ABCD Study publications are authored by ABCD investigators, collaborators, and non-ABCD researchers. The analysis methodologies, findings, and interpretations expressed in these publications are those of the authors and do not constitute an endorsement by the ABCD Study®.

Please note that the publications listed here include empirical as well as non-empirical papers (e.g., focused review articles, editorials).

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Title Journal Authors Year Details
Toggle Strengthening associations between psychotic like experiences and suicidal ideation and behavior across middle childhood and early adolescence. Psychological medicine Karcher NR, O'Hare K, Jay SY, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Understanding risk factors related to suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal behaviors (SB) in youth is important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. While it appears that psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are strongly associated with both SI and SB at different points across the lifespan, the longitudinal nature of this relationship in middle childhood and early adolescence is understudied.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2022/10/21

Authors

Karcher NR, O'Hare K, Jay SY, Grattan R

Keywords

Adolescent brain cognitive development study, longitudinal, psychotic-like experiences, suicidal behavior, suicidal ideation

DOI

10.1017/S0033291722003166
Toggle Impulsivity and reward sensitivity facets as predictors of weight change in children: Differences by binge-eating disorder diagnostic status. Pediatric obesity Valdez A, Smith KE, Mason TB 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Impulsivity and reward sensitivity are personality traits associated with obesity and binge-eating disorder (BED), but little research has examined prospective associations between these traits and body mass index z-score (BMI-z) differentially for children with and without BED.

Journal

Pediatric obesity

Published

2022/10/19

Authors

Valdez A, Smith KE, Mason TB

Keywords

binge-eating disorder, children, impulsivity, obesity, reward sensitivity

DOI

10.1111/ijpo.12987
Toggle Longitudinal assessment of brain structure and behaviour in youth with rapid weight gain: Potential contributing causes and consequences. Pediatric obesity Adise S, Marshall AT, Hahn S, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Independent of weight status, rapid weight gain has been associated with underlying brain structure variation in regions associated with food intake and impulsivity among pre-adolescents. Yet, we lack clarity on how developmental maturation coincides with rapid weight gain and weight stability.

Journal

Pediatric obesity

Published

2022/10/17

Authors

Adise S, Marshall AT, Hahn S, Zhao S, Kan E, Rhee KE, Herting MM, Sowell ER

Keywords

MRI, biomarker, eating disorders, paediatric obesity

DOI

10.1111/ijpo.12985
Toggle Socioeconomic resources are associated with distributed alterations of the brain's intrinsic functional architecture in youth. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Sripada C, Gard AM, Angstadt M, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Little is known about how exposure to limited socioeconomic resources (SER) in childhood gets “under the skin” to shape brain development, especially using rigorous whole-brain multivariate methods in large, adequately powered samples. The present study examined resting state functional connectivity patterns from 5821 youth in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, employing multivariate methods across three levels: whole-brain, network-wise, and connection-wise. Across all three levels, SER was associated with widespread alterations across the connectome. However, critically, we found that parental education was the primary driver of neural associations with SER. These parental education associations with the developing connectome exhibited notable concentrations in somatosensory and subcortical regions, and they were partially accounted for by home enrichment activities, child’s cognitive abilities, and child’s grades, indicating interwoven links between parental education, child stimulation, and child cognitive performance. These results add a new data-driven, multivariate perspective on links between household SER and the child’s developing functional connectome.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/10/17

Authors

Sripada C, Gard AM, Angstadt M, Taxali A, Greathouse T, McCurry K, Hyde LW, Weigard A, Walczyk P, Heitzeg M

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, Connectomics, Functional connectivity, Household income, Intrinsic connectivity networks, Neighborhood disadvantage, Neurodevelopment, Parental education, Predictive modeling, Resting state fMRI, Socioeconomic resources, Socioeconomic status

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101164
Toggle Parental religiosity is associated with changes in youth functional network organization and cognitive performance in early adolescence. Scientific reports Brooks SJ, Tian L, Parks SM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Parental religious beliefs and practices (religiosity) may have profound effects on youth, especially in neurodevelopmentally complex periods such as adolescence. In n = 5566 children (median age = 120.0 months; 52.1% females; 71.2% with religious affiliation) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, relationships between parental religiosity and non-religious beliefs on family values (data on youth beliefs were not available), topological properties of youth resting-state brain networks, and executive function, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility were investigated. Lower caregiver education and family income were associated with stronger parental beliefs (p < 0.01). Strength of both belief types was correlated with lower efficiency, community structure, and robustness of frontoparietal control, temporoparietal, and dorsal attention networks (p < 0.05), and lower Matrix Reasoning scores. Stronger religious beliefs were negatively associated (directly and indirectly) with multiscale properties of salience and default-mode networks, and lower Flanker and Dimensional Card Sort scores, but positively associated with properties of the precuneus. Overall, these effects were small (Cohen’s d ~ 0.2 to ~ 0.4). Overlapping neuromodulatory and cognitive effects of parental beliefs suggest that early adolescents may perceive religious beliefs partly as context-independent rules on expected behavior. However, religious beliefs may also differentially affect cognitive flexibility, attention, and inhibitory control and their neural substrates.

Journal

Scientific reports

Published

2022/10/15

Authors

Brooks SJ, Tian L, Parks SM, Stamoulis C

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41598-022-22299-6
Toggle Genetic versus environmental influences on callous-unemotional traits in preadolescence: The role of parenting and parental psychopathology. Development and psychopathology Perlstein S, Hawes S, Vazquez AY, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits are at risk for severe conduct problems. While CU traits are moderately heritable, parenting also predicts risk. However, few studies have investigated whether parenting factors (e.g., acceptance, conflict, parental psychopathology) moderate the etiology of CU traits, while accounting for gene-environment correlations. To address this knowledge gap, we used data from 772 twin pairs from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study to test bivariate models that explored overlapping etiological influences on CU traits and child reports of their parenting environment. We also used gene-by-environment interaction models to test whether parenting moderated genetic versus environmental influences. There were no overlapping etiological influences on CU traits and parental acceptance, but modest genetic and non-shared environmental overlap between CU traits and family conflict. Parental acceptance and psychopathology moderated non-shared environmental influences, with stronger non-shared environmental influences on CU traits among children who experienced lower parental acceptance and greater parental psychopathology. Family conflict only moderated environmental influences when models did not covary for conduct problems. Parental acceptance and parental psychopathology may be specific environmental protective and risk factors for CU traits, whereas family conflict may represent a general environmental risk factor for both CU traits and conduct problems.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2022/10/14

Authors

Perlstein S, Hawes S, Vazquez AY, Pacheco-Colón I, Lehman S, Parent J, Byrd A, Waller R

Keywords

callous–unemotional traits, environment, etiology, genetics, parenting, twin study

DOI

10.1017/S0954579422000888
Toggle Impact of prenatal cannabis exposure on functional connectivity of the salience network in children. Journal of neuroscience research Faraj MM, Evanski J, Zundel CG, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Cannabis use among pregnant people has increased over the past decade. This is of concern as prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) is associated with cognitive, motor, and social deficits among offspring. Here, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the salience network (SN)-a core neurocognitive network that integrates emotional and sensory information-in children with (vs. without) PCE. Using neuroimaging and developmental history data collected from 10,719 children (M ± SD = 9.92 ± 0.62 years; 47.9% female) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, we assessed the impact of parent-reported PCE (before or after knowledge of pregnancy) on rsFC within and between the SN and five other core neurocognitive networks. We also evaluated whether SN rsFC mediated the association between PCE and child psychopathology. Results showed that PCE before (but not after) knowledge of pregnancy was associated with lower SN-ventral attention network (VAN) rsFC. Furthermore, psychotic-like experiences mediated the association between PCE and SN-VAN rsFC, and reversal of the model was also significant, such that SN-VAN rsFC mediated the association between PCE and psychotic-like symptoms. However, these mediation effects were no longer significant after the inclusion of covariates. Taken together, these findings suggest that developmental alterations in SN-VAN interactions may explain the previously reported association between PCE and elevated risk of child psychopathology.

Journal

Journal of neuroscience research

Published

2022/10/13

Authors

Faraj MM, Evanski J, Zundel CG, Peters C, Brummelte S, Lundahl L, Marusak HA

Keywords

endocannabinoid, fMRI, gestational marijuana, neurocognitive, resting-state, salience network

DOI

10.1002/jnr.25136
Toggle Family History of Depression and Neural Reward Sensitivity: Findings From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Freeman C, Olino T, Barbeau EB, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous studies have found that offspring of depressed parents exhibit reduced striatal reward response to anticipating and receiving rewards, suggesting that this may constitute a neurobiological risk marker for depression. The present study aimed to assess whether maternal and paternal depression history have independent effects on offspring reward processing and whether greater family history density of depression is associated with increased blunting of striatal reward responses.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2022/10/13

Authors

Freeman C, Olino T, Barbeau EB, Weinberg A, Chai X

Keywords

Depression, Development, Family history, Reward, Risk marker, fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.09.015
Toggle Task-based co-activation patterns reliably predict resting state canonical network engagement during development. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Ye F, Kohler R, Serio B, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental research has traditionally focused on development of individual structures, yet multiple lines of evidence indicate parallel development of large-scale systems, including canonical neural networks (i.e., default mode, frontoparietal). However, the relationship between region- vs. network-level development remains poorly understood. The current study tests the ability of a recently developed multi-task coactivation matrix approach to predict canonical resting state network engagement at baseline and at two-year follow-up in a large and cohort of young adolescents. Pre-processed tabulated neuroimaging data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, assessing youth at baseline (N = 6073, age = 10.0 ± 0.6 years, 3056 female) and at two-year follow-up (N = 3539, age = 11.9 ± 0.6 years, 1726 female). Individual multi-task co-activation matrices were constructed from the beta weights of task contrasts from the stop signal task, the monetary incentive delay task, and emotional N-back task. Activation-based predictive modeling, a cross-validated machine learning approach, was adopted to predict resting-state canonical network engagement from multi-task co-activation matrices at baseline. Note that the tabulated data used different parcellations of the task fMRI data (“ASEG” and Desikan) and the resting-state fMRI data (Gordon). Despite this, the model successfully predicted connectivity within the default mode network (DMN, rho = 0.179 ± 0.002, p < 0.001) across participants and identified a subset of co-activations within parietal and occipital macroscale brain regions as key contributors to model performance, suggesting an underlying common brain functional architecture across cognitive domains. Notably, predictive features for resting-state connectivity within the DMN identified at baseline also predicted DMN connectivity at two-year follow-up (rho = 0.258). These results indicate that multi-task co-activation matrices are functionally meaningful and can be used to predict resting-state connectivity. Interestingly, given that predictive features within the co-activation matrices identified at baseline can be extended to predictions at a future time point, our results suggest that task-based neural features and models are valid predictors of resting state network level connectivity across the course of development. Future work is encouraged to verify these findings with more consistent parcellations between task-based and resting-state fMRI, and with longer developmental trajectories.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/10/08

Authors

Ye F, Kohler R, Serio B, Lichenstein S, Yip SW

Keywords

Adolescence, Co-activation, Cognition, Development, Predictive modeling, Resting-state connectivity

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101160
Toggle Association of Video Gaming With Cognitive Performance Among Children. JAMA network open Chaarani B, Ortigara J, Yuan D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although most research has linked video gaming to subsequent increases in aggressive behavior in children after accounting for prior aggression, findings have been divided with respect to video gaming’s association with cognitive skills.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/10/03

Authors

Chaarani B, Ortigara J, Yuan D, Loso H, Potter A, Garavan HP

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.35721
Toggle Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Associations With Sex, Pubertal Maturation, and Weight in Children in the US. JAMA pediatrics Murray SB, Blashill AJ, Calzo JP 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2022/10/01

Authors

Murray SB, Blashill AJ, Calzo JP

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.2490
Toggle Associations Between Genetic Risk for Adult Suicide Attempt and Suicidal Behaviors in Young Children in the US. JAMA psychiatry Lee PH, Doyle AE, Silberstein M, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicide rates have been increasing among youth in the US. While the heritability of suicide risk is well established, there is limited understanding of how genetic risk is associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in young children.

Journal

JAMA psychiatry

Published

2022/10/01

Authors

Lee PH, Doyle AE, Silberstein M, Jung JY, Liu RT, Perlis RH, Roffman J, Smoller JW, Fava M, Kessler RC

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.2379
Toggle Effects of Parental Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems on Children's Limbic Brain Structures-An MRI Study. Brain sciences Albar Z, Sattar A 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Parental behavior problems have long-term effects on children’s limbic brain structures and functions. Parental behavior problems-related brain changes in children may lead to mental disorders and behavior dysfunction later in life. However, our understanding of the relationship between parental behavior and children’s brain structures is less obvious when children and adolescents are studied in a general population without mental disorders. The majority of studies on the relationship between parental behavior and adolescent brain structure have been focused on severe forms of the following parental behavior problems: (1) internalizing behavior associated with mood and anxiety disorders, and (2) externalizing behavior associated with substance use and violence. A few studies examined the effect of normative variations or subtle differences in parental behavior. Therefore, we utilized a large study-Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD)-to determine relationships between normative variation in parental internalizing and externalizing behavior and limbic brain structures in children and adolescents without mental disorders. Quantile (median) regression models were used to compute associations between parental behavior and children’s limbic structures. We found that parental internalizing and externalizing behaviors are uniquely associated with children’s limbic structures after adjustment for biological confounders and parental socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that normative parental behavior may have a significant early influence on limbic structures of normally developing children and adolescents. Accelerated or delayed limbic structure maturation may account for children’s and adolescents’ behavioral inadequacies and a risk of developing specific mood disorders or substance abuse problems later in life.

