES) on NHB adolescents’ school performance. As a result of these MDRs, NHB adolescents from high SES families show a worse than expected school performance. The existing knowledge is, however, minimal about the role of attention in explaining the diminished returns of the families’ SES with regard to the adolescents’ outcomes. Aim: To investigate the racial differences in the effects of the subjective family SES on adolescents’ attention, we compared non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB adolescents to assess the effect of the subjective family SES on adolescents’ attention. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis that included 4188 adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The independent variable was the subjective family SES. The primary outcome was the adolescents’ attention to be measured by the stop-signal task (SST). The attention domain of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was also measured. Results: Overall, a high subjective family SES was associated with a higher task-based and CBCL-based attention. Race showed statistically significant interactions with subjective family SES in terms of adolescents’ attention outcomes. These interactions suggested that a high subjective family SES has smaller tangible effects on increasing the attention of NHB than NHW adolescents. Conclusion: The boosting effect of subjective family SES on attention is diminished for NHB rather than NHW adolescents. To minimize the racial gap in attention-related behaviors, such as school performance, we need to address the diminished returns of resources in the lives of NHB families. Not only should we equalize SES, but also increase the marginal returns of SES for racial minorities, particularly NHB families. Such efforts require public policies that empower NHB families to better leverage their SES resources and turn them into tangible outcomes. In addition, social policies should directly aim to alter the societal barriers that limit NHB families’ ability to effectively utilize their resources. Discrimination, segregation, and racism should be targets of our policy solutions.

Criterion validity and relationships between alternative hierarchical dimensional models of general and specific psychopathology

Moore TM, Kaczkurkin AN, Durham EL, Jeong HJ, McDowell MG, Dupont RM, Applegate B, Tackett JL, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Kardan O, Akcelik GN, Stier AJ, Rosenberg MD, Hedeker D, Berman MG, Lahey BB. (2020). Criterion validity and relationships between alternative hierarchical dimensional models of general and specific psychopathology. J Abnorm Psychol. 2020 Jul 16. doi: 10.1037/abn0000601. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32672986

Psychopathology can be viewed as a hierarchy of correlated dimensions. Many studies have supported this conceptualization, but they have used alternative statistical models with differing interpretations. In bifactor models, every symptom loads on both the general factor and 1 specific factor (e.g., internalizing), which partitions the total explained variance in each symptom between these orthogonal factors. In second-order models, symptoms load on one of several correlated lower-order factors. These lower-order factors load on a second-order general factor, which is defined by the variance shared by the lower-order factors. Thus, the factors in second-order models are not orthogonal. Choosing between these valid statistical models depends on the hypothesis being tested. Because bifactor models define orthogonal phenotypes with distinct sources of variance, they are optimal for studies of shared and unique associations of the dimensions of psychopathology with external variables putatively relevant to etiology and mechanisms. Concerns have been raised, however, about the reliability of the orthogonal specific factors in bifactor models. We evaluated this concern using parent symptom ratings of 9-10 year olds in the ABCD Study. Psychometric indices indicated that all factors in both bifactor and second-order models exhibited at least adequate construct reliability and estimated replicability. The factors defined in bifactor and second-order models were highly to moderately correlated across models, but have different interpretations. All factors in both models demonstrated significant associations with external criterion variables of theoretical and clinical importance, but the interpretation of such associations in second-order models was ambiguous due to shared variance among factors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Environmental Risk Factors and Psychotic-Like Symptoms in Children Aged 9-11

Karcher, NR, Shiffman, JE, Barch, DM (2020). Environmental Risk Factors and Psychotic-Like Symptoms in Children Aged 9-11.  July 15, 2020, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.07.003

Objective
Research implicates environmental risk factors, including correlates of urbanicity, deprivation, and environmental toxins, in psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). The current study examined associations between several types of environmental risk factors and PLEs in school-age children, whether these associations were specific to PLEs or generalized to other psychopathology, and examined possible neural mechanisms for significant associations.

Method

The current study used cross-sectional data from 10,328 9-11-year-olds from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development ℠ study. Hierarchical linear models examined associations between PLEs and geocoded environmental risk factors, and whether associations generalized to internalizing/externalizing symptoms. Mediation models examined evidence of structural MRI abnormalities (e.g., intracranial volume) potentially mediating associations between PLEs and environmental risk factors.

Results
The results found specific types of environmental risk factors, namely measures of urbanicity (e.g., drug offense exposure, less perception of neighborhood safety), deprivation (e.g., overall deprivation, poverty rate), and lead exposure risk, were associated with PLEs. These associations showed evidence of stronger associations with PLEs than internalizing/externalizing symptoms (especially overall deprivation, poverty, drug offense exposure, and lead exposure risk). There was evidence that brain volume mediated between 11-25% of associations between poverty, perception of neighborhood safety, and lead exposure risk with PLEs.

Conclusion
Although in the context of cross-sectional analyses, this evidence is consistent with neural measures partially mediating the association between PLEs and environmental exposures. This study also replicated and extended recent findings of associations between PLEs and environmental exposures, finding evidence for specific associations with correlates of urbanicity, deprivation, and lead exposure risk.

Callous-unemotional traits and reduced default mode network connectivity within a community sample of children

Umbach RH, Tottenham N. (2020). Callous-unemotional traits and reduced default mode network connectivity within a community sample of children. Dev Psychopathol. 2020 Jul 13:1-14. doi: 10.1017/S0954579420000401. Online ahead of print.
PMID: 32654667

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits characterize a subset of youth at risk for persistent and serious antisocial behavior. Differences in resting state connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) have been associated with CU traits in forensic and clinical samples of adolescents and with deficient interpersonal/affective traits (often operationalized as Factor 1 psychopathy traits) in adults. It is unclear whether these brain-behavior associations extend to community-based children. Using mixed model analyses, we tested the associations between CU traits and within-network resting-state connectivity of seven task-activated networks and the DMN using data from 9,636 9-11-year-olds in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Even after accounting for comorbid externalizing problems, higher levels of CU traits were associated with reduced connectivity within the DMN. This finding is consistent with prior literature surrounding psychopathy and CU traits in clinically and forensically based populations, suggesting the correlation likely exists on a spectrum, can be detected in childhood, and is not restricted to children with significant antisocial behavior

Fine particulate matter exposure during childhood relates to hemispheric-specific differences in brain structure

Cserbik, D., Chen, J-C, McConnell, R., Berhane, K., Sowell, H.R., Schwartz, J., Hackman, D.A., Kan, E., Fan, C.C., Herting, M.M. (2020). Fine particulate matter exposure during childhood relates to hemispheric-specific differences in brain structure. Environment International, vol. 143, Oct. 2020, 105933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105933

Background
Emerging findings have increased concern that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) may be neurotoxic, even at lower levels of exposure. Yet, additional studies are needed to determine if exposure to current PM2.5 levels may be linked to hemispheric and regional patterns of brain development in children across the United States.

Objectives
We examined the cross-sectional associations between geocoded measures of concurrent annual average outdoor PM2.5 exposure, regional- and hemisphere-specific differences in brain morphometry and cognition in 10,343 9- and 10- year-old children.

Methods
High-resolution structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and NIH Toolbox measures of cognition were collected from children at ages 9–10 years. FreeSurfer was used to quantify cortical surface area, cortical thickness, as well as subcortical and cerebellum volumes in each hemisphere. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using an ensemble-based model approach and assigned to each child’s primary residential address collected at the study visit. We used mixed-effects models to examine regional- and hemispheric- effects of PM2.5 exposure on brain estimates and cognition after considering nesting of participants by familial relationships and study site, adjustment for socio-demographic factors and multiple comparisons.

Results
Annual residential PM2.5 exposure (7.63 ± 1.57 µg/m3) was associated with hemispheric specific differences in gray matter across cortical regions of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes as well as subcortical and cerebellum brain regions. There were hemispheric-specific associations between PM2.5 exposures and cortical surface area in 9/31 regions; cortical thickness in 22/27 regions; and volumes of the thalamus, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens. We found neither significant associations between PM2.5 and task performance on individual measures of neurocognition nor evidence that sex moderated the observed associations.

Discussion
Even at relatively low-levels, current PM2.5 exposure across the U.S. may be an important environmental factor influencing patterns of structural brain development in childhood. Prospective follow-up of this cohort will help determine how current levels of PM2.5 exposure may affect brain development and subsequent risk for cognitive and emotional problems across adolescence.

Incipient Alcohol Use in Childhood: Early Alcohol Sipping and Its Relations With Psychopathology and Personality

Watts AL, Wood PK, Jackson KM, Lisdahl KM, Heitzeg MM, Gonzalez R, Tapert SF, Barch DM, Sher KJ (2020). Incipient Alcohol Use in Childhood: Early Alcohol Sipping and Its Relations With Psychopathology and Personality. Dev Psychopathol [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 32522303 https://psyarxiv.com/bpu4r/

Prior research has shown that sipping of alcohol begins to emerge during childhood and is potentially etiologically significant for later substance use problems. Using a large, community sample of 9- and 10-year olds (N = 11,872; 53% female), we examined individual differences in precocious alcohol use in the form of alcohol sipping. We focused explicitly on features that are robust and well-demonstrated correlates of, and antecedents to, alcohol excess and related problems later in the lifespan, including youth- and parent-reported externalizing traits (i.e., impulsivity, behavioral inhibition and activation) and psychopathology. Seventeen percent of the sample reported sipping alcohol outside of a religiously sanctioned activity by age 9 or 10. Several aspects of psychopathology and personality emerged as small but reliable correlates of sipping. Nonreligious sipping was related to youth-reported impulsigenic traits, aspects behavioral activation, prodromal psychotic-like symptoms, and mood disorder diagnoses, as well as parent-reported externalizing disorder diagnoses. Religious sipping was unexpectedly associated with certain aspects of impulsivity. Together, our findings point to the potential importance of impulsivity and other transdiagnostic indicators of psychopathology (e.g., emotion dysregulation, novelty seeking) in the earliest forms of drinking behavior.

African American Children’s Diminished Returns of Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status on Fun Seeking

Assari S, Akhlaghipour G, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. (2020). African American Children’s Diminished Returns of Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status on Fun Seeking. Children (Basel). 2020 Jul 9;7(7):75. doi: 10.3390/children7070075. PMID: 32660094

Background: Reward sensitivity (fun-seeking) is a risk factor for a wide range of high-risk behaviors. While high socioeconomic status (SES) is known to reduce reward sensitivity and associated high-risk behaviors, less is known about the differential effects of SES on reward sensitivity. It is plausible to expect weaker protective effects of family SES on reward sensitivity in racial minorities, a pattern called Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs). Aim: We compared Caucasian and African American (AA) children for the effects of subjective family SES on children’s fun-seeking. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 7061 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The independent variable was subjective family SES. The main outcome was children’s fun-seeking measured by the behavioral approach system (BAS) and behavioral avoidance system (BIS). Age, gender, marital status, and household size were the covariates. Results: In the overall sample, high subjective family SES was associated with lower levels of fun-seeking. We also found a statistically significant interaction between race and subjective family SES on children’s fun-seeking in the overall sample, suggesting that high subjective family SES is associated with a weaker effect on reducing fun-seeking among AA than Caucasian children. In race-stratified models, high subjective family SES was protective against fun-seeking of Caucasian but not AA children. Conclusion: Subjective family SES reduces the fun-seeking for Caucasian but not AA children.

Neighborhood Deprivation, Prefrontal Morphology and Neurocognition in Late Childhood to Early Adolescence

Vargas T, Damme KSF, Mittal VA (2020). Neighborhood Deprivation, Prefrontal Morphology and Neurocognition in Late Childhood to Early Adolescence. Neuroimage [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 32593800 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811920305723?via%3Dihub

Background
Neighborhood deprivation adversely effects neurodevelopment and cognitive function; however, mechanisms remain unexplored. Neighborhood deprivation could be particularly impactful in late childhood/early adolescence, in neural regions with protracted developmental trajectories, e.g., prefrontal cortex (PFC).

Methods
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study recruited 10,205 youth. Geocoded residential history was used to extract individual neighborhood characteristics. A general cognitive ability index and MRI scans were completed. Associations with neurocognition were examined. The relation of PFC surface area and cortical thickness to neighborhood deprivation was tested. PFC subregions and asymmetry, with putative differential environmental susceptibility during key developmental periods, were explored. Analyses tested PFC area as a possible mediating mechanism.

Results
Neighborhood deprivation predicted neurocognitive performance (β ​= ​−0.11), even after accounting for parental education and household income (β ​= ​−0.07). Higher neighborhood deprivation related to greater overall PFC surface area (ηp2 ​= ​0.003), and differences in leftward asymmetry were observed for area (ηp2 ​= ​0.001), and thickness (ηp2 ​= ​0.003). Subregion analyses highlighted differences among critical areas that are actively developing in late childhood/early adolescence and are essential to modulating high order cognitive function. These included orbitofrontal, superior frontal, rostral middle frontal, and frontal pole regions (Cohen’s d ​= ​0.03–0.09). PFC surface area partially mediated the relation between neighborhood deprivation and neurocognition.

Discussion
Neighborhood deprivation related to cognitive function (a foundational skill tied to a range of lifetime outcomes) and PFC morphology, with evidence found for partial mediation of PFC on neurocognitive function. Results inform public health conceptualizations of development and environmental vulnerability.

Neighborhood Deprivation Shapes Motivational-Neurocircuit Recruitment in Children

Mullins TS, Campbell EM, Hogeveen J (2020). Neighborhood Deprivation Shapes Motivational-Neurocircuit Recruitment in Children. Psychol Sci [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 32603213 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-020-05596-8

Implementing motivated behaviors on the basis of prior reward is central to adaptive human functioning, but aberrant reward-motivated behavior is a core feature of neuropsychiatric illness. Children from disadvantaged neighborhoods have decreased access to rewards, which may shape motivational neurocircuits and risk for psychopathology. Here, we leveraged the unprecedented neuroimaging data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study to test the hypothesis that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage shapes the functional recruitment of motivational neurocircuits in children. Specifically, via the ABCD study’s monetary-incentive-delay task (N = 6,396 children; age: 9–10 years), we found that children from zip codes with a high Area Deprivation Index demonstrate blunted recruitment of striatum (dorsal and ventral nuclei) and pallidum during reward anticipation. In fact, blunted dorsal striatal recruitment during reward anticipation mediated the association between Area Deprivation Index and increased attention problems. These data reveal a candidate mechanism driving elevated risk for psychopathology in children from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Caffeine intake and cognitive functions in children

Zhang H, Zu Lee X, Qiu A (2020). Caffeine Intake and Cognitive Functions in Children. Psychopharmacology (Berl) [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 32601990 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-020-05596-8

Rationale
There is a growing concern over excessive caffeine use and development of caffeine use disorder in children.

Objectives
This study aimed to identify the association between caffeine intake and cognitive functioning in children.

Methods
This study included 11,718 youths aged 9–10 years with cognitive and caffeine intake information that were extracted from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The ABCD study is a longitudinal cohort study started in 2017 that aims to understand the relationships between substance use and neurocognition in youths living in the USA. Cognitive measures were obtained through the 7 core cognitive instruments from the NIH toolbox (vocabulary comprehension, reading decoding, inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility, processing speed, and episodic memory). Associations between caffeine intake and the seven cognitive functions were examined using multiple regression models.

Results
Our study revealed that caffeine intake negatively correlated with all the seven cognitive measures. After adjustment for age, gender, sleep, and socioeconomic status (SES), caffeine intake was still found to be negatively associated with most of the cognitive functions, such as vocabulary comprehension, working memory, cognitive flexibility, processing speed, and episodic memory, except reading decoding, and inhibitory control.

Conclusions
As beverages with caffeine are consumed frequently, controlling their intake may reduce a risk for nonoptimal cognitive development in children.

Prenatal cannabis exposure and sleep outcomes in children 9–10 years of age in the adolescent brain cognitive development study

Winiger, E.A. & Hewitt, J.K. (2020). Prenatal cannabis exposure and sleep outcomes in children 9–10 years of age in the adolescent brain cognitive development study. Sleep Health, Available online 28 June 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2020.05.006

Objectives
Analyze the associations between prenatal cannabis exposure and child sleep outcomes.

Methods
Data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®) was used to determine whether maternal reports of prenatal cannabis use were associated with child sleep outcomes among 11,875 children ages 9–10 controlling for covariates including prenatal substance exposure, mother’s education, combined household income, parental marital status, race, child sex, and child age.

Results
Endorsement of any prenatal cannabis use was associated with symptoms of disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of arousal, sleep wake disorders, disorders of excessive somnolence, and a summed sleep disorder score (all β > 0.10 and p < 0.03) while frequency of prenatal daily cannabis use was significantly associated with disorders of excessive somnolence (β = 0.29, p = 0.03).

Conclusions
Although causality is not established, the results suggest potential long-term effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on sleep and the prudence of abstinence from cannabis use while pregnant.

The importance of social factors in the association between physical activity and depression in children

Conley, M.I., Hindley, I., Baskin-Sommers, A., Gee, D.G., Casey, B.J., and Rosenberg, M.D. (2020). The importance of social factors in the association between physical activity and depression in children. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health (2020) 14:28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-020-00335-5

Background: Physical activity is associated with reduced depression in youth and adults. However, our understanding
of how different aspects of youth activities—specifically, the degree to which they are social, team-oriented, and
physical—relate to mental health in children is less clear.

Methods: Here we use a data-driven approach to characterize the degree to which physical and non-physical youth
activities are social and team-oriented. We then examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and participation
in different clusters of youth activities using mixed effect models and causal mediation analyses in 11,875 children
from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We test our hypotheses in an original sample
(n = 4520, NDA release 1.1) and replication sample of participants (n = 7355, NDA release 2.0.1).

Results: We show and replicate that social–physical activities are associated with lower depressive symptoms. Next,
we demonstrate that social connections, measured by number of close friends, partially mediate the association
between social–physical activities and lower depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: Our results provide a rubric for using data-driven techniques to investigate different aspects of youth
activities and highlight the social dynamics of physical activities as a possible protective factor against depression in
childhood.

Keywords: Childhood, Depression, Development, Physical activity, Friendships

Behavioral and Neural Signatures of Working Memory in Childhood

Rosenberg MD, Martinez SA, Rapuano KM, Conley MI, Cohen AO, Cornejo MD, Hagler Jr DJ, Meredith WJ, Anderson KM, Wager TD, Feczko E, Earl E, Fair DA, Barch DM, Watts R and Casey BJ (2020). Behavioral and Neural Signatures of Working Memory in Childhood. Journal of Neuroscience 24 June 2020, 40 (26) 5090-5104; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2841-19.2020

Working memory function changes across development and varies across individuals. The patterns of behavior and brain function that track individual differences in working memory during human development, however, are not well understood. Here, we establish associations between working memory, other cognitive abilities, and functional MRI (fMRI) activation in data from over 11,500 9- to 10-year-old children (both sexes) enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study in the United States. Behavioral analyses reveal robust relationships between working memory, short-term memory, language skills, and fluid intelligence. Analyses relating out-of-scanner working memory performance to memory-related fMRI activation in an emotional n-back task demonstrate that frontoparietal activity during a working memory challenge indexes working memory performance. This relationship is domain specific, such that fMRI activation related to emotion processing during the emotional n-back task, inhibitory control during a stop-signal task (SST), and reward processing during a monetary incentive delay (MID) task does not track memory abilities. Together, these results inform our understanding of individual differences in working memory in childhood and lay the groundwork for characterizing the ways in which they change across adolescence.

Reward Responsiveness in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: African Americans’ Diminished Returns of Parental Education

Assari S, Boyce S, Akhlaghipour G, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH (2020). Reward Responsiveness in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: African Americans’ Diminished Returns of Parental Education. Brain Sci [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 32575523 https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/10/6/391

(1) Background: Reward responsiveness (RR) is a risk factor for high-risk behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and early sexual initiation, which are all reported to be higher in African American and low socioeconomic status adolescents. At the same time, parental education is one of the main drivers of reward responsiveness among adolescents. It is still unknown if some of this racial and economic gap is attributed to weaker effects of parental education for African Americans, a pattern also called minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs). (2) Aim: We compared non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents for the effects of parent education on adolescents RR, a psychological and cognitive construct that is closely associated with high-risk behaviors such as the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. (3) Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis that included 7072 adolescents from the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study. The independent variable was parent education. The main outcome as adolescents’ RR measured by the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) measure. (4) Results: In the overall sample, high parent education was associated with lower levels of RR. In the overall sample, we found a statistically significant interaction between race and parent education on adolescents’ RR. The observed statistical interaction term suggested that high parent education is associated with a weaker effect on RR for African American than non-Hispanic White adolescents. In race-stratified models, high parent education was only associated with lower RR for non-Hispanic White but not African American adolescents. (5) Conclusion: Parent education reduces RR for non-Hispanic White but not African American adolescents. To minimize the racial gap in brain development and risk-taking behaviors, we need to address societal barriers that diminish the returns of parent education and resources in African American families. We need public and social policies that target structural and societal barriers, such as the unequal distribution of opportunities and resources. To meet such an aim, we need to reduce the negative effects of social stratification, segregation, racism, and discrimination in the daily lives of African American parents and families. Through an approach like this, African American families and parents can effectively mobilize their resources and utilize their human capital to secure the best possible tangible outcomes for their adolescents.

African Americans’ Diminished Returns of Parental Education on Adolescents’ Depression and Suicide in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Assari, S.; Boyce, S.; Bazargan, M.; Caldwell, C.H. (2020). African Americans’ Diminished Returns of Parental Education on Adolescents’ Depression and Suicide in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10, 656-668. doi: 10.3390/ejihpe10020048.

To investigate racial and ethnic differences in the protective effects of parental education and marital status against adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempts in the U.S. As proposed by the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs), parental education generates fewer tangible outcomes for non-White compared to White families. Our existing knowledge is very limited regarding diminished returns of parental education and marital status on adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempts. To compare racial groups for the effects of parental education and marital status on adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempt. This cross-sectional study included 7076 non-Hispanic White or African American 8-11 years old adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The independent variables were parental education and marital status. The main outcomes were depressed mood and suicidal attempts based on parents’ reports using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS). Age and gender were the covariates. Race was the moderator. Logistic regression was used to analyze the ABCD data. Overall, parental education was associated with lower odds of depressed mood (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67–0.99; p = 0.037) and having married parents was associated with lower odds of suicidal attempts (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.28–0.91; p = 0.022). In the pooled sample, we found interaction terms between race with parental education and marital status on the outcomes, suggesting that the protective effect of having married parents against depressed mood (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.00–2.37; p = 0.048) and the protective effect of having married parents against suicidal attempts (OR = 6.62; 95% CI = 2.21–19.86; p = 0.001) are weaker for African Americans when compared to Whites. The protective effects of parent education and marital status against depressed mood and suicidal attempts are diminished for African American adolescents compared to White adolescents. There is a need for programs and interventions that equalize not only socioeconomic status (SES) but also the marginal returns of SES for racial minority groups. Such efforts require addressing structural and societal barriers that hinder African American families from translating their SES resources and human capital into tangible outcomes. There is a need for studies that can minimize MDRs for African American families, so that every individual and every family can benefit from their resources regardless of their skin color. To achieve such a goal, we need to help middle-class African American families secure tangible outcomes in the presence of SES resources.

The ABCD study: understanding the development of risk for mental and physical health outcomes

Karcher NR, Barch DM. (2020). The ABCD study: understanding the development of risk for mental and physical health outcomes. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020 Jun 15:1-12. doi: 10.1038/s41386-020-0736-6. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32541809 Free PMC article. Review.

Following in the footsteps of other large “population neuroscience” studies, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ (ABCD) study is the largest in the U.S. assessing brain development. The study is examining approximately 11,875 youth from 21 sites from age 9 to 10 for approximately ten years into young adulthood. The ABCD Study® has completed recruitment for the baseline sample generally using a multi-stage probability sample including a stratified random sample of schools. The dataset has a wealth of measured attributes of youths and their environment, including neuroimaging, cognitive, biospecimen, behavioral, youth self-report and parent self-report metrics, and environmental measures. The initial goal of the ABCD Study was to examine risk and resiliency factors associated with the development of substance use, but the project has expanded far beyond this initial set of questions and will also greatly inform our understanding of the contributions of biospecimens (e.g., pubertal hormones), neural alterations, and environmental factors to the development of both healthy behavior and brain function as well as risk for poor mental and physical outcomes. This review outlines how the ABCD Study was designed to elucidate factors associated with the development of negative mental and physical health outcomes and will provide a selective overview of results emerging from the ABCD Study. Such emerging data includes initial validation of new instruments, important new information about the prevalence and correlates of mental health challenges in middle childhood, and promising data regarding neural correlates of both healthy and disordered behavior. In addition, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities to understanding both healthy development and the emergence of risk from ABCD Study data. Finally, we will overview the future directions of this large undertaking and the ways in which it will shape our understanding of the development of risk for poor mental and physical health outcomes.

Examining Specificity of Neural Correlates of Childhood Psychotic-like Experiences During an Emotional n-Back Task

O’Brien KJ, Barch DM, Kandala S,Karcher NR (2020).  Examining Specificity of Neural Correlates of Childhood Psychotic-like Experiences During an Emotional n-Back Task. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging.  [Epub ahead of print] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.02.012

Background
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during childhood are associated with greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder in adulthood, highlighting the importance of identifying neural correlates of childhood PLEs. Furthermore, impairment of cognitive functions, such as working memory and emotion regulation, has also been linked to psychosis risk as well as to disruptions in several brain regions. However, impairments in these domains have also been linked to other disorders, including depression. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether neural impairments in regions associated with working memory and implicit emotion regulation impairments are specific to PLEs versus depression.

Methods
The current study used an emotional n-back task to examine the relationship between childhood PLEs and neural activation of regions involved in both working memory and implicit emotion regulation using data from 8805 9- to 11-year-olds in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study 2.0 release. To examine specificity, we also analyzed associations with depressive symptoms.

Results
Our results indicated that increased PLEs during middle childhood were associated with decreased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, striatum, and pallidum during trials requiring working memory. In contrast, increased activation of the parahippocampus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, and rostral anterior cingulate during face-viewing trials was associated with increased depressive symptoms.

Conclusions
These results support the dimensional view of psychosis across the lifespan, providing evidence that neural correlates of PLEs, such as decreased activation during working memory, are present during middle childhood. Furthermore, these correlates are specific to psychotic-like symptoms as compared with depressive symptoms.

Adverse childhood experiences and psychotic-like experiences are associated above and beyond shared correlates: Findings from the adolescent brain cognitive development study

Karcher, N.R., Niendam, T.A., Barch, D.M. (2020). Adverse childhood experiences and psychotic-like experiences are associated above and beyond shared correlates: Findings from the adolescent brain cognitive development study. Schizophrenia Research, Available online 8 June 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.05.045.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk for psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). However, ACEs and PLEs are also both associated with several shared factors (e.g., internalizing symptoms, suicidality). Few studies have explicitly examined whether the association between ACEs and PLEs remains over and above shared correlates. To address this question, using 10,800 9–11-year-olds, we examined whether ACEs and school-aged PLEs were associated when accounting for shared correlates, and whether there was evidence of mediation in associations between PLEs, ACEs, and these shared factors. Greater number of ACEs were associated with greater PLEs, including several specific ACEs (e.g., bullying). Importantly, ACEs and PLEs were related even when accounting for shared correlates. Further, PLEs partially mediated the relationships between ACEs and both internalizing symptoms and suicidality, including suicidal behavior. The current study helps clarify the nature of the associations between PLEs and ACE and has important clinical implications for addressing PLEs.

Association of Prenatal Opioid Exposure With Precentral Gyrus Volume in Children

Hartwell ML, Croff JM, Sheffield Morris A, Breslin FJ, Dunn K (2020). Association of Prenatal Opioid Exposure With Precentral Gyrus Volume in Children. JAMA Pediatr. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 32511674 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/2766305.

Prenatal opioid exposure is associated with delayed locomotor performance at multiple stages of early child development and with smaller neuroanatomical structures, such as the basal ganglia. The motor cortex, which controls speech and motor skills, may also be vulnerable to drug exposure, but to our knowledge, this has yet to be assessed. Identifying risks of exposure associated with brain structures is critical for prevention and intervention strategies for cognitive effects that can last long after conception.

Family Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Childhood Trauma: Racial Differences

Assari, S. (2020). Family Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Childhood Trauma: Racial Differences. Children 2020, 7, 57.
DOI:10.3390/children7060057

Background: Minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) refer to weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as parental educational attainment and family income in generating tangible childhood outcomes for racial and ethnic minorities compared to the majority group, a pattern prevalent in the US. Our existing knowledge is minimal, however, about diminished returns of family SES on reducing exposure to childhood trauma. Aim: To determine if there was a difference between non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) in the effect of SES on exposure to childhood trauma among children ages 8–11 years old. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 4696 NHW or NHB American 8–11-year-old children who were participants in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The independent variables were parental educational attainment and family income. The primary outcome was exposure to 1 or 2+ childhood traumas, measured by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) semi-structured interview. Polynomial regression was used for data analysis. Results: Parental education and family income had statistically significant protective (negative) effects on childhood trauma, indicating children from high income and highly educated families were exposed to a lower level of childhood trauma. However, race/ethnicity showed statistically significant interactions with parental education and family income on exposure to childhood trauma, indicating weaker protective effects of parental education and family income on reducing exposure to trauma for NHB compared to NHW children. Race-specific models showed protective effects of parental education and family income on exposure to childhood trauma for NHW but not NHB children. Conclusion: The protective effects of parental education and family income against exposure to childhood trauma are systematically diminished for NHBs compared to NHWs. To minimize the racial/ethnic health gaps, diminished returns of parental education and family income should be addressed. There is a need for programs and interventions that equalize not only SES but also the marginal returns of SES for ethnic groups. Such efforts require addressing structural and societal barriers that hinder NHB families from translating their SES resources into tangible outcomes. There is a need for studies that can minimize MDRs for NHB families, such that SES can similarly secure tangible outcomes in the presence of SES resources.