Journal

Brain sciences

Published

2022/09/29

Authors

Albar Z, Sattar A

Keywords

behavioral measures, brain imaging, child development, parenting, quantile regression

DOI

10.3390/brainsci12101319
Toggle White matter microstructure shows sex differences in late childhood: Evidence from 6797 children. Human brain mapping Lawrence KE, Abaryan Z, Laltoo E, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sex differences in white matter microstructure have been robustly demonstrated in the adult brain using both conventional and advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging approaches. However, sex differences in white matter microstructure prior to adulthood remain poorly understood; previous developmental work focused on conventional microstructure metrics and yielded mixed results. Here, we rigorously characterized sex differences in white matter microstructure among over 6000 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study who were between 9 and 10 years old. Microstructure was quantified using both the conventional model-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-and an advanced model, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI). DTI metrics included fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). RSI metrics included normalized isotropic, directional, and total intracellular diffusion (N0, ND, NT). We found significant and replicable sex differences in DTI or RSI microstructure metrics in every white matter region examined across the brain. Sex differences in FA were regionally specific. Across white matter regions, boys exhibited greater MD, AD, and RD than girls, on average. Girls displayed increased N0, ND, and NT compared to boys, on average, suggesting greater cell and neurite density in girls. Together, these robust and replicable findings provide an important foundation for understanding sex differences in health and disease.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/09/29

Authors

Lawrence KE, Abaryan Z, Laltoo E, Hernandez LM, Gandal MJ, McCracken JT, Thompson PM

Keywords

development, diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion-weighted MRI, microstructure, restriction spectrum imaging, sex differences, white matter

DOI

10.1002/hbm.26079
Toggle Exploring the Relationships Between Autozygosity, Educational Attainment, and Cognitive Ability in a Contemporary, Trans-Ancestral American Sample. Behavior genetics Colbert SM, Keller MC, Agrawal A, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous studies have found significant associations between estimated autozygosity – the proportion of an individual’s genome contained in homozygous segments due to distant inbreeding – and multiple traits, including educational attainment (EA) and cognitive ability. In one study, estimated autozygosity showed a stronger association with parental EA than the subject’s own EA. This was likely driven by parental EA’s association with mobility: more educated parents tended to migrate further from their hometown, and because of the strong correlation between ancestry and geography in the Netherlands, these individuals chose partners farther from their ancestry and therefore more different from them genetically. We examined the associations between estimated autozygosity, cognitive ability, and parental EA in a contemporary sub-sample of adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study℠ (ABCD Study®) (analytic N = 6,504). We found a negative association between autozygosity and child cognitive ability consistent with previous studies, while the associations between autozygosity and parental EA were in the expected direction of effect (with greater levels of autozygosity being associated with lower EA) but the effect sizes were significantly weaker than those estimated in previous work. We also found a lower mean level of autozygosity in the ABCD sample compared to previous autozygosity studies, which may reflect overall decreasing levels of autozygosity over generations. Variation in spousal similarities in ancestral background in the ABCD study compared to other studies may explain the pattern of associations between estimated autozygosity, EA, and cognitive ability in the current study.

Journal

Behavior genetics

Published

2022/09/28

Authors

Colbert SM, Keller MC, Agrawal A, Johnson EC

Keywords

Assortative mating, Autozygosity, Cognitive ability, Educational attainment, Runs of homozygosity

DOI

10.1007/s10519-022-10113-y
Toggle Concordance in Child-Parent Reporting of Social Victimization Experiences in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Academic pediatrics Tang JT, Saadi A, Dunn EC, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To investigate child-parent concordance in reporting social victimization experiences and whether concordance was associated with child behavioral symptoms.

Journal

Academic pediatrics

Published

2022/09/28

Authors

Tang JT, Saadi A, Dunn EC, Choi K

Keywords

adversity, behavioral problems, community violence, maltreatment, screening

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.09.018
Toggle SCALAR ON NETWORK REGRESSION VIA BOOSTING. The annals of applied statistics Morris EL, He K, Kang J 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Neuroimaging studies have a growing interest in learning the association between the individual brain connectivity networks and their clinical characteristics. It is also of great interest to identify the sub brain networks as biomarkers to predict the clinical symptoms, such as disease status, potentially providing insight on neuropathology. This motivates the need for developing a new type of regression model where the response variable is scalar, and predictors are networks that are typically represented as adjacent matrices or weighted adjacent matrices, to which we refer as scalar-on-network regression. In this work, we develop a new boosting method for model fitting with sub-network markers selection. Our approach, as opposed to group lasso or other existing regularization methods, is essentially a gradient descent algorithm leveraging known network structure. We demonstrate the utility of our methods via simulation studies and analysis of the resting-state fMRI data in a cognitive developmental cohort study.

Journal

The annals of applied statistics

Published

2022/09/26

Authors

Morris EL, He K, Kang J

Keywords

Boosting, Neuroimaging, fMRI

DOI

10.1214/22-aoas1612
Toggle Peer victimization (bullying) on mental health, behavioral problems, cognition, and academic performance in preadolescent children in the ABCD Study. Frontiers in psychology Menken MS, Isaiah A, Liang H, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Peer victimization is a substantial early life stressor linked to psychiatric symptoms and poor academic performance. However, the sex-specific cognitive or behavioral outcomes of bullying have not been well-described in preadolescent children.

Journal

Frontiers in psychology

Published

2022/09/26

Authors

Menken MS, Isaiah A, Liang H, Rivera PR, Cloak CC, Reeves G, Lever NA, Chang L

Keywords

bullying, internalizing and externalizing behavior, peer victimization, sex differences, suicidality

DOI

10.3389/fpsyg.2022.925727
Toggle Working memory and reaction time variability mediate the relationship between polygenic risk and ADHD traits in a general population sample. Molecular psychiatry Moses M, Tiego J, Demontis D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Endophenotypes are heritable and quantifiable traits indexing genetic liability for a disorder. Here, we examined three potential endophenotypes, working memory function, response inhibition, and reaction time variability, for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) measured as a dimensional latent trait in a large general population sample derived from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. The genetic risk for ADHD was estimated using polygenic risk scores (PRS) whereas ADHD traits were quantified as a dimensional continuum using Bartlett factor score estimates, derived from Attention Problems items from the Child Behaviour Checklist and Effortful Control items from the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised. The three candidate cognitive endophenotypes were quantified using task-based performance measures. Higher ADHD PRSs were associated with higher ADHD traits, as well as poorer working memory performance and increased reaction time variability. Lower working memory performance, poorer response inhibition, and increased reaction time variability were associated with more pronounced ADHD traits. Working memory and reaction time variability partially statistically mediated the relationship between ADHD PRS and ADHD traits, explaining 14% and 16% of the association, respectively. The mediation effect was specific to the genetic risk for ADHD and did not generalise to genetic risk for four other major psychiatric disorders. Together, these findings provide robust evidence from a large general population sample that working memory and reaction time variability can be considered endophenotypes for ADHD that mediate the relationship between ADHD PRS and ADHD traits.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2022/09/23

Authors

Moses M, Tiego J, Demontis D, Bragi Walters G, Stefansson H, Stefansson K, Børglum AD, Arnatkeviciute A, Bellgrove MA

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-022-01775-5
Toggle Developmental Milestones of Infancy and Associations with Later Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Zhuo H, Xiao J, Tseng WL, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The age at attaining infancy developmental milestones has been associated with later neurodevelopmental outcomes, but evidence from large and diverse samples is lacking. We investigated this by analyzing data of 5360 singleton children aged 9-10 from 17 states in the US enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study during 2016-2020. Delays in four milestones (first roll over, unaided sitting, unaided walking, and speaking first words) were defined using the 90th percentile of age at attainment reported by children’s biological mothers. Childhood neurocognitive function was measured by research assistants using the NIH toolbox, and children reported their behavioral problems using the Brief Problem Monitor. Linear mixed-effects models were employed to investigate the association between delays in single or multiple milestones and childhood neurobehavioral outcomes. Delays in first roll over, unaided sitting, or walking were associated with poorer childhood neurocognitive function, while delay in speaking first words was associated with both poorer neurocognitive function and behavioral problems. Children who had delays in both motor and language milestones had the worst neurocognitive function and behavioral outcomes. Our results suggest that delays in motor and language milestone attainment during infancy are predictive of childhood neurobehavioral outcomes.

Journal

Children (Basel, Switzerland)

Published

2022/09/20

Authors

Zhuo H, Xiao J, Tseng WL, Liew Z

Keywords

behavioral problems, early childhood, infancy developmental milestones, neurocognitive functions

DOI

10.3390/children9101424
Toggle Mediating effect of pubertal stages on the family environment and neurodevelopment: An open-data replication and multiverse analysis of an ABCD Study. Neuroimage. Reports Demidenko MI, Kelly DP, Hardi FA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Increasing evidence demonstrates that environmental factors meaningfully impact the development of the brain (Hyde et al., 2020; McEwen and Akil, 2020). Recent work from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study suggests that puberty may indirectly account for some association between the family environment and brain structure and function (Thijssen et al., 2020). However, a limited number of large studies have evaluated what, how, and why environmental factors impact neurodevelopment. When these topics are investigated, there is typically inconsistent operationalization of variables between studies which may be measuring different aspects of the environment and thus different associations in the analytic models. Multiverse analyses (Steegen et al., 2016) are an efficacious technique for investigating the effect of different operationalizations of the same construct on underlying interpretations. While one of the assets of Thijssen et al. (2020) was its large sample from the ABCD data, the authors used an early release that contained 38% of the full ABCD sample. Then, the analyses used several ‘researcher degrees of freedom’ (Gelman and Loken, 2014) to operationalize key independent, mediating and dependent variables, including but not limited to, the use of a latent factor of preadolescents’ environment comprised of different subfactors, such as parental monitoring and child-reported family conflict. While latent factors can improve reliability of constructs, the nuances of each subfactor and measure that comprise the environment may be lost, making the latent factors difficult to interpret in the context of individual differences. This study extends the work of Thijssen et al. (2020) by evaluating the extent to which the analytic choices in their study affected their conclusions. In Aim 1, using the same variables and models, we replicate findings from the original study using the full sample in Release 3.0. Then, in Aim 2, using a multiverse analysis we extend findings by considering nine alternative operationalizations of family environment, three of puberty, and five of brain measures (total of 135 models) to evaluate the impact on conclusions from Aim 1. In these results, 90% of the directions of effects and 60% of the -values (e.g. > .05 and < .05) across effects were comparable between the two studies. However, raters agreed that only 60% of the effects had replicated. Across the multiverse analyses, there was a degree of variability in beta estimates across the environmental variables, and lack of consensus between parent reported and child reported pubertal development for the indirect effects. This study demonstrates the challenge in defining which effects replicate, the nuance across environmental variables in the ABCD data, and the lack of consensus across parent and child reported puberty scales in youth.

Journal

Neuroimage. Reports

Published

2022/09/18

Authors

Demidenko MI, Kelly DP, Hardi FA, Ip KI, Lee S, Becker H, Hong S, Thijssen S, Luciana M, Keating DP

Keywords

Environment, Pubertal development, Resting state MRI, Structural MRI, Youth

DOI

10.1016/j.ynirp.2022.100133
Toggle Explaining the Association Between Fetal Growth and Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Cross-cohort Replication. Research on child and adolescent psychopathology Dooley N, Healy C, Brannigan R, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The association between restricted fetal growth and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is well-replicated and robust. However, fetal growth is determined by many prenatal factors and associations with mental health may be confounded by familial and social context. In this study, we sought to quantify the relative contributions of prenatal factors and familial confounds to the association between fetal growth and ADHD symptoms. Two independent cohorts were analyzed, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (ABCD; United States) and the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. ADHD symptoms were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (ABCD) and the Strengths & Difficulties questionnaire (GUI) at age 9-10. Using sequential regression models, we assessed the change-in-association between fetal growth and ADHD symptoms after controlling for sex, familial factors (socioeconomic/demographic factors & family psychiatric history) and prenatal factors (pregnancy complications & maternal substance-use during pregnancy). Converging findings from cohorts suggested that over a quarter of the association between fetal growth and ADHD symptoms is attributable to familial confounds. The degree to which the association was explained by prenatal factors differed by cohort-pregnancy complications explained a larger proportion of the effect in ABCD (7.9%) than GUI (2.7%), and maternal substance-use explained a larger proportion of the effect in GUI (22.7%) compared to ABCD (4.8%). Different explanations of the fetal growth-ADHD association across cohorts suggests cohort-specific, and potentially nationally-specific, risk factors for fetal growth and related neurodevelopmental outcomes. The evidence suggests early prevention of ADHD in Ireland should focus on minimizing maternal smoking during pregnancy. In the US, prevention and treatment of pregnancy complications are highlighted as viable targets for intervention.

Journal

Research on child and adolescent psychopathology

Published

2022/09/17

Authors

Dooley N, Healy C, Brannigan R, Cotter D, Clarke M, Cannon M

Keywords

ADHD, Birth weight, Fetal development, Fetal growth restriction, Pregnancy complications

DOI

10.1007/s10802-022-00971-9
Toggle Comparison of individualized behavioral predictions across anatomical, diffusion and functional connectivity MRI. NeuroImage Ooi LQR, Chen J, Zhang S, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

A fundamental goal across the neurosciences is the characterization of relationships linking brain anatomy, functioning, and behavior. Although various MRI modalities have been developed to probe these relationships, direct comparisons of their ability to predict behavior have been lacking. Here, we compared the ability of anatomical T1, diffusion and functional MRI (fMRI) to predict behavior at an individual level. Cortical thickness, area and volume were extracted from anatomical T1 images. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and approximate Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) models were fitted to the diffusion images. The resulting metrics were projected to the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) skeleton. We also ran probabilistic tractography for the diffusion images, from which we extracted the stream count, average stream length, and the average of each DTI and NODDI metric across tracts connecting each pair of brain regions. Functional connectivity (FC) was extracted from both task and resting-state fMRI. Individualized prediction of a wide range of behavioral measures were performed using kernel ridge regression, linear ridge regression and elastic net regression. Consistency of the results were investigated with the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) datasets. In both datasets, FC-based models gave the best prediction performance, regardless of regression model or behavioral measure. This was especially true for the cognitive component. Furthermore, all modalities were able to predict cognition better than other behavioral components. Combining all modalities improved prediction of cognition, but not other behavioral components. Finally, across all behaviors, combining resting and task FC yielded prediction performance similar to combining all modalities. Overall, our study suggests that in the case of healthy children and young adults, behaviorally-relevant information in T1 and diffusion features might reflect a subset of the variance captured by FC.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2022/09/16

Authors

Ooi LQR, Chen J, Zhang S, Kong R, Tam A, Li J, Dhamala E, Zhou JH, Holmes AJ, Yeo BTT

Keywords

Anatomical T1, Diffusion MRI, Functional MRI, Individualized behavior prediction, Multimodal MRI

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119636
Toggle Multiple Instance Neuroimage Transformer. PRedictive Intelligence in MEdicine. PRIME (Workshop) Singla A, Zhao Q, Do DK, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

For the first time, we propose using a multiple instance learning based convolution-free transformer model, called Multiple Instance Neuroimage Transformer (MINiT), for the classification of T1-weighted (T1w) MRIs. We first present several variants of transformer models adopted for neuroimages. These models extract non-overlapping 3D blocks from the input volume and perform multi-headed self-attention on a sequence of their linear projections. MINiT, on the other hand, treats each of the non-overlapping 3D blocks of the input MRI as its own instance, splitting it further into non-overlapping 3D patches, on which multi-headed self-attention is computed. As a proof-of-concept, we evaluate the efficacy of our model by training it to identify sex from T1w-MRIs of two public datasets: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) and the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA). The learned attention maps highlight voxels contributing to identifying sex differences in brain morphometry. The code is available at https://github.com/singlaayush/MINIT.

Journal

PRedictive Intelligence in MEdicine. PRIME (Workshop)

Published

2022/09/16

Authors

Singla A, Zhao Q, Do DK, Zhou Y, Pohl KM, Adeli E

Keywords

DOI

10.1007/978-3-031-16919-9_4
Toggle Generalization of cortical MOSTest genome-wide associations within and across samples. NeuroImage Loughnan RJ, Shadrin AA, Frei O, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Genome-Wide Association studies have typically been limited to univariate analysis in which a single outcome measure is tested against millions of variants. Recent work demonstrates that a Multivariate Omnibus Statistic Test (MOSTest) is well powered to discover genomic effects distributed across multiple phenotypes. Applied to cortical brain MRI morphology measures, MOSTest has resulted in a drastic improvement in power to discover loci when compared to established approaches (min-P). One question that arises is how well these discovered loci replicate in independent data. Here we perform 10 times cross validation within 34,973 individuals from UK Biobank for imaging measures of cortical area, thickness and sulcal depth (>1,000 dimensionality for each). By deploying a replication method that aggregates discovered effects distributed across multiple phenotypes, termed PolyVertex Score (MOSTest-PVS), we demonstrate a higher replication yield and comparable replication rate of discovered loci for MOSTest (# replicated loci: 242-496, replication rate: 96-97%) in independent data when compared with the established min-P approach (# replicated loci: 26-55, replication rate: 91-93%). An out-of-sample replication of discovered loci was conducted with a sample of 4,069 individuals from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development® (ABCD) study, who are on average 50 years younger than UK Biobank individuals. We observe a higher replication yield and comparable replication rate of MOSTest-PVS compared to min-P. This finding underscores the importance of using well-powered multivariate techniques for both discovery and replication of high dimensional phenotypes in Genome-Wide Association studies.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2022/09/14

Authors

Loughnan RJ, Shadrin AA, Frei O, van der Meer D, Zhao W, Palmer CE, Thompson WK, Makowski C, Jernigan TL, Andreassen OA, Fan CC, Dale AM

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119632
Toggle Genetic risk, parental history, and suicide attempts in a diverse sample of US adolescents. Frontiers in psychiatry Barzilay R, Visoki E, Schultz LM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescent suicide is a major health problem in the US marked by a recent increase in risk of suicidal behavior among Black/African American youth. While genetic factors partly account for familial transmission of suicidal behavior, it is not clear whether polygenic risk scores of suicide attempt can contribute to suicide risk classification.

Journal

Frontiers in psychiatry

Published

2022/09/14

Authors

Barzilay R, Visoki E, Schultz LM, Warrier V, Daskalakis NP, Almasy L

Keywords

adolescents, child adolescent psychiatry, family history, genetics, polygenic risk prediction, suicide attempt

DOI

10.3389/fpsyt.2022.941772
Toggle Evidence from "big data" for the default-mode hypothesis of ADHD: a mega-analysis of multiple large samples. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Norman LJ, Sudre G, Price J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

We sought to identify resting-state characteristics related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, both as a categorical diagnosis and as a trait feature, using large-scale samples which were processed according to a standardized pipeline. In categorical analyses, we considered 1301 subjects with diagnosed ADHD, contrasted against 1301 unaffected controls (total N = 2602; 1710 males (65.72%); mean age = 10.86 years, sd = 2.05). Cases and controls were 1:1 nearest neighbor matched on in-scanner motion and key demographic variables and drawn from multiple large cohorts. Associations between ADHD-traits and resting-state connectivity were also assessed in a large multi-cohort sample (N = 10,113). ADHD diagnosis was associated with less anticorrelation between the default mode and salience/ventral attention (B = 0.009, t = 3.45, p-FDR = 0.004, d = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.004, 0.014), somatomotor (B = 0.008, t = 3.49, p-FDR = 0.004, d = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.004, 0.013), and dorsal attention networks (B = 0.01, t = 4.28, p-FDR < 0.001, d = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.006, 0.015). These results were robust to sensitivity analyses considering comorbid internalizing problems, externalizing problems and psychostimulant medication. Similar findings were observed when examining ADHD traits, with the largest effect size observed for connectivity between the default mode network and the dorsal attention network (B = 0.0006, t = 5.57, p-FDR < 0.001, partial-r = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.0004, 0.0008). We report significant ADHD-related differences in interactions between the default mode network and task-positive networks, in line with default mode interference models of ADHD. Effect sizes (Cohen's d and partial-r, estimated from the mega-analytic models) were small, indicating subtle group differences. The overlap between the affected brain networks in the clinical and general population samples supports the notion of brain phenotypes operating along an ADHD continuum.

Journal

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Published

2022/09/13

Authors

Norman LJ, Sudre G, Price J, Shastri GG, Shaw P

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41386-022-01408-z
Toggle Estimating Parental Demand for Children’s Screen Time in a Model of Family Labor Supply International Advances in Economic Research Oh SE & Vukina T 2022
Link to Publication

Abstract

In a novel approach to model the demand for the children’s screen time as the result of a parent’s optimal labor-leisure choice, the study used a simple model of parental utility maximization subject to the money and time budget constraints to derive Marshallian parental demand functions for two types of child upbringing activities: time-intensive (violin lesson) and time-saving (video games). After the Slutsky decomposition, parental demand for children’s screen time was shown to be similar to a Giffen good. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development data, the wage equation was first estimated based on Heckman’s two-step correction procedure. Then, the total effect of an increase in wage rate on the parental demand for screen time was empirically decomposed into the substitution effect and the income effect. The study findings indicate that the substitution effect is positive, the income effect is negative, and the negative income effect dominates the substitution effect. We add to the existing literature by showing that the empirical findings in the public health and psychology literature can be reconciled with the theoretical predictions of the standard economic labor-leisure trade-off paradigm.

Journal

International Advances in Economic Research

Published

2022/09/13

Authors

Oh SE & Vukina T

Keywords

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11294-022-09854-7
Toggle Shared genetic architecture between schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes implicates early neurodevelopmental processes and brain development in childhood. Molecular psychiatry Cheng W, van der Meer D, Parker N, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Patients with schizophrenia have consistently shown brain volumetric abnormalities, implicating both etiological and pathological processes. However, the genetic relationship between schizophrenia and brain volumetric abnormalities remains poorly understood. Here, we applied novel statistical genetic approaches (MiXeR and conjunctional false discovery rate analysis) to investigate genetic overlap with mixed effect directions using independent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia (n = 130,644) and brain volumetric phenotypes, including subcortical brain and intracranial volumes (n = 33,735). We found brain volumetric phenotypes share substantial genetic variants (74-96%) with schizophrenia, and observed 107 distinct shared loci with sign consistency in independent samples. Genes mapped by shared loci revealed (1) significant enrichment in neurodevelopmental biological processes, (2) three co-expression clusters with peak expression at the prenatal stage, and (3) genetically imputed thalamic expression of CRHR1 and ARL17A was associated with the thalamic volume as early as in childhood. Together, our findings provide evidence of shared genetic architecture between schizophrenia and brain volumetric phenotypes and suggest that altered early neurodevelopmental processes and brain development in childhood may be involved in schizophrenia development.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2022/09/13

Authors

Cheng W, van der Meer D, Parker N, Hindley G, O'Connell KS, Wang Y, Shadrin AA, Alnæs D, Bahrami S, Lin A, Karadag N, Holen B, Fernandez-Cabello S, Fan CC, Dale AM, Djurovic S, Westlye LT, Frei O, Smeland OB, Andreassen OA

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-022-01751-z
Toggle Association between mild traumatic brain injury, brain structure, and mental health outcomes in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. NeuroImage Lopez DA, Christensen ZP, Foxe JJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children that experience a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are at an increased risk of neural alterations that can deteriorate mental health. We test the hypothesis that mTBI is associated with psychopathology and that structural brain metrics (e.g., volume, area) meaningfully mediate the relation in an adolescent population.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2022/09/11

Authors

Lopez DA, Christensen ZP, Foxe JJ, Ziemer LR, Nicklas PR, Freedman EG

Keywords

Brain structure, Child, Head injury, Longitudinal, Mental health, Mild traumatic brain injury

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119626
Toggle Sensory Over-responsivity: A Feature of Childhood Psychiatric Illness Associated With Altered Functional Connectivity of Sensory Networks. Biological psychiatry Schwarzlose RF, Tillman R, Hoyniak CP, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is recognized as a common feature of autism spectrum disorder. However, SOR is also common among typically developing children, in whom it is associated with elevated levels of psychiatric symptoms. The clinical significance and neurocognitive bases of SOR in these children remain poorly understood and actively debated.

Journal

Biological psychiatry

Published

2022/09/08

Authors

Schwarzlose RF, Tillman R, Hoyniak CP, Luby JL, Barch DM

Keywords

Anxiety, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Autism spectrum disorder, Depression, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Sensory over-responsivity

DOI

10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.09.004
Toggle Structural brain alterations associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in young people: results from 21 international studies from the ENIGMA Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours consortium. Molecular psychiatry van Velzen LS, Dauvermann MR, Colic L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Identifying brain alterations associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) in young people is critical to understanding their development and improving early intervention and prevention. The ENIGMA Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours (ENIGMA-STB) consortium analyzed neuroimaging data harmonized across sites to examine brain morphology associated with STBs in youth. We performed analyses in three separate stages, in samples ranging from most to least homogeneous in terms of suicide assessment instrument and mental disorder. First, in a sample of 577 young people with mood disorders, in which STBs were assessed with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Second, in a sample of young people with mood disorders, in which STB were assessed using different instruments, MRI metrics were compared among healthy controls without STBs (HC; N = 519), clinical controls with a mood disorder but without STBs (CC; N = 246) and young people with current suicidal ideation (N = 223). In separate analyses, MRI metrics were compared among HCs (N = 253), CCs (N = 217), and suicide attempters (N = 64). Third, in a larger transdiagnostic sample with various assessment instruments (HC = 606; CC = 419; Ideation = 289; HC = 253; CC = 432; Attempt=91). In the homogeneous C-SSRS sample, surface area of the frontal pole was lower in young people with mood disorders and a history of actual suicide attempts (N = 163) than those without a lifetime suicide attempt (N = 323; FDR-p = 0.035, Cohen’s d = 0.34). No associations with suicidal ideation were found. When examining more heterogeneous samples, we did not observe significant associations. Lower frontal pole surface area may represent a vulnerability for a (non-interrupted and non-aborted) suicide attempt; however, more research is needed to understand the nature of its relationship to suicide risk.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2022/09/07

Authors

van Velzen LS, Dauvermann MR, Colic L, Villa LM, Savage HS, Toenders YJ, Zhu AH, Bright JK, Campos AI, Salminen LE, Ambrogi S, Ayesa-Arriola R, Banaj N, Başgöze Z, Bauer J, Blair K, Blair RJ, Brosch K, Cheng Y, Colle R, Connolly CG, Corruble E, Couvy-Duchesne B, Crespo-Facorro B, Cullen KR, Dannlowski U, Davey CG, Dohm K, Fullerton JM, Gonul AS, Gotlib IH, Grotegerd D, Hahn T, Harrison BJ, He M, Hickie IB, Ho TC, Iorfino F, Jansen A, Jollant F, Kircher T, Klimes-Dougan B, Klug M, Leehr EJ, Lippard ETC, McLaughlin KA, Meinert S, Miller AB, Mitchell PB, Mwangi B, Nenadić I, Ojha A, Overs BJ, Pfarr JK, Piras F, Ringwald KG, Roberts G, Romer G, Sanches M, Sheridan MA, Soares JC, Spalletta G, Stein F, Teresi GI, Tordesillas-Gutiérrez D, Uyar-Demir A, van der Wee NJA, van der Werff SJ, Vermeiren RRJM, Winter A, Wu MJ, Yang TT, Thompson PM, Rentería ME, Jahanshad N, Blumberg HP, van Harmelen AL, , Schmaal L

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-022-01734-0
Toggle Associations between brain imaging and polygenic scores of mental health and educational attainment in children aged 9-11. NeuroImage Fernandez-Cabello S, Alnæs D, van der Meer D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable and polygenic, and many have their peak onset in late childhood and adolescence, a period of tremendous changes. Although the neurodevelopmental antecedents of mental illness are widely acknowledged, research in youth population cohorts is still scarce, preventing our progress towards the early characterization of these disorders. We included 7,124 children (9-11 years old) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study to map the associations of structural and diffusion brain imaging with common genetic variants and polygenic scores for psychiatric disorders and educational attainment. We used principal component analysis to derive imaging components, and calculated their heritability. We then assessed the relationship of imaging components with genetic and clinical psychiatric risk with univariate models and Canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Most imaging components had moderate heritability. Univariate models showed limited evidence and small associations of polygenic scores with brain structure at this age. CCA revealed two significant modes of covariation. The first mode linked higher polygenic scores for educational attainment with less externalizing problems and larger surface area. The second mode related higher polygenic scores for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder to higher global cortical thickness, smaller white matter volumes of the fornix and cingulum, larger medial occipital surface area and smaller surface area of lateral and medial temporal regions. While cross-validation suggested limited generalizability, our results highlight the potential of multivariate models to better understand the transdiagnostic and distributed relationships between mental health and brain structure in late childhood.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2022/09/05

Authors

Fernandez-Cabello S, Alnæs D, van der Meer D, Dahl A, Holm M, Kjelkenes R, Maximov II, Norbom LB, Pedersen ML, Voldsbekk I, Andreassen OA, Westlye LT

Keywords

Development, Imaging genetics, Multimodal, Polygenic risk

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119611
Toggle Distinguish bipolar and major depressive disorder in adolescents based on multimodal neuroimaging: Results from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Digital health Liu Y, Chen K, Luo Y, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder in adolescents are prevalent and are associated with cognitive impairment, executive dysfunction, and increased mortality. Early intervention in the initial stages of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder can significantly improve personal health.