Early Adolescent Gender Diversity and Mental Health in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Potter A, Dube S, Allgaier N, Loso H, Ivanova M, Barrios LC, Bookheimer S, Chaarani B, Dumas J, Feldstein-Ewing S, Freedman EG, Garavan H, Hoffman E, McGlade E, Robin L, Johns MM (2020). Early Adolescent Gender Diversity and Mental Health in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 32463952 https://acamh.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcpp.13248

Background
There are known associations between mental health symptoms and transgender identity among adults. Whether this relationship extends to early adolescents and to gender domains other than identity is unclear. This study measured dimensions of gender in a large, diverse, sample of youth, and examined associations between diverse gender experiences and mental health.

Methods
The ABCD study is an ongoing, longitudinal, US cohort study. Baseline data (release 2.0) include 11,873 youth age 9/10 (48% female); and the 4,951 1‐year follow‐up visits (age 10/11; 48% female) completed prior to data release. A novel gender survey at the 1‐year visit assessed felt‐gender, gender noncontentedness, and gender nonconformity using a 5‐point scale. Mental health measures included youth‐ and parent‐reports.

Results
Roughly half a percent of 9/10‐year‐olds (n = 58) responded ‘yes’ or ‘maybe’ when asked, ‘Are you transgender’ at baseline. Recurrent thoughts of death were more prevalent among these youth compared to the rest of the cohort (19.6% vs. 6.4%, χ2 = 16.0, p < .001). At the 1‐year visit, when asked about the three dimensions of gender on a 5‐point scale, 33.2% (n = 1,605) provided responses that were not exclusively and totally aligned with one gender. Significant relationships were observed between mental health symptoms and gender diversity for all dimensions assessed.

Conclusions
Similar to adult studies, early adolescents identifying as transgender reported increased mental health symptoms. Results also point to considerable diversity in other dimensions of gender (felt‐gender, gender noncontentedness, gender nonconformity) among 10/11‐year‐olds, and find this diversity to be related to critical mental health symptoms. These findings add to our limited understanding of the relationship between dimensions of gender and wellness for youth.

Behavioral and neural signatures of working memory in childhood

Rosenberg, M.D., Martinez, S.A., Rapuano, K., Conley, M.I., Cohen, A.O., Cornejo, M.D., Hagler Jr., D.J., Meredith, W.J., Anderson, K.M., Wager, T.D., Feczko, E., Earl, E., Fair, D.A., Barch, D.M., Watts, R., & Casey, BJ. (2020). Behavioral and neural signatures of working memory in childhood. Journal of Neuroscience 25 May 2020, JN-RM-2841-19; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2841-19.2020.

Working memory function changes across development and varies across individuals. The patterns of behavior and brain function that track individual differences in working memory during human development, however, are not well understood. Here we establish associations between working memory, cognitive abilities, and functional MRI activation in data from over 11,500 9–11-year-old children (both sexes) enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, an ongoing longitudinal study in the United States. Behavioral analyses reveal robust relationships between working memory, short-term memory, language skills, and fluid intelligence. Analyses relating out-of-scanner working memory performance to memory-related fMRI activation in an emotional n-back task demonstrate that frontoparietal activity specifically during a working memory challenge indexes working memory performance. This relationship is domain-specific, such that fMRI activation related to emotion processing during the emotional n-back task, inhibitory control during a stop-signal task, and reward processing during a monetary incentive delay task does not track memory abilities. Together these results inform our understanding of individual differences in working memory in childhood and lay the groundwork for characterizing the ways in which they change across adolescence.

Parental Education on Youth Inhibitory Control in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: Blacks’ Diminished Returns

Assari, S. (2020). Parental Education on Youth Inhibitory Control in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: Blacks’ Diminished Returns. Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050312.

Background: Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) youth are at a higher risk of high-risk behaviors compared to non-Hispanic White (NHW) youth. Some of this racial gap is shown to be due to weaker effects of parental educational attainment on reducing the prevalence of behavioral risk factors such as impulsivity, substance use, aggression, obesity, and poor school performance for NHBs, a pattern called Minorities’ Diminished Returns. These diminishing returns may be due to lower than expected effects of parental education on inhibitory control. Aim: We compared NHW and NHB youth for the effect of parental educational attainment on youth inhibitory control, a psychological and cognitive construct that closely predicts high-risk behaviors such as the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis that included 4188 youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The independent variable was parental educational attainment. The main outcome was youth inhibitory control measured by the stop-signal task (SST), which was validated by parent reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results: In race/ethnicity-stratified models, high parental educational attainment was associated with a higher level of inhibitory control for NHB than NHW youth. In the pooled sample, race/ethnicity showed a statistically significant interaction with parental educational attainment on youth inhibitory control suggesting that high parental educational attainment has a smaller boosting effect on inhibitory control for NHB than NHW youth. Conclusion: Parental educational attainment boosts inhibitory control for NHW but not NHB youth. To minimize the racial gap in youth brain development, we need to address societal barriers that diminish the returns of family economic and human resources, particularly parental educational attainment, for racial and ethnic minority youth. Social and public policies should address structural and societal barriers such as social stratification, segregation, racism, and discrimination that hinder NHB parents’ abilities to effectively mobilize their human resources and secure tangible outcomes for their developing youth.

Minorities’ Diminished Returns of Parental Educational Attainment on Adolescents’ Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems

Assari S, Boyce B, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M (2020). Minorities’ Diminished Returns of Parental Educational Attainment on Adolescents’ Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems. Children (Basel) 7(5). PMID: 32443584 https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9067/7/5/49

Aim: To compare racial groups for the effect of parental educational attainment on adolescents’ social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10,762 youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study were included. The independent variable was parental educational attainment. The main outcomes were (1) anxious and depressed mood, (2) withdrawn and depressed affect, (3) somatic complaints, (4) social and interpersonal problems, (5) thought problems, (6) rule-breaking behaviors, (7) attention problems, and (8) violent and aggressive behaviors. These scores were generated based on parent-reported behavioral problems measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Race and ethnicity were the moderators. Linear regression was used to analyze the ABCD data. Results: Overall, high parental educational attainment was associated with lower scores across all domains. Race and ethnicity showed statistically significant interactions with parental educational attainment on adolescents’ fewer social, emotional, and behavioral problems (all domains), net of all confounders, indicating smaller tangible gains from their parental educational attainment for Black and Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic White adolescents. Conclusions: The protective effects of parental education against social, emotional, and behavioral problems are systematically diminished for Hispanic and Black than non-Hispanic White adolescents.

Unique longitudinal relationships between symptoms of psychopathology in youth: A cross-lagged panel network analysis in the ABCD study

Funkhouser CJ, Chacko AA, Correa KA, Kaiser AJE, Shankman SA (2020). Unique longitudinal relationships between symptoms of psychopathology in youth: A cross-lagged panel network analysis in the ABCD study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32399985 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcpp.13256

Background
The network theory suggests that psychopathology may reflect causal relationships between individual symptoms. Several studies have examined cross‐sectional relationships between individual symptoms in youth. However, these studies cannot address the directionality of the temporal relationships hypothesized by the network theory. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal relationships between individual internalizing, externalizing, and attention symptoms in youth.

Methods
Data from 4,093 youth participants in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study were used. Symptoms were assessed using the Brief Problem Monitor, which was administered at three time points spaced six months apart. Unique longitudinal relationships between symptoms at T1 and T2 were estimated using cross‐lagged panel network modeling. Network replicability was assessed by comparing this network to an identically estimated replication network of symptoms at T2 predicting symptoms at T3.

Results
After controlling for all other symptoms and demographic covariates, depressed mood, inattention, and worry at T1 were most predictive of other symptoms at T2. In contrast, threats of violence and destructiveness at T2 were most prospectively predicted by other symptoms at T1. The reciprocal associations between depressed mood and worthlessness were among the strongest bivariate relationships in the network. Comparisons between the original network and the replication network (correlation between edge lists = .61; individual edge replicability = 64%–84%) suggested moderate replicability.

Conclusions
Although causal inferences are precluded by the observational design and methodological considerations, these findings demonstrate the directionality of relationships between individual symptoms in youth and highlight depressed mood, inattention, and worry as potential influencers of other symptoms.

Disruptive Behavior Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits, and Regional Gray Matter Volume in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study

Waller R, Hawes SW, Byrd AL, Dick AS, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Tobia MJ, Bottenhorn KL, Laird AR, Gonzalez R (2020). Disruptive Behavior Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits, and Regional Gray Matter Volume in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32144045 https://www.biologicalpsychiatrycnni.org/article/S2451-9022(20)30020-3/fulltext

Background
Neurobiological differences linked to socioemotional and cognitive processing are well documented in youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), especially youths with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The current study expanded this literature by examining gray matter volume (GMV) differences among youths with DBD with CU traits (DBDCU+), youths with DBD without CU traits (DBD-only), and youths that were typically developing (TD).

Methods
Data were from the first full sample release of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study (mean age = 9.49 years; 49% female). We tested whether the GMVs of 11 regions of interest selected a priori differentiated between our 3 groups: DBDCU+ ( n = 288), DBD-only ( n = 362), and TD ( n = 915). Models accounted for demographic confounders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and intracranial volume. We examined two potential moderators of the relationship between GMVs and group membership: sex and clinically significant anxiety (i.e., primary vs. secondary CU traits subtype).

Results
Youths in the DBDCU+ group had lower right amygdala GMV, and youths in the DBD-only group had lower bilateral amygdala GMV relative to TD youths. Youths in the DBDCU+ group had lower bilateral hippocampal GMV, and youths in the DBD-only group had lower left hippocampal GMV relative to TD youths. Youths in the DBDCU+ group evidenced lower left insula GMV relative to TD youths. Finally, youths in the DBD-only group had lower left superior frontal gyrus and lower right caudal anterior cingulate cortex GMVs relative to TD youths. There was no moderation of associations between GMV and group membership by sex.

Conclusions
Our findings implicate structural aberrations in both the amygdala and hippocampus in the etiology of DBDs, with minimal evidence for differences based on the presence or absence of CU traits.

Parental family history of alcohol use disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition in children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Lees B, Aguinaldo L, Squeglia LM, Infante MA, Wade NE, Hernandez Mejia M, Jacobus J (2020). Parental family history of alcohol use disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition in children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2020 Apr 25. doi: 10.1111/acer.14343. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 32333792. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14343

Background
Youth whose parents have alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at higher risk for earlier initiation and greater magnitude of alcohol use, and have a higher likelihood of developing an AUD than their peers without parental history of AUD. This increased risk may be partly attributable to altered development of inhibitory control and related neural circuitry. This study examined neural activation during a motor response inhibition Stop Signal Task (SST) in substance‐naïve youth aged 9 to 10 years with and without parental family history of AUD.

Methods
Baseline cross‐sectional survey and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were drawn from 6,898 youth in the US‐based Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Generalized additive mixed models were conducted to examine the association between maternal, paternal, and parental (both mother and father) family history of AUD with neural activation during successful and failed response inhibition. Family history interactions with sex and stratification by ethnicity were explored.

Results
Of 6,898 participants, 951 (14%) were family history positive for any parental AUD. Paternal history of AUD was associated with greater activation for successful inhibition in the right medial orbital frontal gyrus, compared to youth with no family history. Maternal history of AUD was associated with greater activation for failed response inhibition among females in the cerebellum, compared to females with no such history. Parental history (both mother and father) of AUD was associated with greater activation during successful inhibition in the left paracentral gyri and left superior parietal lobule. Maternal history and parental history of AUD findings were accounted for by a family history of substance use disorder in general. All effect sizes were relatively small.

Conclusions
Substance‐naïve children with a parental family history of AUD exhibit greater neural activation in some regions of the fronto‐basal ganglia and cerebellar networks when they successfully or unsuccessfully inhibit a response as compared to children with no such family history. This unique neural response pattern could reflect a compensatory response and may represent an inherent neurobiological vulnerability to risk‐related behaviors in these youth which will be examined in future longitudinal analyses of this cohort.

Childhood Obesity, Cortical Structure, and Executive Function in Healthy Children

Ronan L, Alexander-Bloch A, Fletcher PC. (2020). Childhood Obesity, Cortical Structure, and Executive Function in Healthy Children. Cereb Cortex. 2020 Apr 14;30(4):2519-2528. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhz257. PMID: 31646343

The development of executive function is linked to maturation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in childhood. Childhood obesity has been associated with changes in brain structure, particularly in PFC, as well as deficits in executive functions. We aimed to determine whether differences in cortical structure mediate the relationship between executive function and childhood obesity. We analyzed MR-derived measures of cortical thickness for 2700 children between the ages of 9 and 11 years, recruited as part of the NIH Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We related our findings to measures of executive function and body mass index (BMI). In our analysis, increased BMI was associated with significantly reduced mean cortical thickness, as well as specific bilateral reduced cortical thickness in prefrontal cortical regions. This relationship remained after accounting for age, sex, race, parental education, household income, birth-weight, and in-scanner motion. Increased BMI was also associated with lower executive function. Reduced thickness in the rostral medial and superior frontal cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex partially accounted for reductions in executive function. These results suggest that childhood obesity is associated with compromised executive function. This relationship may be partly explained by BMI-associated reduced cortical thickness in the PFC.

Risk and protective factors for childhood suicidality: a US population-based study

Delfina Janiri, MD, Gaelle E Doucet, PhD, Maurizio Pompili, MD, Gabriele Sani, MD, Beatriz Luna, PhD, David A Brent, MD, Sophia Frangou, MD (2020). Risk and protective factors for childhood suicidality: a US population-based study. The Lancet Psychiatry, March 12, 2020. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30049-3

Background
Childhood suicidal ideation and behaviours are poorly understood. We examined correlates of suicidality in a US population-based sample of children participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The ABCD study aims to examine trajectories of mental health from childhood to adulthood and collects information on multiple domains, including mental and physical wellbeing, brain imaging, behavioural and cognitive characteristics, and social and family environment. We sought to identify and rank risk and protective factors for childhood suicidal thoughts and behaviours across these multiple domains and evaluate their association with self-agreement and caregiver agreement in reporting suicidality.