Journal

Digital health

Published

2022/09/05

Authors

Liu Y, Chen K, Luo Y, Wu J, Xiang Q, Peng L, Zhang J, Zhao W, Li M, Zhou X

Keywords

Bipolar disorder, cuneus, major depressive disorder, multimodal, support vector machine

DOI

10.1177/20552076221123705
Toggle Youth screen use in the ABCD® study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Bagot KS, Tomko RL, Marshall AT, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescent screen usage is ubiquitous and influences development and behavior. Longitudinal screen usage data coupled with psychometrically valid constructs of problematic behaviors can provide insights into these relationships. We describe methods by which the screen usage questionnaire was developed in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, demonstrate longitudinal changes in screen usage via child report and describe data harmonization baseline-year 2. We further include psychometric analyses of adapted social media and video game addiction scales completed by youth. Nearly 12,000 children ages 9-10 years at baseline and their parents were included in the analyses. The social media addiction questionnaire (SMAQ) showed similar factor structure and item loadings across sex and race/ethnicities, but that item intercepts varied across both sex and race/ethnicity. The videogame addiction questionnaire (VGAQ) demonstrated the same configural, metric and scalar invariance across racial and ethnic groups, however differed across sex. Video gaming and online social activity increased over ages 9/10-11/12 (p’s < 0.001). Compared with boys, girls engaged in greater social media use (p < .001) and demonstrated higher ratings on the SMAQ (p < .001). Compared with girls, boys played more video games (p < .001) and demonstrated higher ratings on the VGAQ (p < .001). Time spent playing video games increased more steeply for boys than girls from age 9/10-11/12 years (p < .001). Black youth demonstrated significantly higher SMAQ and VGAQ scores compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. These data show the importance of considering different screen modalities beyond total screen use and point towards clear demographic differences in use patterns. With these comprehensive data, ABCD is poised to address critical questions about screen usage changes across adolescence.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/09/01

Authors

Bagot KS, Tomko RL, Marshall AT, Hermann J, Cummins K, Ksinan A, Kakalis M, Breslin F, Lisdahl KM, Mason M, Redhead JN, Squeglia LM, Thompson WK, Wade T, Tapert SF, Fuemmeler BF, Baker FC

Keywords

ABCD, Children, Screen usage, Self-report

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101150
Toggle Associations among Household and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantages, Resting-state Frontoamygdala Connectivity, and Internalizing Symptoms in Youth. Journal of cognitive neuroscience Ip KI, Sisk LM, Horien C, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantages (SED) can have negative impacts on mental health, yet SED are a multifaceted construct and the precise processes by which SED confer deleterious effects are less clear. Using a large and diverse sample of preadolescents (ages 9-10 years at baseline, n = 4038, 49% female) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, we examined associations among SED at both household (i.e., income-needs and material hardship) and neighborhood (i.e., area deprivation and neighborhood unsafety) levels, frontoamygdala resting-state functional connectivity, and internalizing symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up. SED were positively associated with internalizing symptoms at baseline and indirectly predicted symptoms 1 year later through elevated symptoms at baseline. At the household level, youth in households characterized by higher disadvantage (i.e., lower income-to-needs ratio) exhibited more strongly negative frontoamygdala coupling, particularly between the bilateral amygdala and medial OFC (mOFC) regions within the frontoparietal network. Although more strongly positive amygdala-mOFC coupling was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up, it did not mediate the association between income-to-needs ratio and internalizing symptoms. However, at the neighborhood level, amygdala-mOFC functional coupling moderated the effect of neighborhood deprivation on internalizing symptoms. Specifically, higher neighborhood deprivation was associated with higher internalizing symptoms for youth with more strongly positive connectivity, but not for youth with more strongly negative connectivity, suggesting a potential buffering effect. Findings highlight the importance of capturing multilevel socioecological contexts in which youth develop to identify youth who are most likely to benefit from early interventions.

Journal

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/09/01

Authors

Ip KI, Sisk LM, Horien C, Conley MI, Rapuano KM, Rosenberg MD, Greene AS, Scheinost D, Constable RT, Casey BJ, Baskin-Sommers A, Gee DG

Keywords

DOI

10.1162/jocn_a_01826
Toggle School Climate, Cortical Structure, and Socioemotional Functioning: Associations across Family Income Levels. Journal of cognitive neuroscience Hackman DA, Duan L, McConnell EE, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

School climates are important for children’s socioemotional development and may also serve as protective factors in the context of adversity. Nevertheless, little is known about the potential neural mechanisms of such associations, as there has been limited research concerning the relation between school climate and brain structure, particularly for brain regions relevant for mental health and socioemotional functioning. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the role of school climate differs depending on children’s socioeconomic status. We addressed these questions in baseline data for 9- to 10-year-olds from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (analytic sample for socioemotional outcomes, n = 8887), conducted at 21 sites across the United States. Cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume were derived from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging. School climate was measured by youth report, and socioemotional functioning was measured by both youth and parent report. A positive school climate and higher family income were associated with lower internalizing and externalizing symptoms, with no evidence of moderation. There were no associations between school climate and cortical thickness or subcortical volume, although family income was positively associated with hippocampal volume. For cortical surface area, however, there was both a positive association with family income and moderation: There was an interaction between school climate and income for total cortical surface area and locally in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. In all cases, there was an unexpected negative association between school climate and cortical surface area in the lower-income group. Consequently, although the school climate appears to be related to better socioemotional function for all youth, findings suggest that the association between a positive school environment and brain structure only emerges in the context of socioeconomic stress and adversity. Longitudinal data are needed to understand the role of these neural differences in socioemotional functioning over time.

Journal

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/09/01

Authors

Hackman DA, Duan L, McConnell EE, Lee WJ, Beak AS, Kraemer DJM

Keywords

DOI

10.1162/jocn_a_01833
Toggle Examining reaction time variability on the stop-signal task in the ABCD study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS Epstein JN, Karalunas SL, Tamm L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Reaction time variability (RTV) has been estimated using Gaussian, ex-Gaussian, and diffusion model (DM) indices. Rarely have studies examined interrelationships among these performance indices in childhood, and the use of reaction time (RT) computational models has been slow to take hold in the developmental psychopathology literature. Here, we extend prior work in adults by examining the interrelationships among different model parameters in the ABCD sample and demonstrate how computational models of RT can clarify mechanisms of time-on-task effects and sex differences in RTs.

Journal

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS

Published

2022/08/31

Authors

Epstein JN, Karalunas SL, Tamm L, Dudley JA, Lynch JD, Altaye M, Simon JO, Maloney TC, Atluri G

Keywords

attentional fluctuations, drift diffusion, ex-Gaussian, intraindividual variability, reaction time, sex differences, vigilance

DOI

10.1017/S1355617722000431
Toggle Sex-specific genetic association between psychiatric disorders and cognition, behavior and brain imaging in children and adults. Translational psychiatry Gui Y, Zhou X, Wang Z, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although there are pronounced sex differences for psychiatric disorders, relatively little has been published on the heterogeneity of sex-specific genetic effects for these traits until very recently for adults. Much less is known about children because most psychiatric disorders will not manifest until later in life and existing studies for children on psychiatric traits such as cognitive functions are underpowered. We used results from publicly available genome-wide association studies for six psychiatric disorders and individual-level data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study and the UK Biobank (UKB) study to evaluate the associations between the predicted polygenic risk scores (PRS) of these six disorders and observed cognitive functions, behavioral and brain imaging traits. We further investigated the mediation effects of the brain structure and function, which showed heterogeneity between males and females on the correlation between genetic risk of schizophrenia and fluid intelligence. There was significant heterogeneity in genetic associations between the cognitive traits and psychiatric disorders between sexes. Specifically, the PRSs of schizophrenia of boys showed stronger correlation with eight of the ten cognitive functions in the ABCD data set; whereas the PRSs of autism of females showed a stronger correlation with fluid intelligence in the UKB data set. Besides cognitive traits, we also found significant sexual heterogeneity in genetic associations between psychiatric disorders and behavior and brain imaging. These results demonstrate the underlying early etiology of psychiatric disease and reveal a shared and unique genetic basis between the disorders and cognition traits involved in brain functions between the sexes.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2022/08/26

Authors

Gui Y, Zhou X, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Zhou G, Zhao Y, Liu M, Lu H, Zhao H

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-022-02041-6
Toggle Fairness-related performance and explainability effects in deep learning models for brain image analysis. Journal of medical imaging (Bellingham, Wash.) Stanley EAM, Wilms M, Mouches P, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Explainability and fairness are two key factors for the effective and ethical clinical implementation of deep learning-based machine learning models in healthcare settings. However, there has been limited work on investigating how unfair performance manifests in explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) methods, and how XAI can be used to investigate potential reasons for unfairness. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze the effects of previously established sociodemographic-related confounders on classifier performance and explainability methods. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained to predict biological sex from T1-weighted brain MRI datasets of 4547 9- to 10-year-old adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Performance disparities of the trained CNN between White and Black subjects were analyzed and saliency maps were generated for each subgroup at the intersection of sex and race. The classification model demonstrated a significant difference in the percentage of correctly classified White male ( ) and Black male ( ) children. Conversely, slightly higher performance was found for Black female ( ) compared with White female ( ) children. Saliency maps showed subgroup-specific differences, corresponding to brain regions previously associated with pubertal development. In line with this finding, average pubertal development scores of subjects used in this study were significantly different between Black and White females ( ) and males ( ). We demonstrate that a CNN with significantly different sex classification performance between Black and White adolescents can identify different important brain regions when comparing subgroup saliency maps. Importance scores vary substantially between subgroups within brain structures associated with pubertal development, a race-associated confounder for predicting sex. We illustrate that unfair models can produce different XAI results between subgroups and that these results may explain potential reasons for biased performance.

Journal

Journal of medical imaging (Bellingham, Wash.)

Published

2022/08/26

Authors

Stanley EAM, Wilms M, Mouches P, Forkert ND

Keywords

adolescent brain cognitive development study, bias, explainable artificial intelligence, fairness, machine learning, magnetic resonance imaging

DOI

10.1117/1.JMI.9.6.061102
Toggle Adolescent Mental Health and Family Economic Hardships: The Roles of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Family Conflict. Journal of youth and adolescence Barnhart S, Garcia AR, Karcher NR 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Rising and economically disproportionate rates of adverse mental health outcomes among children and youth warrant research investigating the complex pathways stemming from socioeconomic status. While adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been considered a possible mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES) and child and youth psychopathology in previous studies, less is understood about how family environments might condition these pathways. Using data from a longitudinal, multiple-wave study, the present study addresses this gap by examining the direct relationships between family economic status and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms, if ACEs mediate these relationships, and if conflictual family environments moderate these direct and indirect relationships. The data were obtained from 5510 youth participants [mean age at baseline = 9.52 (SD = 0.50), 47.7% female, 2.1% Asian, 10.3% Black, 17.6% Hispanic, 9.8% Multiracial/Multiethnic, 60.2% White] and their caretakers from the baseline, 1-year, and 2-year follow up waves. Conditional process analysis assessed the direct, indirect, and moderated relationships in separate, equivalent models based on youth- versus caregiver-raters of ACEs and youth psychopathology to capture potential differences based on the rater. The results of both the youth- and caregiver-rated models indicated that lower family economic status directly predicted higher levels of externalizing symptoms, and ACEs indirectly accounted for higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, family conflict moderated some, but not all, of these relationships. The study’s findings highlight that lower family economic status and ACEs, directly and indirectly, contribute to early adolescent psychopathology, and conflictual family environments can further intensify these relationships. Implementing empirically supported policies and interventions that target ACEs and family environments may disrupt deleterious pathways between SES and youth psychopathology.

Journal

Journal of youth and adolescence

Published

2022/08/23

Authors

Barnhart S, Garcia AR, Karcher NR

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study®, Adverse childhood experiences, Child and adolescent mental health, Economic adversity, Family conflict

DOI

10.1007/s10964-022-01671-9
Toggle The ABCD stop signal data: Response to Bissett et al. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Garavan H, Chaarani B, Hahn S, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

This paper responds to a recent critique by Bissett et al. of the fMRI Stop task used in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®). The critique focuses primarily on a task design feature related to race model assumptions (i.e., that the Go and Stop processes are fully independent). In response, we note that the race model is quite robust against violations of its assumptions. Most importantly, while Bissett raises conceptual concerns with the task we focus here on analyzes of the task data and conclude that the concerns appear to have minimal impact on the neuroimaging data (the validity of which do not rely on race model assumptions) and have far less of an impact on the performance data than the critique suggests. We note that Bissett did not apply any performance-based exclusions to the data they analyzed, a number of the trial coding errors they flagged were already identified and corrected in ABCD annual data releases, a number of their secondary concerns reflect sensible design decisions and, indeed, their own computational modeling of the ABCD Stop task suggests the problems they identify have just a modest impact on the rank ordering of individual differences in subject performance.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/08/11

Authors

Garavan H, Chaarani B, Hahn S, Allgaier N, Juliano A, Yuan DK, Orr C, Watts R, Wager TD, Ruiz de Leon O, Hagler DJ, Potter A

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescence, Neuroimaging, Race model, STOP task

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101144
Toggle Integrative analysis of genomic and exposomic influences on youth mental health. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Choi KW, Wilson M, Ge T, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Understanding complex influences on mental health problems in young people is needed to inform early prevention strategies. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to influence youth mental health, but a more comprehensive picture of their interplay, including wide-ranging environmental exposures – that is, the exposome – is needed. We perform an integrative analysis of genomic and exposomic data in relation to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a cohort of 4,314 unrelated youth from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2022/08/10

Authors

Choi KW, Wilson M, Ge T, Kandola A, Patel CJ, Lee SH, Smoller JW

Keywords

Exposome, G × E, depression, gene-environment interaction, genetics, heritability, youth mental health

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13664
Toggle Impact of Childhood Trauma Exposure, Genetic Variation in Endocannabinoid Signaling, and Anxiety on Frontolimbic Pathways in Children. Cannabis and cannabinoid research Marusak HA, Evanski J, Desai S, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in modulating brain development, including myelination processes. Recent studies link a common variant (C385A, rs324420) in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene to higher circulating eCB levels, lower anxiety, and altered frontolimbic development. Frontolimbic pathways, which demonstrate a protracted maturational course across childhood and adolescence, are associated with anxiety, and are vulnerable to environmental stressors such as trauma exposure. Here, we examined the impact of trauma exposure, FAAH genotype, and anxiety on frontolimbic white matter microstructure in children. We leveraged baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (=9969; mean±standard deviation age=9.92±0.62 years; 47.1% female). Saliva samples were used for genotyping, and caregivers reported on their child’s anxiety symptoms and trauma exposure. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a nonspecific measure of white matter integrity, was estimated for frontolimbic tracts. Thirty-six percent of youth experienced one or more potentially traumatic events according to Criterion A (64% controls), and 45% were FAAH A-allele carriers (55% noncarriers). Relative to controls, trauma-exposed youth demonstrated higher anxiety and higher FA of the left uncinate. The FAAH A-allele (vs. CC) was associated with lower FA in the left fornix and left parahippocampal cingulum, and there was an indirect effect of FAAH genotype on anxiety through FA of the left fornix. Moreover, genotype moderated the association between FA of the left cingulum and anxiety. Our findings demonstrate distinct effects of trauma exposure and the FAAH C385A variant on frontolimbic pathways and subsequent anxiety risk in preadolescent children. This line of work may provide important insights into neurodevelopmental mechanisms leading to anxiety risk, and potential targets for intervention.

Journal

Cannabis and cannabinoid research

Published

2022/08/09

Authors

Marusak HA, Evanski J, Desai S, Rabinak CA

Keywords

childhood adversity, diffusion tensor imaging, fatty acid amide hydrolase, fractional anisotropy, neuroimaging, white matter

DOI

10.1089/can.2022.0144
Toggle Location matters: Regional variation in association of community burden of COVID-19 with caregiver and youth worry. Health & place Marshall AT, Hackman DA, Kan E, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Our study characterized associations between three indicators of COVID-19’s community-level impact in 20 geographically diverse metropolitan regions and how worried youth and their caregivers in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ Study have been about COVID-19. County-level COVID-19 case/death rates and monthly unemployment rates were geocoded to participants’ addresses. Caregivers’ (vs. youths’) COVID-19-related worry was more strongly associated with COVID-19’s community impact, independent of sociodemographics and pre-pandemic anxiety levels, with these associations varying by location. Public-health agencies and healthcare providers should avoid adopting uniform “one-size-fits-all” approaches to addressing COVID-19-related emotional distress and must consider specific communities’ needs, challenges, and strengths.

Journal

Health & place

Published

2022/08/09

Authors

Marshall AT, Hackman DA, Kan E, Abad S, Baker FC, Baskin-Sommers A, Dowling GJ, Gonzalez MR, Guillaume M, Kiss O, McCabe CJ, McCandliss BD, Pelham WE, Tapert SF, Van Rinsveld A, Sowell ER

Keywords

Adolescent, Anxiety, COVID-19, Caregivers, Residence characteristics

DOI

10.1016/j.healthplace.2022.102885
Toggle A prospective investigation of youth alcohol experimentation and reward responsivity in the ABCD study. Frontiers in psychiatry May AC, Jacobus J, Simmons AN, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Greater risk-taking behaviors, such as alcohol experimentation, are associated with different patterns of brain functioning in regions implicated in reward (nucleus accumbens, NA) and cognitive control (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG). These neural features have been observed in youth with greater risk-taking tendencies prior to substance use initiation, suggesting NA-IFG disruption may serve as an early marker for subsequent substance use disorders. Prospective studies are needed to determine if NA-IFG neural disruption predicts future substance use in school-age children, including those with minimal use of alcohol (e.g., sipping). The present large-sample prospective study sought to use machine learning to: (1) examine alcohol sipping at ages 9, 10 as a potential behavioral indicator of concurrent underlying altered neural responsivity to reward, and (2) determine if alcohol sipping and NA-IFG activation at ages 9, 10 can be used to predict which youth reported increased alcohol use at ages 11, 12. Additionally, low-level alcohol use and brain functioning at ages 9, 10 were examined as predictors of substance use and brain functioning at ages 11, 12.

Journal

Frontiers in psychiatry

Published

2022/08/08

Authors

May AC, Jacobus J, Simmons AN, Tapert SF

Keywords

alcohol experimentation, alcohol sipping, inferior frontal gyrus, machine learning, nucleus accumbens, support vector machine, youth

DOI

10.3389/fpsyt.2022.886848
Toggle Atypical Functional Network Properties and Associated Dimensions of Child Psychopathology During Rest and Task Performance. Biological psychiatry global open science Reimann GE, Stier AJ, Moore TM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

When brain networks deviate from typical development, this is thought to contribute to varying forms of psychopathology. However, research has been limited by the reliance on discrete diagnostic categories that overlook the potential for psychological comorbidity and the dimensional nature of symptoms.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2022/08/07

Authors

Reimann GE, Stier AJ, Moore TM, Durham EL, Jeong HJ, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Dupont RM, Pines JR, Berman MG, Lahey BB, Kaczkurkin AN

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Child Behavior Checklist, Psychopathology symptoms

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.07.007
Toggle Big or Little Data for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research in Psychiatry? Biological psychiatry Talati A, van Dijk MT, Weissman MM 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

Biological psychiatry

Published

2022/08/05

Authors

Talati A, van Dijk MT, Weissman MM

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.06.007
Toggle Brain structural changes and the development of interference control in children with ADHD: The predictive value of physical activity and body mass index. NeuroImage. Clinical Ludyga S, Ishihara T 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children with ADHD face deficits in interference control due to abnormalities in brain structure. A low body mass index and high physical activity are factors promoting brain health and may have the potential to reduce ADHD-related cognitive deficits. We aimed to investigate the predictive values of ADHD, body mass index and physical activity for interference control and the potential mediation of these associations by brain structure.

Journal

NeuroImage. Clinical

Published

2022/08/04

Authors

Ludyga S, Ishihara T

Keywords

Cortical thickness, Executive function, Exercise, Intracortical myelination, Physical fitness

DOI

10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103141
Toggle Prediction of fluid intelligence from T1-w MRI images: A precise two-step deep learning framework. PloS one Li M, Jiang M, Zhang G, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge (ABCD-NP-Challenge) is a community-driven competition that challenges competitors to develop algorithms to predict fluid intelligence scores from T1-w MRI images. In this work, a two-step deep learning pipeline is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of fluid intelligence scores. In terms of the first step, the main contributions of this study include the following: (1) the concepts of the residual network (ResNet) and the squeeze-and-excitation network (SENet) are utilized to improve the original 3D U-Net; (2) in the segmentation process, the pixels in symmetrical brain regions are assigned the same label; (3) to remove redundant background information from the segmented regions of interest (ROIs), a minimum bounding cube (MBC) is used to enclose the ROIs. This new segmentation structure can greatly improve the segmentation performance of the ROIs in the brain as compared with the classical convolutional neural network (CNN), which yields a Dice coefficient of 0.8920. In the second stage, MBCs are used to train neural network regression models for enhanced nonlinearity. The fluid intelligence score prediction results of the proposed method are found to be superior to those of current state-of-the-art approaches, and the proposed method achieves a mean square error (MSE) of 82.56 on a test data set, which reflects a very competitive performance.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2022/08/02

Authors

Li M, Jiang M, Zhang G, Liu Y, Zhou X

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0268707
Toggle Using Explainable Artificial Intelligence to Discover Interactions in an Ecological Model for Obesity. International journal of environmental research and public health Allen B, Lane M, Steeves EA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Ecological theories suggest that environmental, social, and individual factors interact to cause obesity. Yet, many analytic techniques, such as multilevel modeling, require manual specification of interacting factors, making them inept in their ability to search for interactions. This paper shows evidence that an explainable artificial intelligence approach, commonly employed in genomics research, can address this problem. The method entails using random intersection trees to decode interactions learned by random forest models. Here, this approach is used to extract interactions between features of a multi-level environment from random forest models of waist-to-height ratios using 11,112 participants from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. This study shows that methods used to discover interactions between genes can also discover interacting features of the environment that impact obesity. This new approach to modeling ecosystems may help shine a spotlight on combinations of environmental features that are important to obesity, as well as other health outcomes.

Journal

International journal of environmental research and public health

Published

2022/08/02

Authors

Allen B, Lane M, Steeves EA, Raynor H

Keywords

adolescent obesity, ecological theory, explainable artificial intelligence, household income, machine learning, neighborhood education, neighborhood poverty, parent education

DOI

10.3390/ijerph19159447
Toggle Longitudinal Assessments of Neurocognitive Performance and Brain Structure Associated With Initiation of Tobacco Use in Children, 2016 to 2021. JAMA network open Dai HD, Doucet GE, Wang Y, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The landscape of tobacco use is changing. However, information about the association between early-age tobacco use and cognitive performances is limited, especially for emerging tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes).

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/08/01

Authors

Dai HD, Doucet GE, Wang Y, Puga T, Samson K, Xiao P, Khan AS

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.25991
Toggle Assessment of Parent Income and Education, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Child Brain Structure. JAMA network open Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although different aspects of socioeconomic status (SES) may represent distinct risk factors for poor mental health in children, knowledge of their differential and synergistic associations with the brain is limited.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/08/01

Authors

Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.26208
Toggle Effects of sleep duration on neurocognitive development in early adolescents in the USA: a propensity score matched, longitudinal, observational study. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health Yang FN, Xie W, Wang Z 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although the American Academy of Sleep Medicine suggests at least 9 h of sleep per day for 6-12-year-olds, children in recent generations often report sleeping less than this amount. Because early adolescence is a crucial period for neurocognitive development, we aimed to investigate how insufficient sleep affects children’s mental health, cognition, brain function, and brain structure over 2 years.