Methods
The ABCD sample comprises a cohort of 11 875 children aged 9–10 years. The sociodemographic factors on which the sample was recruited were age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity. Participants were enrolled at 22 sites, the catchment area of which encompassed over 20% of the entire US population in this age group. Multistage sampling was used to ensure both local randomisation and representativeness of sociodemographic variation of the ABCD sample. The data used in this study were accessed from the ABCD Study Curated Annual Release 2.0. Suicidal thoughts and behaviours (suicidality) in each child were evaluated through independent child and caregiver reports based on the computerized Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for DSM-5 (KSADS-5). We used bootstrapped logistic regression to quantify the association between suicidal ideation and behaviours, with measures of mental and physical wellbeing, behaviour, cognition, and social and family environment in participants from the ABCD study.

Findings
Our study sample comprised 7994 unrelated children (mean age 9·9 years [SD 0·5]; 4234 [53%] male participants) with complete data on child-reported and caregiver-reported suicidal ideas and behaviours. Overall, 673 (8·4%) children reported any past or current suicidal ideation, 75 (0·9%) had any past or current suicidal plans, and 107 (1·3%) had any past or current suicidal attempts. According to caregivers, 650 (8·1%) of the children reported any past or current suicidal ideation, 46 (0·6%) reported any past or current suicidal plans, and 39 (0·5%) reported past or current suicidal attempts. However, inter-informant agreement was low (Cohen’s κ range 0·0–0·2). Regardless of informant, child psychopathology (odds ratio [OR] 1·7–4·8, 95% CI 1·5–7·4) and child-reported family conflict (OR 1·4–1·8, 95% CI 1·1–2·5) were the most robust risk factors for suicidality. The risk of child-reported suicidality increased with higher weekend screen use time (OR 1·3, 95% CI 1·2–1·7) and reduced with greater parental supervision and positive school involvement (for both OR 0·8, 95% CI 0·7–0·9). Additionally, caregiver-reported suicidality was positively associated with caregiver educational level (OR 1·3, 95% CI 1·1–1·5) and male sex in children (1·5, 1·1–2·0), and inversely associated with the number of household cohabitants (0·8, 0·7–1·0).

Interpretation
We identified risk and protective factors that show robust and generalisable associations with childhood suicidality. These factors provide actionable targets for optimising prevention and intervention strategies, support the need to identify and treat psychopathology in school-age children, and underscore the importance of school and family interventions for childhood suicidality.

Parental and social factors in relation to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognitive function

Zhang H, Lee ZX, White T, Qiu A (2020). Parental and social factors in relation to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognitive function. Transl Psych Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32102994 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-020-0761-6

Parental and social factors have long-term impact on the neurodevelopment of offspring, but tend to highly covary with each other. Thus, it is difficult to parse out which parental and social factor contributes most to neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study aimed to assess clusters of parental and social factors associated with child psychopathology, behavioral problems, and cognition. This study employed the data of 11,875 children (9 to 11 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 39 environmental measures and 30 child behavior and cognitive measures separately to identify clusters of parental and social factors and clusters of child psychopathology, behaviour, and cognition. Regression analysis was used to examine independent effects of each cluster of parental and social factors on child psychopathology, behavioral problems, and cognition. Greater Parent Psychopathology cluster was associated with greater Child Psychopathology cluster. Moreover, greater Socioeconomic Status cluster was associated with greater child General Cognition and Executive Function but less Behavioral Inhibition clusters. Greater Proximal Social Environment and Interaction cluster were associated with less child Impulsive Behavior and Behavioral Inhibition, but greater Behavioral Activation cluster. The environmental clusters related to birth outcomes, maternal tobacco, and drug use were not significantly related to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognition. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic status, parental psychopathology, and social environment and interactions are the strongest risks for behavioral problems and cognitive performance in a general child population. Intervention programs should target modifiable factors within these domains.

Prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood

Donohue MR, Tillman R, Perino MT, Whalen D2, Luby J, Barch DM (2020) Prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood. J Affect Disord 263: 64-71. PMID: 31818798 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016503271930655X?via%3Dihub

Background
Maladaptive guilt can develop by age three and is associated with severe affective psychopathology in adolescents and adults. Yet, little is known about its prevalence prior to adolescence, or which children are at greatest risk of developing this symptom. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood.

Methods
This study examined a large community sample of 9-to 10-year-old children (N = 4485) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Maladaptive guilt was assessed through the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for DSM-5. Parental rejection, family conflict, and parental depression were assessed via questionnaires.

Results
In depressed children, a 1-month prevalence of maladaptive guilt of 18.4% and a lifetime prevalence of 30.8% was found. Lifetime rates ranged from 1.8 to 4.1% in children with other psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectionally, maladaptive guilt was associated with lower family income-to-needs, greater family conflict, a history of maternal depression, and greater parental rejection. These findings held when controlling for children’s depressive severity, indicating that these associations are specific to maladaptive guilt.

Limitations
Maladaptive guilt was assessed through one item, though many studies of maladaptive guilt measure the symptom in this manner.

Conclusions
Findings suggest that it may be beneficial for clinicians to assess for maladaptive guilt beyond the context of assessment for depression, particularly with children of low socioeconomic status and children of depressed mothers, whom this study suggests are at higher risk. Negative family climates and parenting might also be important targets of preventative interventions.

Prevalence and Family-Related Factors Associated With Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Self-injury in Children Aged 9 to 10 Years

Danielle C. DeVille, MA; Diana Whalen, PhD; Florence J. Breslin, MS; Amanda S. Morris, PhD; Sahib S. Khalsa, MD, Ph; Martin P. Paulus, MD; Deanna M. Barch, PhD (2020). Prevalence and Family-Related Factors Associated With Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Self-injury in Children Aged 9 to 10 Years. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(2):e1920956. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20956

Importance  Although suicide is a leading cause of death for children in the United States, and the rate of suicide in childhood has steadily increased, little is known about suicidal ideation and behaviors in children.

Objective  To assess the overall prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury, as well as family-related factors associated with suicidality and self-injury among preadolescent children.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Cross-sectional study using retrospective analysis of the baseline sample from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. This multicenter investigation used an epidemiologically informed school-based recruitment strategy, with consideration of the demographic composition of the 21 ABCD sites and the United States as a whole. The sample included children aged 9 to 10 years and their caregivers.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Lifetime suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury as reported by children and their caregivers in a computerized version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia.

Results  A total of 11 814 children aged 9 to 10 years (47.8% girls; 52.0% white) and their caregivers were included. After poststratification sociodemographic weighting, the approximate prevalence rates were 6.4% (95% CI, 5.7%-7.3%) for lifetime history of passive suicidal ideation; 4.4% (95% CI, 3.9%-5.0%) for nonspecific active suicidal ideation; 2.4% (95% CI, 2.1%-2.7%) for active ideation with method, intent, or plan; 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0%-1.6%) for suicide attempts; and 9.1% (95% CI, 8.1-10.3) for nonsuicidal self-injury. After covarying by sex, family history, internalizing and externalizing problems, and relevant psychosocial variables, high family conflict was significantly associated with suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16) and nonsuicidal self-injury (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.14), and low parental monitoring was significantly associated with ideation (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98), attempts (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.97), and nonsuicidal self-injury (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98); these findings were consistent after internal replication. Most of children’s reports of suicidality and self-injury were either unknown or not reported by their caregivers.

Conclusions and Relevance  This study demonstrates the association of family factors, including high family conflict and low parental monitoring, with suicidality and self-injury in children. Future research and ongoing prevention and intervention efforts may benefit from the examination of family factors.

Sleep duration, brain structure, and psychiatric and cognitive problems in children

Wei Cheng, Edmund Rolls, Weikang Gong, Jingnan Du, Jie Zhang, Xiao-Yong Zhang, Fei Li, Jianfeng Feng (2020). Sleep duration, brain structure, and psychiatric and cognitive problems in children. Molecular Psychiatry, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41380-020-0663-2.

Low sleep duration in adults is correlated with psychiatric and cognitive problems. We performed for the first time a large-scale analysis of sleep duration in children, and how this relates to psychiatric problems including depression, to cognition, and to brain structure. Structural MRI was analyzed in relation to sleep duration, and psychiatric and cognitive measures in 11,067 9–11-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, using a linear mixed model, mediation analysis, and structural equation methods in a longitudinal analysis. Dimensional psychopathology (including depression, anxiety, impulsive behavior) in the children was negatively correlated with sleep duration. Dimensional psychopathology in the parents was also correlated with short sleep duration in their children. The brain areas in which higher volume was correlated with longer sleep duration included the orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal and temporal cortex, precuneus, and supramarginal gyrus. Longitudinal data analysis showed that the psychiatric problems, especially the depressive problems, were significantly associated with short sleep duration 1 year later. Further, mediation analysis showed that depressive problems significantly mediate the effect of these brain regions on sleep. Higher cognitive scores were associated with higher volume of the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Public health implications are that psychopathology in the parents should be considered in relation to sleep problems in children. Moreover, we show that brain structure is associated with sleep problems in children, and that this is related to whether or not the child has depressive problems.

White Matter Tract Integrity, Involvement in Sports, and Depressive Symptoms in Children

Gorham LS, Barch DM (2020). White Matter Tract Integrity, Involvement in Sports, and Depressive Symptoms in Children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 51(3):490-501.  PMID: 31983035 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10578-020-00960-3

White matter tract integrity, measured via fractional anisotropy (FA), may serve as a mediating variable between exercise and depression. To study this, we examined data from 3973 children participating in the ABCD study. Parents of children completed the Sports and Activities questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist, and children completed a diffusion MRI scan, providing information about the FA of the parahippocampal cingulum and fornix. Results showed that involvement in sports was associated with reduced depression in boys. The number of activities and sports that a child was involved in was negatively related to FA of the left fornix but was unrelated to FA of other tracts. FA of these white matter tracts was also unrelated to depressive symptoms. This suggests that while white matter tract integrity is associated with exercise, it may not be part of a pathway linking exercise to depression levels in preadolescent boys.

Association of lead-exposure risk and family income with childhood brain outcomes

Marshall AT, Betts S, Kan EC, McConnell R, Lanphear BP, & Sowell ER (2020). Association of lead-exposure risk and family income with childhood brain outcomes. Nature Medicine 26, 91–97 (January 13, 2020) doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0713-y

Socioeconomic factors influence brain development and structure, but most studies have overlooked neurotoxic insults that impair development, such as lead exposure. Childhood lead exposure affects cognitive development at the lowest measurable concentrations, but little is known about its impact on brain development during childhood. We examined cross-sectional associations among brain structure, cognition, geocoded measures of the risk of lead exposure and sociodemographic characteristics in 9,712 9- and 10-year-old children. Here we show stronger negative associations of living in high-lead-risk census tracts in children from lower- versus higher-income families. With increasing risk of exposure, children from lower-income families exhibited lower cognitive test scores, smaller cortical volume and smaller cortical surface area. Reducing environmental insults associated with lead-exposure risk might confer greater benefit to children experiencing more environmental adversity, and further understanding of the factors associated with high lead-exposure risk will be critical for improving such outcomes in children.

Editorial: Family History of Depression and Child Striatal Volumes in the ABCD Study: Promise and Perils of Neuroimaging Research With Large Samples

Beauchaine TP. (2020). Editorial: Family History of Depression and Child Striatal Volumes in the ABCD Study: Promise and Perils of Neuroimaging Research With Large Samples. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Jan 10:S0890-8567(20)30003-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2020.01.002. Online ahead of print. PMID: 31931163

Every generation of psychopathologists is confronted with critical issues that, if left unaddressed, impede progress in both science and practice. As just one example, progress in psychiatry was hindered for many years by problems with diagnostic validity. Surmounting these problems required painstaking efforts to operationalize diagnostic criteria and to formulate effective structured interviews. More recently, critical issues facing psychiatry include tackling the so-called replication crisis, and mapping the overwhelming etiological complexity of psychopathology-two interrelated challenges. Many highly cited findings from past decades have failed to replicate, have not been subjected to replication, or have overestimated effect sizes considerably. Such findings apply to virtually all areas of psychiatric research, spanning genetics, central and peripheral biomarkers, and interventions.1,2.

Correction of respiratory artifacts in MRI head motion estimates

Fair DA, Miranda-Dominguez O, Snyder AZ, Perrone A, Earl EA, Van AN, Koller JM, Feczko E, Tisdall MD, van der Kouwe A, Klein RL, Mirro AE, Hampton JM, Adeyemo B, Laumann TO, Gratton C, Greene DJ, Schlaggar BL, Hagler D Jr, Watts R, Garavan H, Barch DM, Nigg JT, Petersen SE, Dale AM, Feldstein-Ewing SW, Nagel BJ, Dosenbach NUF. (2020) Correction of respiratory artifacts in MRI head motion estimates. Neuroimage, Volume 208, March 2020, 116400. Epub ahead of print.

Head motion represents one of the greatest technical obstacles in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain. Accurate detection of artifacts induced by head motion requires precise estimation of movement. However, head motion estimates may be corrupted by artifacts due to magnetic main field fluctuations generated by body motion. In the current report, we examine head motion estimation in multiband resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study and comparison ‘single-shot’ datasets. We show that respirations contaminate movement estimates in functional MRI and that respiration generates apparent head motion not associated with functional MRI quality reductions. We have developed a novel approach using a band-stop filter that accurately removes these respiratory effects from motion estimates. Subsequently, we demonstrate that utilizing a band-stop filter improves post-processing fMRI data quality. Lastly, we demonstrate the real-time implementation of motion estimate filtering in our FIRMM (Framewise Integrated Real-Time MRI Monitoring) software package.

Replication of Associations With Psychotic-Like Experiences in Middle Childhood From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Karcher NR, Loewy RL, Savill M, Avenevoli S, Huber RS, Simon TJ, Leckliter IN, Sher KJ, Barch DM. (2020). Replication of Associations With Psychotic-Like Experiences in Middle Childhood From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.  Schizophr Bull Open. 2020 Jan;1(1):sgaa009. doi: 10.1093/schizbullopen/sgaa009. Epub 2020 Jun 12. PMID: 32803159

The fields of psychology and psychiatry are increasingly recognizing the importance of replication efforts. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings examining the construct validity and psychometric properties of a psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) measure in middle childhood using an independent subset of the baseline Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) sample. Using a remainder baseline sample of 7013 nine- to eleven-year-old children with complete data, we examined measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex, and examined the associations between the Prodromal Questionnaire Brief-Child Version (PQ-BC) and other measures of PLEs, internalizing symptoms, neuropsychological test performance, and developmental milestones, to determine whether previously obtained results replicated in this nonoverlapping baseline sample subset. The results replicated measurement invariance across ethnicity and sex, and analyses again found higher PQ-BC scores for African American (β = .364, 95% CI = 0.292, 0.435) and Hispanic (β = .255, 95% CI = 0.185, 0.324) groups. We also replicated that higher PQ-BC scores were associated with psychosis risk measures, higher rates of child-reported internalizing symptoms (Distress: β = .378, 95% CI = 0.357,0.398), neuropsychological test performance deficits (eg, working memory; Distress: β = -.069, 95% CI = -0.096, -0.042), and motor (Distress: β = .026, 95% CI = 0.003, 0.049) and speech (Distress: β = .042, 95% CI = 0.018, 0.065) developmental milestone delays. The current results replicated many findings from the original study examining the PQ-BC. We replicated evidence for mean differences in race/ethnicity, and associations with other PLE measures, greater internalizing symptoms, cognitive impairments, and developmental milestone delays. These findings indicate robust and reliable associations between PLEs and hypothesized correlates can be found in middle childhood nonclinical samples.