Journal

The Lancet. Child & adolescent health

Published

2022/07/30

Authors

Yang FN, Xie W, Wang Z

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/S2352-4642(22)00188-2
Toggle Longitudinally stable, brain-based predictive models mediate the relationships between childhood cognition and socio-demographic, psychological and genetic factors. Human brain mapping Pat N, Wang Y, Anney R, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Cognitive abilities are one of the major transdiagnostic domains in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Following RDoC’s integrative approach, we aimed to develop brain-based predictive models for cognitive abilities that (a) are developmentally stable over years during adolescence and (b) account for the relationships between cognitive abilities and socio-demographic, psychological and genetic factors. For this, we leveraged the unique power of the large-scale, longitudinal data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (n ~ 11 k) and combined MRI data across modalities (task-fMRI from three tasks: resting-state fMRI, structural MRI and DTI) using machine-learning. Our brain-based, predictive models for cognitive abilities were stable across 2 years during young adolescence and generalisable to different sites, partially predicting childhood cognition at around 20% of the variance. Moreover, our use of ‘opportunistic stacking’ allowed the model to handle missing values, reducing the exclusion from around 80% to around 5% of the data. We found fronto-parietal networks during a working-memory task to drive childhood-cognition prediction. The brain-based, predictive models significantly, albeit partially, accounted for variance in childhood cognition due to (1) key socio-demographic and psychological factors (proportion mediated = 18.65% [17.29%-20.12%]) and (2) genetic variation, as reflected by the polygenic score of cognition (proportion mediated = 15.6% [11%-20.7%]). Thus, our brain-based predictive models for cognitive abilities facilitate the development of a robust, transdiagnostic research tool for cognition at the neural level in keeping with the RDoC’s integrative framework.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/07/28

Authors

Pat N, Wang Y, Anney R, Riglin L, Thapar A, Stringaris A

Keywords

adolescent brain cognitive development, general cognition, longitudinal large-scale data, machine learning, multimodal MRI, polygenic score, research domain criteria

DOI

10.1002/hbm.26027
Toggle Contemporary screen time modalities and disruptive behavior disorders in children: a prospective cohort study. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Nagata JM, Chu J, Ganson KT, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated associations between screen time and disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder); however, prospective associations remain unknown. This study’s objective was to determine the prospective associations of contemporary screen time modalities with conduct and oppositional defiant disorder in a national cohort of 9-11-year-old children.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2022/07/26

Authors

Nagata JM, Chu J, Ganson KT, Murray SB, Iyer P, Gabriel KP, Garber AK, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC

Keywords

Screen time, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, social media, television

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13673
Toggle Effect of exposure to maternal diabetes during pregnancy on offspring's brain cortical thickness and neurocognitive functioning. Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence Ahmed S, Cano MÁ, Sánchez M, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Little is known about the long-term effects of maternal diabetes during pregnancy (DP), either gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes (type 1 or type 2), on offspring’s brain morphometry and neurocognitive functioning (NCF). This study examined the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal DP on the brain structure and NCF in children between 9 and 10 years of age. This study used cross-sectional neuroimaging and NCF data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development® study. Exposure to maternal DP was assigned from the developmental history questionnaire. Differences in the brain cortical thickness (CTh) and five cognitive abilities (executive function, working and episodic memory, processing speed, and language abilities) were examined in diabetes-exposed and diabetes-unexposed children. Linear mixed effect models and generalized linear models were used to adjust for the effect of confounding variables. A total of 9,967 children (718 diabetes-exposed and 9249 unexposed) were included in the analysis. Diabetes-exposed children had lower whole-brain CTh [mean: exposed vs unexposed = 2.725 mm vs 2.732 mm; difference (95%CI): -0.007 mm (-0.013, -0.001)] compared to unexposed children after adjusting for confounding variables. Diabetes-exposed children had lower CTh in most part of the occipital lobe of both hemispheres, right postcentral gyrus, and left superior parietal cortex. Diabetes-exposed children also had lower scores in processing speed task [mean difference (95%CI): -1.7 (-2.8, -0.6)] and total cognition [mean difference (95%CI): -0.6 (-1.2, -0.02)]. Diabetes-exposed children have reduced CTh and NCF during preadolescence, which might have implications for psychomotor development during later life. Prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Journal

Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence

Published

2022/07/22

Authors

Ahmed S, Cano MÁ, Sánchez M, Hu N, Ibañez G

Keywords

Gestational diabetes, cortical thickness, neurocognition, preadolescent

DOI

10.1080/09297049.2022.2103105
Toggle Systematic evaluation of machine learning algorithms for neuroanatomically-based age prediction in youth. Human brain mapping Modabbernia A, Whalley HC, Glahn DC, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Application of machine learning (ML) algorithms to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data has yielded behaviorally meaningful estimates of the biological age of the brain (brain-age). The choice of the ML approach in estimating brain-age in youth is important because age-related brain changes in this age-group are dynamic. However, the comparative performance of the available ML algorithms has not been systematically appraised. To address this gap, the present study evaluated the accuracy (mean absolute error [MAE]) and computational efficiency of 21 machine learning algorithms using sMRI data from 2105 typically developing individuals aged 5-22 years from five cohorts. The trained models were then tested in two independent holdout datasets, one comprising 4078 individuals aged 9-10 years and another comprising 594 individuals aged 5-21 years. The algorithms encompassed parametric and nonparametric, Bayesian, linear and nonlinear, tree-based, and kernel-based models. Sensitivity analyses were performed for parcellation scheme, number of neuroimaging input features, number of cross-validation folds, number of extreme outliers, and sample size. Tree-based models and algorithms with a nonlinear kernel performed comparably well, with the latter being especially computationally efficient. Extreme Gradient Boosting (MAE of 1.49 years), Random Forest Regression (MAE of 1.58 years), and Support Vector Regression (SVR) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) Kernel (MAE of 1.64 years) emerged as the three most accurate models. Linear algorithms, with the exception of Elastic Net Regression, performed poorly. Findings of the present study could be used as a guide for optimizing methodology when quantifying brain-age in youth.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/07/19

Authors

Modabbernia A, Whalley HC, Glahn DC, Thompson PM, Kahn RS, Frangou S

Keywords

brain age, development, machine learning, neuroimaging, youth

DOI

10.1002/hbm.26010
Toggle Disparities in sleep duration among American children: effects of race and ethnicity, income, age, and sex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Giddens NT, Juneau P, Manza P, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children in the United States sleep less than the recommended amount and sleep deficiencies may be worse among disadvantaged children. Prior studies that compared sleep time in children of different race/ethnic groups mostly relied on questionnaires or were limited to small sample sizes. Our study takes advantage of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study to compare total sleep time using a week of actigraphy data among American children (n = 4,207, 9 to 13 y old) of different racial/ethnic and income groups. We also assessed the effects of neighborhood deprivation, experience of discrimination, parent’s age at child’s birth, body mass index (BMI), and time the child fell asleep on sleep times. Daily total sleep time for the sample was 7.45 h and race/ethnicity, income, sex, age, BMI, were all significant predictors of total sleep time. Black children slept less than White children (∼34 min; Cohen’s d = 0.95), children from lower income families slept less than those from higher incomes (∼16 min; Cohen’s d = 0.44), boys slept less than girls (∼7 min; Cohen’s d = 0.18), and older children slept less than younger ones (∼32 min; Cohen’s d = 0.91); mostly due to later sleep times. Children with higher BMI also had shorter sleep times. Neither area deprivation index, experience of discrimination, or parent’s age at child’s birth significantly contributed to sleep time. Our findings indicate that children in the United States sleep significantly less than the recommended amount for healthy development and identifies significant racial and income disparities. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene in children will help improve health and ameliorate racial disparities in health outcomes.

Journal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Published

2022/07/18

Authors

Giddens NT, Juneau P, Manza P, Wiers CE, Volkow ND

Keywords

adolescent health, disparities, sleep

DOI

10.1073/pnas.2120009119
Toggle Socioeconomic disadvantage and episodic memory ability in the ABCD sample: Contributions of hippocampal subregion and subfield volumes. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Botdorf M, Dunstan J, Sorcher L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with volumetric differences in stress-sensitive neural structures, including the hippocampus, and deficits in episodic memory. Rodent studies provide evidence that memory deficits arise via stress-related structural differences in hippocampal subdivisions; however, human studies have only provided limited evidence to support this notion. We used a sample of 10,695 9-13-year-old participants from two timepoints of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to assess whether socioeconomic disadvantage relates to episodic memory performance through hippocampal volumes. We explored associations among socioeconomic disadvantage, measured via the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), concurrent subregion (anterior, posterior) and subfield volumes (CA1, CA3, CA4/DG, subiculum), and episodic memory, assessed via the NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test at baseline and 2-year follow-up (Time 2). Results showed that higher baseline ADI related to smaller concurrent anterior, CA1, CA4/DG, and subiculum volumes and poorer Time 2 memory performance controlling for baseline memory. Moreover, anterior, CA1, and subiculum volumes mediated the longitudinal association between the ADI and memory. Results suggest that greater socioeconomic disadvantage relates to smaller hippocampal subregion and subfield volumes and less age-related improvement in memory. These findings shed light on the neural mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage and cognitive ability in childhood.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/07/18

Authors

Botdorf M, Dunstan J, Sorcher L, Dougherty LR, Riggins T

Keywords

Development, Episodic memory, Hippocampus, Socioeconomic disadvantage

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101138
Toggle Application of the RDoC Framework to Predict Alcohol Use and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among Early Adolescents in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Brain sciences Aguinaldo LD, Coronado C, Gomes DA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Alcohol use confers risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (ideation, attempt) in early adolescents. The Research Domain Criteria provides a framework for examination of multidimensional and modifiable risk factors. We examined distinct latent profiles based on patterns of positive valence (reward responsivity) and cognitive systems (neurocognition) from the ABCD Study (age 9−10, N = 10,414) at baseline enrollment. Longitudinal associations were determined between baseline positive valence and cognitive profiles and group classification (alcohol use, suicidal thoughts and behaviors, or their co-occurrence) two-years after initial assessment (ages 11−12). Three unique profiles of positive valence, cognition, alcohol use, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors were identified. Two baseline profiles predicted alcohol use and suicidal thoughts and behaviors, two-years after initial assessment. Low positive valence with high cognition (but low impulsivity) predicted alcohol use (OR = 1.414, p< 0.001), while high positive valence with low cognition (but high impulsivity) predicted suicidal thoughts and behaviors (OR = 1.25, p = 0.038), compared to average positive valence and cognition. Unique profiles of positive valence and cognitive systems among 9−12-year-olds may be predictive of alcohol use and suicidal thoughts and behaviors over a two-year period. Findings underscore the potential for trajectory research on positive valence and cognitive profiles to enhance prevention for early-adolescents.

Journal

Brain sciences

Published

2022/07/17

Authors

Aguinaldo LD, Coronado C, Gomes DA, Courtney KE, Jacobus J

Keywords

RDoC, alcohol use, pre-teen youth, suicide intervention, suicide prevention

DOI

10.3390/brainsci12070935
Toggle Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Adolescent Screen Time and Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Academic pediatrics Raney JH, Testa A, Jackson DB, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine the associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), adolescent screen time, and physical activity during the early COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal

Academic pediatrics

Published

2022/07/16

Authors

Raney JH, Testa A, Jackson DB, Ganson KT, Nagata JM

Keywords

Adverse Childhood Experiences, COVID-19, adolescence, physical activity, screen time

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.007
Toggle Social Epidemiology of Early Adolescent Cyberbullying in the United States. Academic pediatrics Nagata JM, Trompeter N, Singh G, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among a racially, ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population-based sample of 11-12-year-old early adolescents.

Journal

Academic pediatrics

Published

2022/07/15

Authors

Nagata JM, Trompeter N, Singh G, Ganson KT, Testa A, Jackson DB, Assari S, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC

Keywords

adolescents, cyberbullying, pediatrics, population groups, screen time, social media

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.003
Toggle Proportional intracranial volume correction differentially biases behavioral predictions across neuroanatomical features, sexes, and development. NeuroImage Dhamala E, Ooi LQR, Chen J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Individual differences in brain anatomy can be used to predict variations in cognitive ability. Most studies to date have focused on broad population-level trends, but the extent to which the observed predictive features are shared across sexes and age groups remains to be established. While it is standard practice to account for intracranial volume (ICV) using proportion correction in both regional and whole-brain morphometric analyses, in the context of brain-behavior predictions the possible differential impact of ICV correction on anatomical features and subgroups within the population has yet to be systematically investigated. In this work, we evaluate the effect of proportional ICV correction on sex-independent and sex-specific predictive models of individual cognitive abilities across multiple anatomical properties (surface area, gray matter volume, and cortical thickness) in healthy young adults (Human Connectome Project; n = 1013, 548 females) and typically developing children (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study; n = 1823, 979 females). We demonstrate that ICV correction generally reduces predictive accuracies derived from surface area and gray matter volume, while increasing predictive accuracies based on cortical thickness in both adults and children. Furthermore, the extent to which predictive models generalize across sexes and age groups depends on ICV correction: models based on surface area and gray matter volume are more generalizable without ICV correction, while models based on cortical thickness are more generalizable with ICV correction. Finally, the observed neuroanatomical features predictive of cognitive abilities are unique across age groups regardless of ICV correction, but whether they are shared or unique across sexes (within age groups) depends on ICV correction. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences in ICV, and show that proportional ICV correction does not remove the effects of cranial volume from anatomical measurements and can introduce ICV bias where previously there was none. ICV correction choices affect not just the strength of the relationships captured, but also the conclusions drawn regarding the neuroanatomical features that underlie those relationships.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2022/07/14

Authors

Dhamala E, Ooi LQR, Chen J, Kong R, Anderson KM, Chin R, Yeo BTT, Holmes AJ

Keywords

Behavioral prediction, Cortical surface area, Cortical thickness, Development, Gray matter volume, Intracranial volume, Neuroanatomy, Proportional correction, Sex differences

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119485
Toggle Nucleus Accumbens Response to Reward among Children with a Family History of Alcohol Use Problems: Convergent Findings from the ABCD Study and Michigan Longitudinal Study. Brain sciences Martz ME, Hardee JE, Cope LM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Having a family history of alcohol use problems (FH+) conveys risk for alcohol use in offspring. Reward-related brain functioning may play a role in this vulnerability. The present study investigated brain function in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) associated with the anticipation of reward in youth with two biological parents with alcohol use problems (FH+2), one biological parent with alcohol use problems (FH+1), and no biological parents with alcohol use problems (FH-). Participants were from the large, national Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (mean age: 9.93; 48% female; FH+2 n = 223, FH+1 n = 1447, FH- n = 9690) and the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS), consisting of community-recruited families with high rates of alcohol use disorder (mean age: 10.54; 39.3% female; FH+2 n = 40, FH+1 n = 51, FH- n = 40). Reward anticipation was measured by the monetary incentive delay task. Regression models were used to assess associations between FH status and the anticipation of large rewards in right and left NAcc regions of interest. In both studies, FH+2 youth showed blunted anticipatory reward responding in the right NAcc compared to FH+1 youth. In the MLS, FH+2 youth also had blunted anticipatory reward responding in the right NAcc compared to the FH- group. Convergent results across two separate samples provide insights into a unique vulnerability of FH+2 youth and suggest that binary FH+ versus FH- categorizations may obscure important differences within FH+ youth.

Journal

Brain sciences

Published

2022/07/13

Authors

Martz ME, Hardee JE, Cope LM, McCurry KL, Soules M, Zucker RA, Heitzeg MM

Keywords

MID task, alcohol, fMRI, family history, nucleus accumbens, reward

DOI

10.3390/brainsci12070913
Toggle The ABCD Study: Brain Heterogeneity in Intelligence During a Neurodevelopmental Transition Stage. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Zhao Q, Voon V, Zhang L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

A complex curvilinear relationship exists between intelligence and age during the neurodevelopment of cortical thickness. To parse out a more fine-grained relationship between intelligence and cortical thickness and surface area, we used a large-scale data set focusing on a critical transition juncture in neurodevelopment in preadolescence. Cortical thickness was derived from T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of a large sample of 9- and 11-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery composite scores, which included fluid, crystallized, and total scores, were used to assess intelligence. Using a double generalized linear model, we assessed the independent association between the mean and dispersion of cortical thickness/surface area and intelligence. Higher intelligence in preadolescents was associated with higher mean cortical thickness in orbitofrontal and primary sensory cortices but with lower thickness in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex and particularly in the rostral anterior cingulate. The rostral anterior cingulate findings were particularly evident across all subscales of intelligence. Higher intelligence was also associated with greater interindividual similarity in the rostral cingulate. Intelligence during this key transition juncture in preadolescence appears to reflect a dissociation between the cortical development of basic cognitive processes and higher-order executive and motivational processes.

Journal

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Published

2022/07/12

Authors

Zhao Q, Voon V, Zhang L, Shen C, Zhang J, Feng J

Keywords

adolescence, cognitive process, cortical thickness, intelligence, surface area

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhab403
Toggle COVID information and masking behaviors in U.S. adolescents: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Preventive medicine reports Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Liu J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to health misinformation and are at risk for suboptimal adherence to protective health behaviors in the COVID-19 pandemic. Guided by factors consistent with the theories of planned behavior and rumor transmission, this study sought to analyze the impact of multiple information sources, including social media, television media, internet and parental counseling, on masking behaviors in adolescents. Responses from the December 2020 COVID-19 survey, representing 4,106 U.S. adolescents ages 12-14 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) were analyzed. The majority of parents (61.1%) reported counseling their children on the importance of wearing masks all the time in the past week. A minority of adolescents reported more than one hour of daily exposure to COVID-19 related information on social media (9.1%), the internet (4.3%) and television (10.2%). In unadjusted and adjusted models, greater frequency of parental counseling and exposure to COVID-19 television or social media were associated with ‘always masking’ behaviors. Our findings provide support for the importance of parent counseling and suggest that socialmedia and television may overall support rather than dissuade protective COVID-19 health behaviors in adolescents.

Journal

Preventive medicine reports

Published

2022/07/09

Authors

Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Liu J, Patel KP, Tai JC, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, ARR, adjusted risk ratio, Adolescent, COVID-19, COVID-19, coronavirus-19, Health behaviors, Masking, Media, Misinformation, RR, risk ratio, Social media, Television

DOI

10.1016/j.pmedr.2022.101900
Toggle Editorial: The Epidemiology and Cognitive Characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Depend on How Strictly the Disorder Is Defined. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Aloi J, Hulvershorn L 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

In this month’s issue of the Journal, Cordova et al. advance knowledge in our field by leveraging the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study dataset to characterize the prevalence and comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large community sample. The ABCD dataset is useful because it is one of the largest samples of its kind (N = 11,878) and includes data from multiple measures and from multiple informants. This allows for sophisticated latent variable approaches to define ADHD from both a categorical and a dimensional perspective. Latent variables are variables that are not directly observed but are detected via measurement of other directly observed variables and statistical modeling..

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2022/07/05

Authors

Aloi J, Hulvershorn L

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2022.06.012
Toggle Gray matter volumetric correlates of attention deficit and hyperactivity traits in emerging adolescents. Scientific reports Li CS, Chen Y, Ide JS 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated reduction in cortical and subcortical, including basal ganglia (BG), gray matter volumes (GMV) in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental condition that is more prevalent in males than in females. However, the volumetric deficits vary across studies. Whether volumetric reductions are more significant in males than females; to what extent these neural markers are heritable and relate to cognitive dysfunction in ADHD remain unclear. To address these questions, we followed published routines and performed voxel-based morphometry analysis of a data set (n = 11,502; 5,464 girls, 9-10 years) curated from the Adolescent Brain Cognition Development project, a population-based study of typically developing children. Of the sample, 634 and 2,826 were identified as monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins/siblings, respectively. In linear regressions, a cluster in the hypothalamus showed larger GMV, and bilateral caudate and putamen, lateral orbitofrontal and occipital cortex showed smaller GMVs, in correlation with higher ADHD scores in girls and boys combined. When examined separately, boys relative to girls showed more widespread (including BG) and stronger associations between GMV deficits and ADHD scores. ADHD traits and the volumetric correlates demonstrated heritability estimates (a) between 0.59 and 0.79, replicating prior findings of the genetic basis of ADHD. Further, ADHD traits and the volumetric correlates (except for the hypothalamus) were each negatively and positively correlated with N-back performance. Together, these findings confirm volumetric deficits in children with more prominent ADHD traits. Highly heritable in both girls and boys and potentially more significant in boys than in girls, the structural deficits underlie diminished capacity in working memory and potentially other cognitive deficits in ADHD.

Journal

Scientific reports

Published

2022/07/05

Authors

Li CS, Chen Y, Ide JS

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41598-022-15124-7
Toggle FBNetGen: Task-aware GNN-based fMRI Analysis via Functional Brain Network Generation. Proceedings of machine learning research Kan X, Cui H, Lukemire J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most common imaging modalities to investigate brain functions. Recent studies in neuroscience stress the great potential of functional brain networks constructed from fMRI data for clinical predictions. Traditional functional brain networks, however, are noisy and unaware of downstream prediction tasks, while also incompatible with the deep graph neural network (GNN) models. In order to fully unleash the power of GNNs in network-based fMRI analysis, we develop FBNETGEN, a task-aware and interpretable fMRI analysis framework via deep brain network generation. In particular, we formulate (1) prominent region of interest (ROI) features extraction, (2) brain networks generation, and (3) clinical predictions with GNNs, in an end-to-end trainable model under the guidance of particular prediction tasks. Along with the process, the key novel component is the graph generator which learns to transform raw time-series features into task-oriented brain networks. Our learnable graphs also provide unique interpretations by highlighting prediction-related brain regions. Comprehensive experiments on two datasets, i.e., the recently released and currently largest publicly available fMRI dataset Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD), and the widely-used fMRI dataset PNC, prove the superior effectiveness and interpretability of FBNETGEN. The implementation is available at https://github.com/Wayfear/FBNETGEN.

Journal

Proceedings of machine learning research

Published

2022/07/01

Authors

Kan X, Cui H, Lukemire J, Guo Y, Yang C

Keywords

Brain Network, Graph Generation, Graph Neural Network, fMRI

DOI

Toggle Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Transgender Children Aged 9 to 10 Years in the US, 2018. JAMA network open Russell DH, Hoq M, Coghill D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

This cohort study evaluates the prevalence of mental health problems in transgender and gender diverse children aged 9 to 10 years in the US.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/07/01

Authors

Russell DH, Hoq M, Coghill D, Pang KC

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.23389
Toggle Brain structural covariation linked to screen media activity and externalizing behaviors in children. Journal of behavioral addictions Zhao Y, Paulus M, Bagot KS, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Screen media activity (SMA) may impact neurodevelopment in youth. Cross-sectionally, SMA has been linked to brain structural patterns including cortical thinning in children. However, it remains unclear whether specific brain structural co-variation patterns are related to SMA and other clinically relevant measures such as psychopathology, cognition and sleep in children.

Journal

Journal of behavioral addictions

Published

2022/06/30

Authors

Zhao Y, Paulus M, Bagot KS, Constable RT, Yaggi HK, Redeker NS, Potenza MN

Keywords

addictive behaviors, child, cortical thinning, externalizing behavior, screen media activity

DOI

10.1556/2006.2022.00044
Toggle Social epidemiology of early adolescent problematic screen use in the United States. Pediatric research Nagata JM, Singh G, Sajjad OM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine sociodemographic correlates of problematic screen use (social media, video games, mobile phones) among a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population-based sample of 10-14-year-old early adolescents.

Journal

Pediatric research

Published

2022/06/29

Authors

Nagata JM, Singh G, Sajjad OM, Ganson KT, Testa A, Jackson DB, Assari S, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41390-022-02176-8
Toggle Unique prediction of developmental psychopathology from genetic and familial risk. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Loughnan RJ, Palmer CE, Makowski C, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Early detection is critical for easing the rising burden of psychiatric disorders. However, the specificity of psychopathological measurements and genetic predictors is unclear among youth.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2022/06/28

Authors

Loughnan RJ, Palmer CE, Makowski C, Thompson WK, Barch DM, Jernigan TL, Dale AM, Fan CC

Keywords

Genetics, behavioural, family history, psychopathology

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13649
Toggle Family Well-Being During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Risks of Financial Insecurity and Coping. Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence Gonzalez MR, Brown SA, Pelham WE, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic, families have experienced unprecedented financial and social disruptions. We studied the impact of preexisting psychosocial factors and pandemic-related financial and social disruptions in relation to family well-being among N = 4091 adolescents and parents during early summer 2020, participating in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Poorer family well-being was linked to prepandemic psychosocial and financial adversity and was associated with pandemic-related material hardship and social disruptions to routines. Parental alcohol use increased risk for worsening of family relationships, while a greater endorsement of coping strategies was mainly associated with overall better family well-being. Financial and mental health support may be critical for family well-being during and after a widespread crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal

Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence

Published

2022/06/24

Authors

Gonzalez MR, Brown SA, Pelham WE, Bodison SC, McCabe C, Baker FC, Baskin-Sommers A, Dick AS, Dowling GJ, Gebreselassie S, Guillaume M, Marshall AT, Sheth C, Sowell ER, Van Rinsveld A, Tapert SF

Keywords

COVID-19 pandemic, coping, family well-being, financial insecurity

DOI

10.1111/jora.12776
Toggle The Associations between Religion, Impulsivity, and Externalizing Behaviors in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion Fahey KML, Nakai SC, Edwards JA, et al. 2022
Link to Publication

Abstract

In studies of adolescents and adults, religiosity has been identified as a protective factor for impulsivity-related behaviors and externalizing problems. No known studies to date have examined the relationship between religiosity and such outcomes in children. Thus, the current study examined in children whether (1) religion is associated with decreased impulsivity and externalizing symptoms, and if (2) religiosity is a protective factor in the association between impulsivity and externalizing symptoms. Data were from Wave 1 of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (children aged 9–10, N = 11,875). Two self-report measures and the Cash Choice Task assessed impulsivity; the Child Behavior Checklist assessed externalizing symptoms; and child religiosity was assessed in parent interviews. Structural equation models examined religiosity (affiliation, service attendance, importance) as a moderator between impulsivity and externalizing symptoms. Greater religious attendance was significantly associated with decreased impulsivity. Christian affiliation was associated with increased impulsivity as compared to other religions. Contrary to our hypotheses, religiosity did not moderate associations between impulsivity and externalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that impulsivity and externalizing behaviors are related to some domains of religiosity in children; however, the magnitude of the effect sizes was small, suggesting religiosity is not a particularly salient predictor of externalizing problems in children. Given these findings differ from those seen in studies of adolescents and adults, future studies should consider longitudinal designs to better understand how these relationships form across the lifespan.

Journal

The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion

Published

2022/06/20

Authors

Fahey KML, Nakai SC, Edwards JA, et al.

Keywords

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2078590
Toggle Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Diet, Exercise, and Sleep in Pre-adolescents. Academic pediatrics Lewis-de Los Angeles WW 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To understand the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and diet, sleep, and exercise in pre-adolescents.

Journal

Academic pediatrics

Published

2022/06/18

Authors

Lewis-de Los Angeles WW

Keywords

adverse childhood experiences, diet quality, physical activity, pre-adolescents, sleep

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.06.007
Toggle Associations of polygenic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with general and specific dimensions of childhood psychological problems and facets of impulsivity. Journal of psychiatric research Lahey BB, Tong L, Pierce B, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

A polygenic risk score (PRS) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be associated with ADHD in multiple studies, but also with many other dimensions of problems. Little is known, however, about the processes underlying these transdiagnostic associations. Using data from the baseline and 1-year follow-up assessments of 9- to 10-year-old children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development™ (ABCD©) Study, associations were assessed between an ADHD PRS and both general and specific factors of psychological problems defined in bifactor modeling. Additionally, prospective mediated paths were tested from the ADHD PRS to dimensions of problems in the follow-up assessment through baseline measures of executive functioning (EF) and two facets of impulsivity: lower perseverance and greater impulsiveness in the presence of surgent positive emotions. Previous findings of modest but significant direct associations of the ADHD PRS with the general factor of psychological problems were replicated in both assessments in 4,483 children of European ancestry. In addition, significant statistical mediation was found from the ADHD PRS to the general factor, specific ADHD, and conduct problems in the follow-up assessment through each of the two facets of impulsivity. In contrast, EF did not statistically mediate associations between the ADHD PRS and psychological problems. These results suggest that polygenic risk transdiagnostically influences both psychological problems and facets of impulsivity, perhaps partly through indirect pathways via facets of impulsivity.