2019
Factor structure, measurement and structural invariance, and external validity of an abbreviated youth version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

Watts AL, Smith GT, Barch DM, Sher KJ. (2019) Factor structure, measurement and structural invariance, and external validity of an abbreviated youth version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Psychol Assess 2019 Dec 16. doi: 10.1037/pas0000791. 2019 Epub ahead of print.

The current study examines the measurement properties and validity of a novel, abbreviated youth version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale that was developed to maintain measurement consistency with the existing adult short form. Specifically, we examined this scale’s (a) factor structure; (b) measurement and structural invariance across four demographic characteristics: gender, ethnicity, household income, and parental education; and (c) correlates using a subset of 4,521 preadolescent (9- and 10-year old) children (53% male) from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a large, community-based sample. Our findings supported a correlated 5-factor model, as well as a hierarchical model that recaptured the covariation among these 5 lower-order factors in three higher-order factors. Both of these models are consistent with the commonly observed structure of the UPPS-P among adults. We established measurement invariance across all demographic characteristics. Finally, our UPPS-P scales evidenced good convergent and discriminant validity with a broad swath of theoretically relevant external criteria, including self- and parent-reported personality and psychopathology, as well as lab-based neurocognitive tasks. Our findings indicate that we can assess multidimensional impulsivity in children reliably and validly by means of self-report, allowing assessment of this critical domain at early stages of development. We hope that this measure will facilitate the study of impulsivity in large-scale samples to begin to understand the evolution and long-term consequences of impulsivity.

Associations Among Body Mass Index, Cortical Thickness, and Executive Function in Children

Laurent JS, Watts R, Adise S, Allgaier N, Chaarani B, Garavan H, Potter A, Mackey S. (2019) Associations Among Body Mass Index, Cortical Thickness, and Executive Function in Children. JAMA Pediatr. Epub ahead of print.  Published online December 9, 2019. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.4708

Importance
A total of 25.7 million children in the United States are classified as overweight or obese. Obesity is associated with deficits in executive function, which may contribute to poor dietary decision-making. Less is known about the associations between being overweight or obese and brain development.

Objective
To examine whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with thickness of the cerebral cortex and whether cortical thickness mediates the association between BMI and executive function in children.

Design, Setting, and Participants
In this cross-sectional study, cortical thickness maps were derived from T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of a large, diverse sample of 9 and 10-year-old children from 21 US sites. List sorting, flanker, matrix reasoning, and Wisconsin card sorting tasks were used to assess executive function.

Main Outcomes and Measures
A 10-fold nested cross-validation general linear model was used to assess mean cortical thickness from BMI across cortical brain regions. Associations between BMI and executive function were explored with Pearson partial correlations. Mediation analysis examined whether mean prefrontal cortex thickness mediated the association between BMI and executive function.

Results
Among 3190 individuals (mean [SD] age, 10.0 [0.61] years; 1627 [51.0%] male), those with higher BMI exhibited lower cortical thickness. Eighteen cortical regions were significantly inversely associated with BMI. The greatest correlations were observed in the prefrontal cortex. The BMI was inversely correlated with dimensional card sorting (r = −0.088, P < .001), list sorting (r = −0.061, P < .003), and matrix reasoning (r = −0.095, P < .001) but not the flanker task. Mean prefrontal cortex thickness mediated the association between BMI and list sorting (mean [SE] indirect effect, 0.014 [0.008]; 95% CI, 0.001-0.031) but not the matrix reasoning or card sorting task.

Conclusions and Relevance
These results suggest that BMI is associated with prefrontal cortex development and diminished executive functions, such as working memory.

Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research

Wilson S, Haroian K, Iacono WG, Krueger RF, Lee JJ, Luciana M, Malone SM, McGue M, Roisman GI, Vrieze S. (2020). Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2019 Dec;22(6):746-752. doi: 10.1017/thg.2019.107. Epub 2019 Dec 3. PMID: 31796137

The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) comprises multiple longitudinal, community-representative investigations of twin and adoptive families that focus on psychological adjustment, personality, cognitive ability and brain function, with a special emphasis on substance use and related psychopathology. The MCTFR includes the Minnesota Twin Registry (MTR), a cohort of twins who have completed assessments in middle and older adulthood; the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) of twins assessed from childhood and adolescence into middle adulthood; the Enrichment Study (ES) of twins oversampled for high risk for substance-use disorders assessed from childhood into young adulthood; the Adolescent Brain (AdBrain) study, a neuroimaging study of adolescent twins; and the Siblings Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS), a study of adoptive and nonadoptive families assessed from adolescence into young adulthood. Here we provide a brief overview of key features of these established studies and describe new MCTFR investigations that follow up and expand upon existing studies or recruit and assess new samples, including the MTR Study of Relationships, Personality, and Health (MTR-RPH); the Colorado-Minnesota (COMN) Marijuana Study; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study; the Colorado Online Twins (CoTwins) study and the Children of Twins (CoT) study.

Identifying reproducible individual differences in childhood functional brain networks: An ABCD study

Marek S., Tervo-Clemmens B., Nielsen A.N., Wheelock M.D., Miller R.L., Laumann T.O., Earl E., Foran W.W., Cordova M., Doyle O., Perrone A., Miranda-Dominguez O., Feczko E., Sturgeon D., Graham A., Hermosillo R., Snider K., Galassi A., Nagel B.J., Ewing S.W.F., Eggebrecht A.T., Garavan H., Dale A.M., Greene D.J., Barch D.M., Fair D.A., Luna B., Dosenbach N.U.F. (2019). Identifying reproducible individual differences in childhood functional brain networks: An ABCD study. Dev Cogn Neurosci. Epub ahead of print. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878929319302932?via%3Dihub

The 21-site Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study provides an unparalleled opportunity to characterize functional brain development via resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and to quantify relationships between RSFC and behavior. This multi-site data set includes potentially confounding sources of variance, such as differences between data collection sites and/or scanner manufacturers, in addition to those inherent to RSFC (e.g., head motion). The ABCD project provides a framework for characterizing and reproducing RSFC and RSFC-behavior associations, while quantifying the extent to which sources of variability bias RSFC estimates. We quantified RSFC and functional network architecture in 2,188 9-10-year old children from the ABCD study, segregated into demographically-matched discovery (N = 1,166) and replication datasets (N = 1,022). We found RSFC and network architecture to be highly reproducible across children. We did not observe strong effects of site; however, scanner manufacturer effects were large, reproducible, and followed a “short-to-long” association with distance between regions. Accounting for potential confounding variables, we replicated that RSFC between several higher-order networks was related to general cognition. In sum, we provide a framework for how to characterize RSFC-behavior relationships in a rigorous and reproducible manner using the ABCD dataset and other large multi-site projects.

Screen Time and Problem Behaviors in Children: Exploring the Mediating Role of Sleep Duration

Guerrero MD, Barnes JD, Chaput J-P, Tremblay MS (2019). Screen Time and Problem Behaviors in Children: Exploring the Mediating Role of Sleep Duration. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 16 (1), 105. PMID: 31727084 https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12966-019-0862-x

Background
Previous research examining the relationship between screen time (ST) and psychological health outcomes have primarily focused on one type of ST (i.e., television), while little research has considered other types of screens (e.g., videos, movies, social media), screen content (e.g., violent video games), or potential mediating variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess ST types and content and their association with problem behaviors, and to determine whether these relationships were mediated by sleep duration.

Methods
Parents and children provided cross-sectional baseline data (2016–18) as part of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, a broadly US representative sample of 11,875 children aged 9 to 10 years. Parents self-reported their children’s emotional and behavioral syndromes via the Child Behavior Checklist and sleep duration using one item from the Parent Sleep Disturbance Scale. Children self-reported their ST behavior, which comprised ST types (television/movies, videos, video games, and social media) and content (mature-rated video games and R-rated movies).

Results
Time spent in various ST types was positively associated with problem behaviors: watching television/movies was associated with a 5.9% increase in rule-breaking behavior (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.059), 5% increase in social problems (IRR = 1.050), 4% increase in aggressive behavior (IRR = 1.040), and 3.7% increase in thought problems (IRR = 1.037). Greater time spent playing mature-rated video games was associated with greater somatic complaints (IRR = 1.041), aggressive behavior (IRR = 1.039), and reduced sleep duration (IRR = .938). Sleep duration mediated the relationship between ST (type and content) and problem behaviors, albeit the effect sizes were small. The largest effects were observed between sleep duration and all problem behaviors, with greater sleep duration predicting an 8.8–16.6% decrease in problem behaviors (IRRs ranging from .834 to .905).

Conclusion
Greater time spent in ST behavior was associated with greater problem behaviors among children. There was strong evidence that longer sleep duration was associated with reduced problem behaviors. While sleep duration mediated the effects of ST on problem behaviors, other potential mediating variables need to be investigated in future research.

Prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood

Donohue MR, Tillman R, Perino MT, Whalen D2, Luby J, Barch DM (2019) Prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood. J Affect Disord. Epub ahead of print. Available online 13 November 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.075

Background
Maladaptive guilt can develop by age three and is associated with severe affective psychopathology in adolescents and adults. Yet, little is known about its prevalence prior to adolescence, or which children are at greatest risk of developing this symptom. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of maladaptive guilt in middle childhood.

Methods
This study examined a large community sample of 9-to 10-year-old children (N = 4485) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Maladaptive guilt was assessed through the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for DSM-5. Parental rejection, family conflict, and parental depression were assessed via questionnaires.

Results
In depressed children, a 1-month prevalence of maladaptive guilt of 18.4% and a lifetime prevalence of 30.8% was found. Lifetime rates ranged from 1.8 to 4.1% in children with other psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectionally, maladaptive guilt was associated with lower family income-to-needs, greater family conflict, a history of maternal depression, and greater parental rejection. These findings held when controlling for children’s depressive severity, indicating that these associations are specific to maladaptive guilt.

Limitations
Maladaptive guilt was assessed through one item, though many studies of maladaptive guilt measure the symptom in this manner.

Conclusions
Findings suggest that it may be beneficial for clinicians to assess for maladaptive guilt beyond the context of assessment for depression, particularly with children of low socioeconomic status and children of depressed mothers, whom this study suggests are at higher risk. Negative family climates and parenting might also be important targets of preventative interventions.

Author Correction: No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the ABCD study

Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, Thompson WK, Hawes SW, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Laird AR, Gonzalez R. (2019). Author Correction: No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the ABCD study. Nat Hum Behav. 2019 Oct;3(10):1124. doi: 10.1038/s41562-019-0756-6. PMID: 31554938

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

Childhood Obesity, Cortical Structure, and Executive Function in Healthy Children

Ronan, L., Alexander-Bloch, A., & Fletcher, P.C. (2019). Childhood Obesity, Cortical Structure, and Executive Function in Healthy Children. Cerebral Cortex, bhz257, 24 October 2019, https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz257

The development of executive function is linked to maturation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in childhood. Childhood obesity has been associated with changes in brain structure, particularly in PFC, as well as deficits in executive functions. We aimed to determine whether differences in cortical structure mediate the relationship between executive function and childhood obesity. We analyzed MR-derived measures of cortical thickness for 2700 children between the ages of 9 and 11 years, recruited as part of the NIH Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We related our findings to measures of executive function and body mass index (BMI). In our analysis, increased BMI was associated with significantly reduced mean cortical thickness, as well as specific bilateral reduced cortical thickness in prefrontal cortical regions. This relationship remained after accounting for age, sex, race, parental education, household income, birth-weight, and in-scanner motion. Increased BMI was also associated with lower executive function. Reduced thickness in the rostral medial and superior frontal cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex partially accounted for reductions in executive function. These results suggest that childhood obesity is associated with compromised executive function. This relationship may be partly explained by BMI-associated reduced cortical thickness in the PFC.

Brain Volume Abnormalities in Youth at High Risk for Depression: Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study

Pagliaccio D., Alqueza K.L., Marsh R., Auerbach R.P. (2019). Brain Volume Abnormalities in Youth at High Risk for Depression: Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Epub ahead of print https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S089085671932101X?via%3Dihub

Children of parents with depression are two to three times more likely to develop major depressive disorder than children without parental history; however, subcortical brain volume abnormalities characterizing major depressive disorder risk remain unclear. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study provides an opportunity to identify subcortical differences associated with parental depressive history.

Delineating and validating higher-order dimensions of psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study

Michelini G., Barch D.M., Tian Y., Watson D., Klein D.N., Kotov R. (2019). Delineating and validating higher-order dimensions of psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Transl Psychiatry. 9(1):261. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-019-0593-4

Hierarchical dimensional systems of psychopathology promise more informative descriptions for understanding risk and predicting outcome than traditional diagnostic systems, but it is unclear how many major dimensions they should include. We delineated the hierarchy of childhood and adult psychopathology and validated it against clinically relevant measures. Participants were 9987 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Factor analyses of items from the Child Behavior Checklist and Adult Self-Report were run to delineate hierarchies of dimensions. We examined the familial aggregation of the psychopathology dimensions, and the ability of different factor solutions to account for risk factors, real-world functioning, cognitive functioning, and physical and mental health service utilization. A hierarchical structure with a general psychopathology (‘p’) factor at the apex and five specific factors (internalizing, somatoform, detachment, neurodevelopmental, and externalizing) emerged in children. Five similar dimensions emerged also in the parents. Child and parent p-factors correlated highly (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and smaller but significant correlations emerged for convergent dimensions between parents and children after controlling for p-factors (r = 0.09−0.21, p < 0.001). A model with child p-factor alone explained mental health service utilization (R2 = 0.23, p < 0.001), but up to five dimensions provided incremental validity to account for developmental risk and current functioning in children (R2 = 0.03−0.19, p < 0.001). In this first investigation comprehensively mapping the psychopathology hierarchy in children and adults, we delineated a hierarchy of higher-order dimensions associated with a range of clinically relevant validators. These findings hold important implications for psychiatric nosology and future research in this sample.

Author Correction: No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the nationally representative ABCD study

Dick AS, Garcia NL, Pruden SM, Thompson WK, Hawes SW, Sutherland MT, Riedel MC, Laird AR, Gonzalez R. (2019). Author Correction: No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the nationally representative ABCD study. Nat Hum Behav. 2019 Sep;3(9):999. doi: 10.1038/s41562-019-0709-0. PMID: 31384026

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

Prediction of neurocognition in youth from resting state fMRI

Sripada C, Rutherford S, Angstadt M, Thompson WK, Luciana M, Weigard A, Hyde LH, Heitzeg M (2019). Prediction of neurocognition in youth from resting state fMRI. Mol Psychiatry. Published: 19 August 2019. Epub ahead of print. doi:10.1038/s41380-019-0481-6

Difficulties with higher-order cognitive functions in youth are a potentially important vulnerability factor for the emergence of problematic behaviors and a range of psychopathologies. This study examined 2013 9–10 year olds in the first data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development 21-site consortium study in order to identify resting state functional connectivity patterns that predict individual-differences in three domains of higher-order cognitive functions: General Ability, Speed/Flexibility, and Learning/Memory. For General Ability scores in particular, we observed consistent cross-site generalizability, with statistically significant predictions in 14 out of 15 held-out sites. These results survived several tests for robustness including replication in split-half analysis and in a low head motion subsample. We additionally found that connectivity patterns involving task control networks and default mode network were prominently implicated in predicting differences in General Ability across participants. These findings demonstrate that resting state connectivity can be leveraged to produce generalizable markers of neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, they highlight the importance of task control-default mode network interconnections as a major locus of individual differences in cognitive functioning in early adolescence.

24-Hour Movement Behaviors and Impulsivity

Guerrero, M.D, Barnes, J.D., Walsh, J.J., Chaput, J-P., Tremblay, M.S., Goldfield, G.S. (2019). 24-Hour Movement Behaviors and Impulsivity. Pediatrics, Published Online (date) August 14, 2019. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-0187

Findings support efforts to determine if limiting recreational screen time (ST) while promoting adequate sleep enhances the treatment and prevention of impulsivity-related disorders.

Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Hagler Jr., D.J., Hatton, S.N., Cornejo, M.D., Makowski, C., Fair, D.A., Dick, A.S., Sutherland, M.T., Casey, B.J., Barch, D.M., Harms, M.P., Watts, R., Bjork, J.M., Garavan, H.P., Hilmer, L., Pung, C.J., Sicat, C.S., Kuperman, J., Bartsch, H., Xue, F., Heitzeg, M.M., Laird, A.R., Trinh, T.T., Gonzalez, R., Tapert, S.F., Riedel, M.C., Squeglia, L.M., Hyde, L.W., rosenberg, M.D., Earl, E.A., Howlett, K.D., Baker, F.C., Soules, M., Diaz, J., Ruiz de Leon, O., Thompson, W.K., Neale, M.C., Herting, M., Sowell, E.R., Alvarez, R.P., Hawes, S.W., Sanchez, M., Bodurka, J., Breslin, F.J., Sheffield Morris, A., Paulus, M.P., Simmons, W.K., Polimeni, J.R., van der Kouwe, A., Nencka, A.S., Gray, K.M., Pierpaoli, C., Matochik, J.A., Noronha, A., Aklin, W.M., Conway, K., Glantz, M., Hoffman, E., Little, R., Lopoez, M., Pariyadath, V., Weiss, S. RB., Wolff-Hughes, D.L., DelCarmen-Wiggins, R., Feldstein Ewing, S.W., Miranda-Dominguez, O., Nagel, B.J., Perrone, A.J., Sturgeon, D.T., Goldstone, A., Pfefferbaum, A., Pohl, K.M., Prouty, D., Uban, K., Bookheimer, S.Y., Dapretto, M., Galvan, A., Bagot, K., Giedd, J., Infante, M.A., Jacobus, J., Patrick, K., Shilling, P.D., Desikan, R., Li, Y., Sugrue, L., Banich, M.T., Friedman, N., Hewitt, J.K., Hopfer, C., Sakai, J., Tanabe, J., Cottler, L.B., Nixon, S.J., Chang, L., Cloak, C., Ernst, T., Reeves, G., Kennedy, D.N., Heeringa, S., Peltier, S., Schulenberg, J., Sripada, C., Zucker, R.A., Iacono, W.G., Luciana, M., Calabro, F.J., Clark, D.B., Lewis, D.A., Luna, B., Schirda, C., Brima, Tufikameni, Foxe, J.J., Freedman, E.G., Mruzek, D.W., Mason, M.J., Huber, R., McGlade, E., Prescot, A., Renshaw, P.F., Yurgelun-Todd, D.A., Allgaier, N.A., Dumas, J.A., Ivanova, M., Potter, A., Florsheim, P., Larswon, C., Lisdahl, K., Charness, M.E., Fuemmeler, B., Hettema, J.M., Maes, H.H., Steinberg, J., Anokhin, A.P., Glaser, P., Heath, A.C., Maddden, P.A., Baskin-Sommers, A., Constable, R.T., Grant, S.J., Dowling, G.J., Brown, S.A., Jernigan, T.L., Dale, A.M. (2019). Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. NeuroImage, Available online 12 August 2019, 116091. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116091.

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years to characterize normative brain and cognitive development, the many factors that influence brain development, and the effects of those factors on mental health and other outcomes. The study employs state-of-the-art multimodal brain imaging, cognitive and clinical assessments, bioassays, and careful assessment of substance use, environment, psychopathological symptoms, and social functioning. The data is a resource of unprecedented scale and depth for studying typical and atypical development. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the baseline neuroimaging processing and subject-level analysis methods used by ABCD. Processing and analyses include modality-specific corrections for distortions and motion, brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), analysis of brain microstructure using diffusion MRI (dMRI), task-related analysis of functional MRI (fMRI), and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI. This manuscript serves as a methodological reference for users of publicly shared neuroimaging data from the ABCD Study.

Ensuring the Best Use of Data. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study.

Compton, W.M., Dowling, G.J., Garavah, H. (2019). Ensuring the Best Use of Data. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. JAMA Pediatrics, July 15, 2019.

Data sharing is increasingly acknowledged to be a feature of a healthy scientific ecosystem, maximizing the benefits from the often costly business of collecting scientific data and enhancing discovery. Thus, timely data sharing from large research projects is an explicitly stated policy of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Making data openly and freely available and encouraging researchers to use them for additional analyses ensures the maximum return on the scientific investments that the NIH, and ultimately the US taxpayer, have made.

Demographic, psychological, behavioral,and cognitive correlates of BMI in youth: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study

Gray J.C., Schvey N.A.,Tanofsky-Kraff M. (2019). Demographic,psychological, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of BMI in youth: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development(ABCD) study. Psychological Medicine 1–9, July 10, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719001545.

Beyond demographics and stimulant use, this study highlights abstract reasoning as an important cognitive variable and reaffirms social problems and screen time as significant correlates of BMI and as modifiable therapeutic targets. Prospective data are needed to understand the predictive power of these variables for BMI gain.

No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the nationally representative ABCD study

Dick, A.S., Garcia, N.L., Pruden, S.M., Thompson, W.K., Hawes, S.W., Sutherland, M.T., Riedel, M.C., Laird, A.R., & Gonzalez, R. (2019). No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the nationally representative ABCD study.
Nature Human Behaviour (2019); Letter published May 20, 2019.

Learning a second language in childhood is inherently advantageous for communication. However, parents, educators and scientists have been interested in determining whether there are additional cognitive advantages. One of the most exciting yet controversial findings about bilinguals is a reported advantage for executive function. That is, several studies suggest that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals on tasks assessing cognitive abilities that are central to the voluntary control of thoughts and behaviours—the so-called ‘executive functions’ (for example, attention, inhibitory control, task switching and resolving conflict). Although a number of small- and large-sample studies have reported a bilingual executive function advantage, there have been several failures to replicate these findings, and recent meta-analyses have called into question the reliability of the original empirical claims. Here we show, in a very large, demographically representative sample (n = 4,524) of 9- to 10-year-olds across the United States, that there is little evidence for a bilingual advantage for inhibitory control, attention and task switching, or cognitive flexibility, which are key aspects of executive function. We also replicate previously reported disadvantages in English vocabulary in bilinguals. However, these English vocabulary differences are substantially mitigated when we account for individual differences in socioeconomic status or intelligence. In summary, notwithstanding the inherently positive benefits of learning a second language in childhood, we found little evidence that it engenders additional benefits to executive function development.

Differential Relationships of Child Anxiety and Depression to Child Report and Parent Report of Electronic Media Use

Fors PQ, Barch DM2 (2019). Differential Relationships of Child Anxiety and Depression to Child Report and Parent Report of Electronic Media Use. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev.50(6):907-917. PMID: 31062126 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10578-019-00892-7

Child depression and anxiety have been associated with electronic media use, but the comorbidity between the two has rarely been accounted for in analyses. We examined both child and parent reports of electronic media use in relation to parent-reported child depression and anxiety. Using survey and interview data collected for 9- to 11-year-olds from the 21-site adolescent brain cognitive development study, we conducted generalized linear mixed models. Our results demonstrated that electronic media use was more strongly associated with depression than anxiety, and that accounting for depression significantly reduced the relationship between electronic media use and anxiety. Different categories of electronic media showed differential relationships to anxiety and depression, with video gaming and video chatting related to anxiety, but video watching related to depression. These findings provide important data to ground theories of the mechanisms that contribute to these associations.

The structure of cognition in 9 and 10 year-old children and associations with problem behaviors: Findings from the ABCD study’s baseline neurocognitive battery

Thompson, W.K., Barch, D.M., Bjork, J.M., Gonzalez, R., Nagel, B.J., Nixon, S.J., Luciana, M. (2019). The structure of cognition in 9 and 10 year-old children and associations with problem behaviors: Findings from the ABCD study’s baseline neurocognitive battery.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 36, April 2019. Available online 13 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.12.004.

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is poised to be the largest single-cohort long-term longitudinal study of neurodevelopment and child health in the United States. Baseline data on 4521 children aged 9–10 were released for public access on November 2, 2018. In this paper we performed principal component analyses of the neurocognitive assessments administered to the baseline sample. The neurocognitive battery included seven measures from the NIH Toolbox as well as five other tasks. We implemented a Bayesian Probabilistic Principal Components Analysis (BPPCA) model that incorporated nesting of subjects within families and within data collection sites. We extracted varimax-rotated component scores from a three-component model and associated these scores with parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) internalizing, externalizing, and stress reactivity. We found evidence for three broad components that encompass general cognitive ability, executive function, and learning/memory. These were significantly associated with CBCL scores in a differential manner but with small effect sizes. These findings set the stage for longitudinal analysis of neurocognitive and psychopathological data from the ABCD cohort as they age into the period of maximal adolescent risk-taking.

Association of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure With Psychosis Proneness Among Children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Fine, J.D., Moreau, A.L., Karcher, N.R., Agrawal, A., Rogers, C.E., Barch, D.M., Bogdan, R. (2019). Association of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure With Psychosis Proneness Among Children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online March 27, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0076

Mirroring increases in the general population, the prevalence of past-month marijuana use among pregnant mothers in the United States increased by 75% between 2002 (2.85%) and 2016 (4.98%).1 Although cannabis use has been linked to psychosis, little is known about prenatal exposure.2,3 Unprecedented increases in marijuana use during pregnancy, alongside evidence that cannabis use is correlated with psychosis and that endocannabinoids play an important role in neurodevelopment, highlight the importance of evaluating potential long-term consequences of prenatal exposure.4

Stress exposures, neurodevelopment and health measures in the ABCD study

Hoffman, E.A., Clark, D.B., Orendain, N., Hudziak, J., Squeglia, L.M., Dowling, G.J. (2019). Stress exposures, neurodevelopment and health measures in the ABCD study. Neurobiology of Stress, Available online March 19, 2019, 100157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2019.100157

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a large, longitudinal study of brain development and child health, is uniquely positioned to explore relationships among stress, neurodevelopment, and psychiatric symptomatology, including substance use and addiction. There is much we do not know about how adverse experiences affect the developing brain and cognitive, social, emotional, and academic outcomes. The data collected by the ABCD Study will allow the examination of the relationships among these variables in adolescence, including the effects of stressors (e.g., abuse, neglect, household challenges, parental substance use) on psychological adjustment and other stress responses. A comprehensive protocol that includes physical and mental health, substance use, culture and environment, neurocognitive assessments, biospecimen analyses, and structural and functional neuroimaging will provide opportunities for learning about the impacts of stressors on health and other outcomes in the context of adolescent development. This knowledge could lead to the development of interventions that reduce or even reverse the impacts of stressors.

Association of Brain Functions in Children With Anhedonia Mapped Onto Brain Imaging Measures

Pornpattananangkul, N., Leibenluft, E., Pine, D.S., Stringaris, A. (2019). Association of Brain Functions in Children With Anhedonia Mapped Onto Brain Imaging Measures. JAMA Psychiatry. (March 13, 2019) Published online March 13, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0020

In this large-scale cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study that included 2878 children, anhedonia (but not low mood, anxiety, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) was associated with hypoconnectivity at rest between the ventral striatum and the cingulo-opercular network and hypoactivation during reward anticipation in the dorsal striatum and cingulo-opercular network.

Assessing callous-unemotional traits: development of a brief, reliable measure in a large and diverse sample of preadolescent youth

Hawes, S.W., Waller, R., Thompson, W.K., Hyde, L.W., Byrd, A.L., Burt, S.A., Klump, K.L., Gonzalez, R. (2019). Assessing callous-unemotional traits: development of a brief, reliable measure in a large and diverse sample of preadolescent youth. Psychological Medicine. Published online: March 8, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719000278

Background
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are critical to developmental, diagnostic, and clinical models of antisocial behaviors (AB). However, assessments of CU traits within large-scale longitudinal and neurobiologically focused investigations remain remarkably sparse. We sought to develop a brief measure of CU traits using items from widely administered instruments that could be linked to neuroimaging, genetic, and environmental data within already existing datasets and future studies.

Methods
Data came from a large and diverse sample (n = 4525) of youth (ages~9–11) taking part in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Moderated nonlinear factor analysis was used to assess measurement invariance across sex, race, and age. We explored whether CU traits were distinct from other indicators of AB, investigated unique links with theoretically-relevant outcomes, and replicated findings in an independent sample.

Results
The brief CU traits measure demonstrated strong psychometric properties and evidence of measurement invariance across sex, race, and age. On average, boys endorsed higher levels of CU traits than girls and CU traits were related to, yet distinguishable from other indicators of AB. The CU traits construct also exhibited expected associations with theoretically important outcomes. Study findings were also replicated across an independent sample of youth.

Conclusions
In a large, multi-site study, a brief measure of CU traits can be measured distinctly from other dimensions of AB. This measure provides the scientific community with a method to assess CU traits in the ABCD sample, as well as in other studies that may benefit from a brief assessment of CU.

Involvement in Sports, Hippocampal Volume, and Depressive Symptoms in Children

Gorham, L.S., Jernigan, T., Hudziak, J., Barch, D.M. (2019). Involvement in Sports, Hippocampal Volume, and Depressive Symptoms in Children. Biological Psychiatry CNNI (Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging). Published online: February 04, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.01.011

Background
Recent studies have found that higher levels of exercise are associated with fewer symptoms of depression among young people. In addition, research suggests that exercise may modify hippocampal volume, a brain region that has been found to show reduced volume in depression. However, it is not clear whether this relationship emerges as early as preadolescence.

Methods
We examined data from a nationwide sample of 4191 children 9 to 11 years of age from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. The parents of the children completed the Child Behavior Checklist, providing data about the child’s depressive symptoms, and the Sports and Activities Questionnaire, which provided data about the child’s participation in 23 sports. Children also took part in a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan, providing us with measures of bilateral hippocampal volume.

Results
Sports involvement interacted with sex to predict depressive symptoms, with a negative relationship found in boys only (t = −5.257, β = −.115, p < .001). Sports involvement was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in both boys and girls (t = 2.810, β = .035, p = .007). Hippocampal volume also interacted with sex to predict depressive symptoms, with a negative relationship in boys (t = −2.562, β = −.070, p = .010), and served as a partial mediator for the relationship between involvement in sports and depressive symptoms in boys.

Conclusions
These findings help illuminate a potential neural mechanism for the impact of exercise on the developing brain, and the differential effects in boys versus girls mirror findings in the animal literature. More research is needed to understand the causal relationships between these constructs.

Sexual minority children: Mood disorders and suicidality disparities

Blashill, A.J., & Calzo, J.P. (2019). Sexual minority children: Mood disorders and suicidality disparities. Journal of Affective Disorders 246 (2019) 96–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.040

Sexual orientation disparities in mood disorders and suicidality appear to develop as early as middle childhood. Clinicians are encouraged to assess sexual orientation among children as young as 9–10 years old, and provide appropriate normalization of sexual orientation, and referrals for mental health treatment, as indicated.

Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Psychotic-like Experiences in Childhood: Results From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Karcher, N.R., O’Brien, K.J., Kandala, S., Barch, D.M. (2019). Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Psychotic-like Experiences in Childhood: Results From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological Psychiatry. Available online January 26, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.01.013

Background
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during childhood are associated with greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder (and other mental disorders), highlighting the importance of identifying neural correlates of childhood PLEs. Three major cortical networks—the cingulo-opercular network (CON), default mode network (DMN), and frontoparietal network—are consistently implicated in psychosis and PLEs in adults. However, it is unclear whether variation in functional connectivity is associated with PLEs in school-aged children.

Methods
Using hierarchical linear models, we examined the relationships between childhood PLEs and resting-state functional connectivity of the CON, DMN, and frontoparietal network, as well as the other networks, using an a priori network parcellation, using data from 9- to 11-year-olds (n = 3434) in the ABCD (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development) study. We examined within-network, between-network, and subcortical connectivity.

Results
Decreased CON and DMN connectivity, as well as cinguloparietal (CPAR) network connectivity, were associated with greater PLEs, even after accounting for family history of psychotic disorders, internalizing symptoms, and cognitive performance. Decreased DMN connectivity was more strongly associated with increased delusional ideation, whereas decreased CON connectivity was more strongly associated with increased perceptual distortions. Increased CON-cerebellar and decreased CPAR-cerebellar connectivity were also associated with increased PLEs, and CPAR-cerebellar connectivity was more strongly associated with increased perceptual distortions.

Conclusions
Consistent with hypotheses about the dimensionality of psychosis, our results provide novel evidence that neural correlates of PLEs, such as reduced functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive networks, are present even in school-aged children. The results provide further validation for continuity of PLEs across the life span.

Screen media activity and brain structure in youth: Evidence for diverse structural correlation networks from the ABCD study

Paulus, M.P., Squeglia, L.M., Bagot, K., Jacobus, J., Kuplicki, R., Breslin, F.J., Bodurka, J., Sheffield Morris, A., Thompson, W.K., Bartsch, H., & Tapert, S.F. (2019). Screen media activity and brain structure in youth: Evidence for diverse structural correlation networks from the ABCD study. NeuroImage,
Volume 185, 15 January 2019, Pages 140-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.040.

The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i.e. the notion that coordinated patterns of structural change related to specific behaviors. Moreover, the utility of this approach was tested by determining the association between these structural correlation networks and psychopathology or cognition. ABCD participants with usable structural imaging and SMA data (N = 4277 of 4524) were subjected to a Group Factor Analysis (GFA) to identify latent variables that relate SMA to cortical thickness, sulcal depth, and gray matter volume. Subject scores from these latent variables were used in generalized linear mixed-effect models to investigate associations between SMA and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, as well as fluid and crystalized intelligence. Four SMA-related GFAs explained 37% of the variance between SMA and structural brain indices. SMA-related GFAs correlated with brain areas that support homologous functions. Some but not all SMA-related factors corresponded with higher externalizing (Cohen’s d effect size (ES) 0.06–0.1) but not internalizing psychopathology and lower crystalized (ES: 0.08–0.1) and fluid intelligence (ES: 0.04–0.09). Taken together, these findings support the notion of SMA related maturational coupling or structural correlation networks in the brain and provides evidence that individual differences of these networks have mixed consequences for psychopathology and cognitive performance.

2018
Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among US Children Aged 9 to 10 Years

Rozzell, K., Moon, D.Y., Klimek, P., Brown, T., Blashill, A.J. (2018). Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among US Children Aged 9 to 10 Years: Data From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA Pediatrics. Published online November 26, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.3678.

Eating disorders (EDs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.1 The prevalence of early-onset EDs has increased in the past several decades, with younger children more likely than adolescents to experience psychiatric comorbidity. The single nationally representative study that has reported 12-month prevalence rates of EDs among children aged 8 to 15 years found 0.1% total for children aged 8 to 11 years, with 0.3% for girls and 0.1% for boys aged 8 to 15 years old.2 However, this previous study used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria and did not report the prevalence of specific ED diagnoses. The aims of the present study were to report the prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED) in addition to a global “any ED” diagnosis, using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (DSM-5) criteria among a US representative sample of children aged 9 and 10 years. Prevalence rates were tested by participant sex.

Child Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Cohort Study

Calzo, J.P., & Blashill, A.J. (2018). Child Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Cohort Study. JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(11):1090-1092. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.2496.

Sexual and gender minorities (ie, individuals who do not identify as heterosexual and those whose gender identities differ from their birth sex) experience significantly elevated physical and mental health morbidities compared with heterosexual and cisgender individuals.1 By collecting sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data in a US representative cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children, the recently released Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study2 provides an opportunity to understand the development of health disparities and resilience by SOGI at earlier ages than previous research. Both children and parental figures reported SOGI data, bolstering measurement rigor. Baseline analysis of ABCD Study SOGI data can contextualize the opportunities afforded by the data set for epidemiologic surveillance.

Associations between 24 hour movement behaviours and global cognition in US children: a cross-sectional observational study

Walsh, J.J., Barnes, J.D., Cameron, J.D., Goldfield, G.S., Chaput, JP, Gunnell, K.E., Ledoux, AA, Zemek, R.L., Tremblay, M.S. (2018). Associations between 24 hour movement behaviours and global cognition in US children: a cross-sectional observational study. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, Published: September 26, 2018. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30278-5.

Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods for brain development, and the behaviours during a typical 24 h period contribute to cognitive performance. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth recommend at least 60 min physical activity per day, 2 h or less recreational screen time per day, and 9–11 h sleep per night in children aged 8–11 years. We investigated the relationship between adherence to these recommendations and global cognition.

Convergent influences of lifestyle behaviour on neurocognitive development in children

Bustamente, E.E. (2018). Convergent influences of lifestyle behaviour on neurocognitive development in children. The Lancet: Child & Adolescent Health. Published September 26, 2018. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30305-5.

Comment on: Walsh, J.J., Barnes, J.D., Cameron, J.D., Goldfield, G.S., Chaput, JP, Gunnell, K.E., Ledoux, AA, Zemek, R.L., Tremblay, M.S. (2018). Associations between 24 hour movement behaviours and global cognition in US children: a cross-sectional observational study. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, Available online 27 September 2018.

Healthy lifestyle behaviours are the primary modifiable risk factors for prevention of chronic disease. 1 Recognition of the interdependence between various lifestyle behaviours has grown and investigation of their potentially synergistic benefits has increased. 2 In The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, Jeremy Walsh and colleagues’ report 3 an investigation of the effects of three movement behaviours—physical activity, sleep, and recreational screen time—independently and in combination on children’s neurocognitive development. They analysed the curated data from the first year of the ongoing Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) prospective cohort study, which is measuring lifestyle behaviours and global cognition, fluid intelligence, and crystallised intelligence among children.

NIH’s Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

NIH’s Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews Editorial Staff. Alcohol Res. 2018;39(1):97. PMID: 30557152

Implications of the ABCD study for developmental neuroscience

Feldstein Ewing SW, Bjork JM, Luciana M. (2018). Implications of the ABCD study for developmental neuroscience. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018 Aug;32:161-164. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.05.003. PMID: 29773510

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) will capture a breadth of multi-faceted biobehavioral, environmental, familial, and genetic longitudinal developmental open-access data from over 11,000 9–10 year olds throughout the United States of America (USA) for an envisioned ten-year span. This will subsequently represent the largest study ever attempted with this level of brain phenotypic detail. This study holds the opportunity for exciting advances in the understanding of typical adolescent neurodevelopment, discovery of neurodevelopmental underpinnings of mental illness, as well as the neurodevelopmental influences of (and on) social factors, substance use, and critically – their interaction. This project will certainly take unprecedented steps in informing the nature of adolescence and the developing brain. The scale and open-access features of ABCD also necessarily entail areas for consideration to enhance the integrity of the ABCD study, and protect against potential misuse and misinterpretation of ABCD data. Ultimately, with the open-source data, all scientists in the broader community have as much responsibility as the investigators within the Consortium to treat these data with care. It will be fascinating to see what dynamic data these paths generate. ABCD is poised to exemplify how large-scale longitudinal developmental neuroscientific studies can be designed and efficiently conducted.

Assessment of the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version for Measurement of Self-reported Psychoticlike Experiences in Childhood

Karcher, N.R., Barch, D.M., Avenevoli, S., Savill, M., Huber, R.S., Simon, T.J., Leckliter, I.N., Sher, K.J., Loewy, R.L. (2018). Assessment of the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version for Measurement of Self-reported Psychoticlike Experiences in Childhood. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online June 6, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1334.

These results provide support for the construct validity and demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of a self-report instrument designed to measure childhood PLEs, providing evidence that the PQ-BC may be a useful measure of early risk for psychotic disorders. Furthermore, these data suggest that PLEs at school age are associated with many of the same familial, cognitive, and emotional factors associated with psychotic symptoms in older populations, consistent with the dimensionality of psychosis across the lifespan.

Recruiting the ABCD Sample: Design Considerations and Procedures

Garavan, H., Bartsch, H., Conway, K., Decastro, A., Goldstein, R.Z., Heeringa, S., Jernigan, T., Potter, A., Thompson, W., Zahs, D. (2018). Recruiting the ABCD Sample: Design Considerations and Procedures. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 16-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.004

The ABCD study is a new and ongoing project of very substantial size and scale involving 21 data acquisition sites. It aims to recruit 11,500 children and follow them for ten years with extensive assessments at multiple timepoints. To deliver on its potential to adequately describe adolescent development, it is essential that it adopt recruitment procedures that are efficient and effective and will yield a sample that reflects the nation’s diversity in an epidemiologically informed manner. Here, we describe the sampling plans and recruitment procedures of this study. Participants are largely recruited through the school systems with school selection informed by gender, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity. Procedures for school selection designed to mitigate selection biases, dynamic monitoring of the accumulating sample to correct deviations from recruitment targets, and a description of the recruitment procedures designed to foster a collaborative attitude between the researchers, the schools and the local communities, are provided.

Outreach and innovation: Communication strategies for the ABCD Study

Hoffman, E.A., Howlett, K.D., Breslin, F., Dowling, G.J. (2018). Outreach and innovation: Communication strategies for the ABCD Study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 138-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.001

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a large, longitudinal study of brain development and child health, relies on the engagement of communities, educators, and families to ensure its success. To that end, community and partner relationships, development of targeted messages and materials for specific audiences (educators, families, youth, scientists), and continued and consistent outreach must be an integral part of the Consortium activities. The ABCD Consortium has made these efforts a priority and developed a framework to raise awareness about the study and promote sustained broad-base support from diverse stakeholders.

A description of the ABCD organizational structure and communication framework

Auchter, A.M., Mejia, M.H., Heyser, C.J., Shilling, P.D., Jernigan, T.L., Brown, S.A., Tapert, S.F., Dowling, G.J. (2018). A description of the ABCD organizational structure and communication framework. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (2018), Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 8-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.003

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is designed to be the largest study of brain development and child health in the United States, performing comprehensive assessments of 11,500 children repeatedly for 10 years. An endeavor of this magnitude requires an organized framework of governance and communication that promotes collaborative decision-making and dissemination of information. The ABCD consortium structure, built upon the Matrix Management approach of organizational theory, facilitates the integration of input from all institutions, numerous internal workgroups and committees, federal partners, and external advisory groups to make use of a broad range of expertise to ensure the study’s success.

A brief validated screen to identify boys and girls at risk for early marijuana use

Loeber, R., Clark, D.B., Ahonen, L., FitzGerald, D., Trucco, E.M., Zucker, R.A. (2018). A brief validated screen to identify boys and girls at risk for early marijuana use. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 23-29. ttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.011

To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths’ risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking. To focus the analyses on a single target substance use outcome pertinent to the stated goals of the ABCD Study, early-onset marijuana use was selected. Utilizing data collected prior to the initiation of the ABCD Study, four longitudinal data sets were used in nine secondary data analyses to test, replicate and validate a brief screening assessment for boys and girls to identify those at risk for early-onset marijuana use by ages 14–15. The combination of child externalizing problems reported by the parent (4 items: destroys things belonging to his/her family or others; disobedience at school; lying or cheating; steals outside the home) and parent smoking (1 item) proved to be the optimal screen. This was largely replicated across the four data sets. Indicators of predictive efficiency were modest in magnitude and statistically significant in 8 out of the 9 analyses. The results informed the screen’s optimal threshold for identifying children at risk for early-onset marijuana use. The addition of child internalizing problems did not improve these predictions. Further analyses showed the predictive utility of the screen for several other substance use outcomes at ages 15 to 18, including alcohol and nicotine use. The results support the use of a short screening assessment to identify youth at risk for early-onset substance use in the ABCD Study and other research.

Adolescent Brain Development: Implications for Understanding Risk and Resilience Processes Through Neuroimaging Research

Morris AS, Squeglia LM, Jacobus J, Silk JS. (2018). Adolescent Brain Development: Implications for Understanding Risk and Resilience Processes Through Neuroimaging Research. J Res Adolesc. 2018 Mar;28(1):4-9. doi: 10.1111/jora.12379. PMID: 29460349

This special section focuses on research that utilizes neuroimaging methods to examine the impact of social relationships and socioemotional development on adolescent brain function. Studies include novel neuroimaging methods that further our understanding of adolescent brain development. This special section has a particular focus on how study findings add to our understanding of risk and resilience. In this introduction to the special section, we discuss the role of neuroimaging in developmental science and provide a brief review of neuroimaging methods. We present key themes that are covered in the special section articles including: (1) emerging methods in developmental neuroscience, (2) emotion-cognition interaction, and (3) the role of social relationships in brain function. We conclude our introduction with future directions for integrating developmental neuroscience into the study of adolescence, and highlight key points from the special section’s commentaries which include information on the landmark Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study.

Current, future and potential use of mobile and wearable technologies and social media data in the ABCD study to increase understanding of contributors to child health

Bagot KS, Matthews SA, Mason M, Squeglia LM, Fowler J, Gray K, Herting M, May A, Colrain I, Godino J, Tapert S, Brown S, Patrick K. (2018). Current, future and potential use of mobile and wearable technologies and social media data in the ABCD study to increase understanding of contributors to child health. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018 Aug;32:121-129. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.008. Epub 2018 Mar 28. PMID: 29636283

Mobile and wearable technologies and novel methods of data collection are innovating health-related research. These technologies and methods allow for multi-system level capture of data across environmental, physiological, behavioral, and psychological domains. In the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, there is great potential for harnessing the acceptability, accessibility, and functionality of mobile and social technologies for in-vivo data capture to precisely measure factors, and interactions between factors, that contribute to childhood and adolescent neurodevelopment and psychosocial and health outcomes. Here we discuss advances in mobile and wearable technologies and methods of analysis of geospatial, ecologic, social network and behavioral data. Incorporating these technologies into the ABCD study will allow for interdisciplinary research on the effects of place, social interactions, environment, and substance use on health and developmental outcomes in children and adolescents.

Assessment of culture and environment in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study: Rationale, description of measures, and early data

Zucker, R.A., Gonzalez, R., Feldstein Ewing, S.W., Paulus, M.P., Arroyo, J., Fuligni, A., Sheffield Morris, A., Sanchez, M., Wills, T. (2018). Assessment of culture and environment in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study: Rationale, description of measures, and early data. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.004

Neurodevelopmental maturation takes place in a social environment in addition to a neurobiological one. Characterization of social environmental factors that influence this process is therefore an essential component in developing an accurate model of adolescent brain and neurocognitive development, as well as susceptibility to change with the use of marijuana and other drugs. The creation of the Culture and Environment (CE) measurement component of the ABCD protocol was guided by this understanding. Three areas were identified by the CE Work Group as central to this process: influences relating to CE Group membership, influences created by the proximal social environment, influences stemming from social interactions. Eleven measures assess these influences, and by time of publication, will have been administered to well over 7,000 9–10 year-old children and one of their parents. Our report presents baseline data on psychometric characteristics (mean, standard deviation, range, skewness, coefficient alpha) of all measures within the battery. Effectiveness of the battery in differentiating 9–10-year olds who were classified as at higher and lower risk for marijuana use in adolescence was also evaluated. Psychometric characteristics on all measures were good to excellent; higher vs. lower risk contrasts were significant in areas where risk differentiation would be anticipated.

Biospecimens and the ABCD study: Rationale, methods of collection, measurement and early data

Uban, K.A., Horton, M.K., Jacobus, J., Heyser, C., Thompson, W.K., Tapert, S.F., Madden, P.A.F., Sowell, E.R., the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. (2018). Biospecimens and the ABCD study: Rationale, methods of collection, measurement and early data. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 97-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.005

Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study – of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids – will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses. The present manuscript describes the rationales for inclusion and selection of the specific biospecimens, methodological considerations for each measure, future plans for assessment of biospecimens during follow-up visits, and preliminary ABCD data to illustrate methodological considerations.

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study: Imaging acquisition across 21 sites

Casey, B.J., Cannonier, T., Conley, M.I., Cohen, A.O., Barch, D.M., Heitzeg, M.M., Soules, M.E., Teslovich, T., Dellarco, D.V., Garavan, H., Orr, C.A., Wager, T.D., Banich, M.T., Speer, N.K., Sutherland, M.T., Riedel, M.C., Dick, A.S., Bjork, J.M., Dale, A.M. (2018). The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study: Imaging acquisition across 21 sites. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 43-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.001

The ABCD study is recruiting and following the brain development and health of over 10,000 9–10 year olds through adolescence. The imaging component of the study was developed by the ABCD Data Analysis and Informatics Center (DAIC) and the ABCD Imaging Acquisition Workgroup. Imaging methods and assessments were selected, optimized and harmonized across all 21 sites to measure brain structure and function relevant to adolescent development and addiction. This article provides an overview of the imaging procedures of the ABCD study, the basis for their selection and preliminary quality assurance and results that provide evidence for the feasibility and age-appropriateness of procedures and generalizability of findings to the existent literature.

Adolescent neurocognitive development and impacts of substance use: Overview of the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) baseline neurocognition battery

Luciana, M., Bjork, J.M., Nagel, B.J., Barch, D.M., Gonzalez, R., Nixon, S.J., Banich, M.T. (2018). Adolescent neurocognitive development and impacts of substance use: Overview of the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) baseline neurocognition battery. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 67-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.006

Adolescence is characterized by numerous social, hormonal and physical changes, as well as a marked increase in risk-taking behaviors. Dual systems models attribute adolescent risk-taking to tensions between developing capacities for cognitive control and motivational strivings, which may peak at this time. A comprehensive understanding of neurocognitive development during the adolescent period is necessary to permit the distinction between premorbid vulnerabilities and consequences of behaviors such as substance use. Thus, the prospective assessment of cognitive development is fundamental to the aims of the newly launched Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Consortium. This paper details the rationale for ABC’lected measures of neurocognition, presents preliminary descriptive data on an initial sample of 2299 participants, and provides a context for how this large-scale project can inform our understanding of adolescent neurodevelopment.

Adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study: Overview of substance use assessment methods

Lisdahl, K.M., Sher, K.J., Conway, K.P., Gonzalez, R., Feldstein Ewing, S.W., Nixon, S.J., Tapert, S., Bartsch, H., Goldstein, R.Z., Heitzeg, M. (2018). Adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study: Overview of substance use assessment methods. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 80-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.007

One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (https://abcdstudy.org/) is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of these substance use domains over a period of ten years in a nationwide sample of youth presents an unprecedented opportunity to further understand the timing and interactive relationships between substance use and neurocognitive, health, and psychopathology outcomes in youth living in the United States.

Introduction

Jernigan, T.L., Brown, S.A., ABCD Consortium Coordinators. (2018). Introduction. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.002

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort. Information is also provided about how the study is coordinated and conducted, how decisions are made, how data quality is monitored, and how ethical standards are protected. In this introduction we will focus instead on the position of the ABCD Study in the changing landscape of biomedical research.

2017
The adolescent brain cognitive development study external advisory board

Charness, M.D. (2017). The adolescent brain cognitive development study external advisory board. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 155-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.007

Why should the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (ABCD Study) have an External Advisory Board (EAB)? ABCD Study has approximately two-dozen principal investigators, all experts and leaders in the diverse fields of study required to accomplish ABCD Study’s goals. Furthermore, as part of an NIH consortium, ABCD Study investigators work in close collaboration with scientific experts from multiple National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes and Offices (https://abcdstudy.org/federal-partners.html) and have ready access to their expertise. And NIH has constituted an Observational Study Management Board (OSMB) to offer oversight and counsel to ABCD Study regarding myriad ethical issues that might arise in the course of a 10-year longitudinal study of 10,000 children. So why also have an EAB? In a way, it is the organizational structure of ABCD Study, its cost, its complexity, its extraordinarily ambitious goals, and its importance to the scientific community and public health that together obligate oversight from an unbiased set of experts who can advise ABCD Study across a wide range of issues.

Approaching Retention within the ABCD Study

Feldstein Ewing, S.W., Chang, L., Cottler, L.B., Tapert, S.F., Dowling G.J., Brown, S.A. (2017). Approaching Retention within the ABCD Study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 130-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.004

Retention efforts are critical to maintain relationships with research participants over time. This is especially important for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, where families are asked to stay engaged with the study throughout the course of 10 years. This high-degree of involvement is essential to longitudinally track child and adolescent development. At a minimum, we will connect with families every 6 months by telephone, and every year in person, with closer contact with the youth directly as they transition into adolescence. Differential retention, when related to non-random issues pertaining to demographic or risk features, can negatively impact the generalizability of study outcomes. Thus, to ensure high rates of retention for all participants, the ABCD study employs a number of efforts to support youth and families. This overview details the framework and concrete steps for retention.

Demographic, physical and mental health assessments in the adolescent brain and cognitive development study: Rationale and description

Barch, D.M., Albaugh, M.D., Avenevoli, S., Chang, L., Clark, D.B., Glantz, M.D., Hudziak, J.J., Jernigan, T.L., Tapert, S.F., Yurgelun-Todd, D., Alia-Klein, N., Potter, A.S., Paulus, M.P., Prouty, D., Zucker, R.A., Sher, K.J. (2017). Demographic, physical and mental health assessments in the adolescent brain and cognitive development study: Rationale and description. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.010

The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to both mental and physical health across childhood and adolescence. The workgroup developed a battery that would assess a comprehensive range of domains that address study aims while minimizing participant and family burden. We review the major considerations that went into deciding what constructs to cover in the demographics, physical health and mental health domains, as well as the process of selecting measures, piloting and refining the originally proposed battery. We present a description of the baseline battery, as well as the six-month interim assessments and the one-year follow-up assessments. This battery includes assessments from the perspectives of both the parent and the target youth, as well as teacher reports. This battery will provide a foundational baseline assessment of the youth’s current function so as to permit characterization of stability and change in key domains over time. The findings from this battery will also be utilized to identify both resilience markers that predict healthy development and risk factors for later adverse outcomes in physical health, mental health, and substance use and abuse.

The conception of the ABCD study: From substance use to a broad NIH collaboration

Volkow, N.D., Koob, G.F., Croyle, R.T., Bianchi, D.W., Gordon, J.A., Koroshetz, W.J., Pérez-Stable, E.J., Riley, W.T., Bloch, M.H., Conway, K., Deeds, B.G., Dowling, G.J., Grant, S., Howlett, K.D., Matochik, J.A., Morgan, G.D., Murray, M.M., Noronha, A., Spong, C.Y., Wargo, E.M., Warren, K.R., Weiss, S.R.B. (2017). The conception of the ABCD study: From substance use to a broad NIH collaboration. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 4-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.002

Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it. Recent advances in neuroimaging, informatics, and genetics technologies have made it feasible to conduct a study of sufficient size and scope to answer many outstanding questions. At the same time, several Institutes across the NIH recognized the value of collaborating in such a project because of its ability to address the role of biological, environmental, and behavioral factors like gender, pubertal hormones, sports participation, and social/economic disparities on brain development as well as their association with the emergence and progression of substance use and mental illness including suicide risk. Thus, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study was created to answer the most pressing public health questions of our day.

The utility of twins in developmental cognitive neuroscience research: How twins strengthen the ABCD research design

Iacono, W.G., Heath, A.C., Hewitt, J.K., Neale, M.C., Banich, M.T., Luciana, M.M., Madden, P.A., Barch, D.M., Bjork, J.M. (2017). The utility of twins in developmental cognitive neuroscience research: How twins strengthen the ABCD research design. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 30-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.001

The ABCD twin study will elucidate the genetic and environmental contributions to a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes in children, including substance use, brain and behavioral development, and their interrelationship. Comparisons within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, further powered by multiple assessments, provide information about genetic and environmental contributions to developmental associations, and enable stronger tests of causal hypotheses, than do comparisons involving unrelated children. Thus a sub-study of 800 pairs of same-sex twins was embedded within the overall Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) design. The ABCD Twin Hub comprises four leading centers for twin research in Minnesota, Colorado, Virginia, and Missouri. Each site is enrolling 200 twin pairs, as well as singletons. The twins are recruited from registries of all twin births in each State during 2006–2008. Singletons at each site are recruited following the same school-based procedures as the rest of the ABCD study. This paper describes the background and rationale for the ABCD twin study, the ascertainment of twin pairs and implementation strategy at each site, and the details of the proposed analytic strategies to quantify genetic and environmental influences and test hypotheses critical to the aims of the ABCD study.

Biomedical ethics and clinical oversight in multisite observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents: The ABCD experience

Clark, D.B., Fisher, C.B., Bookheimer, S., Brown, S.A., Evans, J.H., Hopfer, C., Hudziak, J., Montoya, I., Murray, M., Pfefferbaum, A., Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2017). Biomedical ethics and clinical oversight in multisite observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents: The ABCD experience. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 32, August 2018, Pages 143-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.005

Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites.

The ABCD study of neurodevelopment: Identifying neurocircuit targets for prevention and treatment of adolescent substance abuse

Bjork JM, Straub LK, Provost RG, Neale MC. (2017). The ABCD study of neurodevelopment: Identifying neurocircuit targets for prevention and treatment of adolescent substance abuse. Curr Treat Options Psychiatry. 2017;4(2):196-209. doi:10.1007/s40501-017-0108-y

Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression. To better isolate the effects of substance exposure on the adolescent brain, the newly-launched Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, will follow the neurodevelopmental trajectories of over 11,000 American 9/10-year-olds for 10 years, into emerging adulthood. This study will provide a rich open-access dataset on longitudinal interactions of neurodevelopment, environmental exposures, and childhood psychopathology that confer addiction risk. The ABCD twin study will further clarify genetic versus experiential influences (e.g., substance use) on neurodevelopmental and psychosocial outcomes. Neurocircuitry thought to regulate mood and behavior has been directly normalized by administration of psychoactive medications and by cognitive therapies in adults. Because of this, we contend that ABCD project data will be a crucial resource for prevention and treatment of SUD in adolescence because its cutting-edge neuroimaging and childhood assessments hold potential for discovery of additional targetable brain differences earlier in development that are prognostic of (or aberrant in) SUD. The ABCD sample size will also have the power to illuminate how sex differences, environmental interactions and other individual differences interact with neurodevelopment to inform treatment in different groups of adolescents.