Journal

Journal of psychiatric research

Published

2022/06/14

Authors

Lahey BB, Tong L, Pierce B, Hedeker D, Berman MG, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Moore TM, Applegate B, Tiemeier H, Kaczkurkin AN

Keywords

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Executive functioning, Impulsivity, Mediation, Polygenic risk scores

DOI

10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.06.019
Toggle Clinical autism subscales have common genetic liabilities that are heritable, pleiotropic, and generalizable to the general population. Translational psychiatry Thomas TR, Koomar T, Casten LG, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The complexity of autism’s phenotypic spectra is well-known, yet most genetic research uses case-control status as the target trait. It is undetermined if autistic symptom domain severity underlying this heterogeneity is heritable and pleiotropic with other psychiatric and behavior traits in the same manner as autism case-control status. In N = 6064 autistic children in the SPARK cohort, we investigated the common genetic properties of twelve subscales from three clinical autism instruments measuring autistic traits: the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ). Educational attainment polygenic scores (PGS) were significantly negatively correlated with eleven subscales, while ADHD and major depression PGS were positively correlated with ten and eight of the autism subscales, respectively. Loneliness and neuroticism PGS were also positively correlated with many subscales. Significant PGS by sex interactions were found-surprisingly, the autism case-control PGS was negatively correlated in females and had no strong correlation in males. SNP-heritability of the DCDQ subscales ranged from 0.04 to 0.08, RBS-R subscales ranged from 0.09 to 0.24, and SCQ subscales ranged from 0 to 0.12. GWAS in SPARK followed by estimation of polygenic scores (PGS) in the typically-developing ABCD cohort (N = 5285), revealed significant associations of RBS-R subscale PGS with autism-related behavioral traits, with several subscale PGS more strongly correlated than the autism case-control PGS. Overall, our analyses suggest that the clinical autism subscale traits show variability in SNP-heritability, PGS associations, and significant PGS by sex interactions, underscoring the heterogeneity in autistic traits at a genetic level. Furthermore, of the three instruments investigated, the RBS-R shows the greatest evidence of genetic signal in both (1) autistic samples (greater heritability) and (2) general population samples (strongest PGS associations).

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2022/06/13

Authors

Thomas TR, Koomar T, Casten LG, Tener AJ, Bahl E, Michaelson JJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-022-01982-2
Toggle Does pubertal stage mediate the association between family environment and structure and function of the amygdala-mPFC circuit? A replication study of the longitudinal ABCD cohort. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Thijssen S, Collins PF, Luciana M 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Psychosocial acceleration theory suggests that early stress accelerates pubertal development. Using half of the baseline Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort, Thijssen et al. (2020) provide support that accelerated puberty following stressful family environments may promote neurodevelopment. Here, we replicate and extend those analyses using 1) data from the second half of the ABCD sample (n = 3300 +, ages 9-10), and 2) longitudinal imaging data from the original sample (n = 1800 +, ages 11-12). A family environment latent variable was created and related to anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) thickness, area, white matter fractional anisotropy, amygdala volume, and cingulo-opercular network (CON)-amygdala resting-state functional connectivity. Results from the independent sample replicate the mediating effects of family environment through pubertal stage on amygdala-CON functional connectivity. Sex-stratified analyses show indirect effects via pubertal stage in girls; boys show evidence for direct associations. Analyses using wave 2 imaging data or wave 2-wave 1 difference scores from the originally-analyzed sample replicate the resting-state indirect effects. The current paper replicates the mediating role for puberty in the association between family environment and neurodevelopment. As both direct and indirect associations were found, puberty may be one of multiple mechanisms driving accelerated neurodevelopment following environmental stress.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/06/10

Authors

Thijssen S, Collins PF, Luciana M

Keywords

accelerated development, amygdala, amygdala-mPFC, family environment, pubertal development

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101120
Toggle Sex-different interrelationships of rs945270, cerebral gray matter volumes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a region-wide study across brain. Translational psychiatry Luo X, Fang W, Lin X, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported that the allele C of rs945270 of the kinectin 1 gene (KTN1) most significantly increased the gray matter volume (GMV) of the putamen and modestly regulated the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). On the other hand, ADHD is known to be associated with a reduction in subcortical and cortical GMVs. Here, we examined the interrelationships of the GMVs, rs945270 alleles, and ADHD symptom scores in the same cohort of children. With data of rs945270 genotypes, GMVs of 118 brain regions, and ADHD symptom scores of 3372 boys and 3129 girls of the Adolescent Brain Cognition Development project, we employed linear regression analyses to examine the pairwise correlations adjusted for the third of the three traits and other relevant covariates, and examine their mediation effects. We found that the major allele C of rs945270 modestly increased risk for ADHD in males only when controlling for the confounding effects of the GMV of any one of the 118 cerebral regions (0.026 ≤ p ≤ 0.059: Top two: left and right putamen). This allele also significantly increased putamen GMV in males alone (left p = 2.8 × 10, and right p = 9.4 × 10; α = 2.1 × 10) and modestly increased other subcortical and cortical GMVs in both sexes (α < p < 0.05), whether or not adjusted for ADHD symptom scores. Both subcortical and cortical GMVs were significantly or suggestively reduced in ADHD when adjusted for rs945270 alleles, each more significantly in females (3.6 × 10 ≤ p < α; Top two: left pallidum and putamen) and males (3.5 × 10 ≤ p < α), respectively. Finally, the left and right putamen GMVs reduced 14.0% and 11.7% of the risk effects of allele C on ADHD, and allele C strengthened 4.5% (left) and 12.2% (right) of the protective effects of putamen GMVs on ADHD risk, respectively. We concluded that the rs945270-GMVs-ADHD relationships were sex-different. In males, the major allele C of rs945270 increased risk for ADHD, which was compromised by putamen GMVs; this allele also but only significantly increased putamen GMVs that then significantly protected against ADHD risk. In females, the top two GMVs significantly decreasing ADHD risk were left pallidum and putamen GMVs. Basal ganglia the left putamen in particular play the most critical role in the pathogenesis of ADHD.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2022/06/02

Authors

Luo X, Fang W, Lin X, Guo X, Chen Y, Tan Y, Wang L, Jing X, Wang X, Zhang Y, Yu T, Ide J, Cao Y, Yang L, Li CR

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-022-02007-8
Toggle Association of Social Determinants of Health and Vaccinations With Child Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. JAMA psychiatry Xiao Y, Yip PS, Pathak J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected mental health in socioeconomically disadvantaged children in the US. However, little is known about the relationship of preexisting and time-varying social determinants of health (SDoH) at individual and structural levels, vaccination eligibility/rates, and the racial and ethnic differences to trajectories of child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal

JAMA psychiatry

Published

2022/06/01

Authors

Xiao Y, Yip PS, Pathak J, Mann JJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.0818
Toggle Nucleus Accumbens Fractional Anisotropy and Children’s Body Mass Index: Moderating Role of Race and Family Income Epidemiology and Health System Journal Assari S 2022
Link to Publication

Abstract

Background and aims: The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) functional and morphometric features mayinfluence children’s body mass index (BMI). Recent evidence, however, suggests that the functionand structure of the NAcc may have different predictive abilities for the BMI for the sub-groups ofchildren from different racial and socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Using the AdolescentBrain Cognitive Development data, this study investigated racial and SES differences in the associationbetween NAcc microstructure (i.e., fractional anisotropy) and childhood BMI.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 9497 children aged 9 and 10. Data were collected from21 sites across 15 states in the United States. Then, the mixed-effects regression model was appliedfor data analysis. The predictor variable of interest was NAcc fractional anisotropy measured usingdiffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). The main outcome of interest was children’s BMI values,which were treated as a continuous variable. Covariates included gender, age, and family structure.Race (White, Black, Asian, and Other/mixed) and family income (<USD 50,000, USD 50,000-100,000,and USD100,000+) were the effect modifiers (moderators).

Results: Higher average NAcc fractional anisotropy in dMRI was predictive of lower levels of theBMI, and net of covariates. However, this inverse association between the average intensity of thenormalized T2-weighted image and the BMI was stronger in children from Hispanic, low income, andlow-educated backgrounds compared to non-Hispanic, high-income, and high-educated backgrounds.

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that although NAcc fractional anisotropy is linked to children’sBMI, this link is not invariant across racial and SES groups. The issue of whether or not obesogenicenvironments alter the implications of NAcc for childhood BMI needs further investigation. For diversegroups, NAcc microstructures may have different magnitudes of associations with childhood BMI.

Journal

Epidemiology and Health System Journal

Published

2022/06/01

Authors

Assari S

Keywords

DOI

10.34172/ijer.2022.10
Toggle Deep Diffusion MRI Registration (DDMReg): A Deep Learning Method for Diffusion MRI Registration. IEEE transactions on medical imaging Zhang F, Wells WM, O'Donnell LJ 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

In this paper, we present a deep learning method, DDMReg, for accurate registration between diffusion MRI (dMRI) datasets. In dMRI registration, the goal is to spatially align brain anatomical structures while ensuring that local fiber orientations remain consistent with the underlying white matter fiber tract anatomy. DDMReg is a novel method that uses joint whole-brain and tract-specific information for dMRI registration. Based on the successful VoxelMorph framework for image registration, we propose a novel registration architecture that leverages not only whole brain information but also tract-specific fiber orientation information. DDMReg is an unsupervised method for deformable registration between pairs of dMRI datasets: it does not require nonlinearly pre-registered training data or the corresponding deformation fields as ground truth. We perform comparisons with four state-of-the-art registration methods on multiple independently acquired datasets from different populations (including teenagers, young and elderly adults) and different imaging protocols and scanners. We evaluate the registration performance by assessing the ability to align anatomically corresponding brain structures and ensure fiber spatial agreement between different subjects after registration. Experimental results show that DDMReg obtains significantly improved registration performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods. Importantly, we demonstrate successful generalization of DDMReg to dMRI data from different populations with varying ages and acquired using different acquisition protocols and different scanners.

Journal

IEEE transactions on medical imaging

Published

2022/06/01

Authors

Zhang F, Wells WM, O'Donnell LJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1109/TMI.2021.3139507
Toggle Mediating role of the default mode network on parental acceptance/warmth and psychopathology in youth. Brain imaging and behavior Davis K, Hirsch E, Gee D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Humans are reliant on their caregivers for an extended period of time, offering numerous opportunities for environmental factors, such as parental attitudes and behaviors, to impact brain development. The default mode network is a neural system encompassing the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and temporo-parietal junction, which is implicated in aspects of cognition and psychopathology. Delayed default mode network maturation in children and adolescents has been associated with greater general dimensional psychopathology, and positive parenting behaviors have been suggested to serve as protective mechanisms against atypical default mode network development. The current study aimed to extend the existing research by examining whether within- default mode network resting-state functional connectivity would mediate the relation between parental acceptance/warmth and youth psychopathology. Data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study, which included a community sample of 9,366 children ages 8.9-10.9 years, were analyzed to test this prediction. Results demonstrated a significant mediation, where greater parental acceptance/warmth predicted greater within- default mode network resting-state functional connectivity, which in turn predicted lower externalizing, but not internalizing symptoms, at baseline and 1-year later. Our study provides preliminary support for the notion that positive parenting behaviors may reduce the risk for psychopathology in youth through their influence on the default mode network.

Journal

Brain imaging and behavior

Published

2022/06/01

Authors

Davis K, Hirsch E, Gee D, Andover M, Roy AK

Keywords

Default mode network, Neural development, Parenting, Parent–child relationship, Psychopathology

DOI

10.1007/s11682-022-00692-z
Toggle Associations between organized sport participation and mental health difficulties: Data from over 11,000 US children and adolescents. PloS one Hoffmann MD, Barnes JD, Tremblay MS, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between participation in organized sport and a broad array of mental health difficulties among US children and adolescents. The data (cross-sectional) were from Data Release 3.0 (one-year follow-up visits on the full cohort) of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study-a broadly representative sample of 11,235 US children and adolescents aged 9 to 13 years. Parents/guardians provided self-reports of their child’s mental health difficulties using the Child Behavior Checklist. To assess participation in organized sport, children and adolescents were categorized into one of four groups: 1) participation in team sport, 2) participation in individual sport, 3) participation in team and individual sport, and 4) non-sport participation. Participation in team sport compared to non-sport participation was associated with 10% lower anxious/depressed scores, 19% lower withdrawn/depressed scores, 17% lower social problems scores, 17% lower thought problems scores, and 12% lower attention problems scores. Participation in team sport compared to non-sport participation was also associated with 20% lower rule-breaking behavior scores for females (compared to males). Conversely, participation in individual sport compared to non-sport participation was associated with 16% higher anxious/depressed scores, 14% higher withdrawn/depressed scores, 12% higher social problems scores, and 14% higher attention problems scores. Participation in both team and individual sport compared to non-sport participation was associated with 17% lower rule-breaking behavior scores for females (compared to males). Results indicate that team sport participation was associated with fewer mental health difficulties, whereas individual sport participation was associated with greater mental health difficulties. The findings complement previous research suggesting that team sport participation may be a vehicle to support child and adolescent mental health. Additional research is needed to determine to what extent, and under what circumstances, participation in individual sport may be problematic for younger cohorts.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2022/06/01

Authors

Hoffmann MD, Barnes JD, Tremblay MS, Guerrero MD

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0268583
Toggle Association of Cyberbullying Experiences and Perpetration With Suicidality in Early Adolescence. JAMA network open Arnon S, Brunstein Klomek A, Visoki E, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescent suicidality (ie, suicidal ideation or attempts) is a major public health concern. Cyberbullying experiences and perpetration have become increasingly prevalent and are associated with mental health burden, but their roles as independent suicidality risk factors remain unclear. Data are needed to clarify their contribution to teen suicidality to inform suicide prevention efforts.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/06/01

Authors

Arnon S, Brunstein Klomek A, Visoki E, Moore TM, Argabright ST, DiDomenico GE, Benton TD, Barzilay R

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.18746
Toggle Estimating the Association Between Exposome and Psychosis as Well as General Psychopathology: Results From the ABCD Study. Biological psychiatry global open science Pries LK, Moore TM, Visoki E, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The exposome comprises all nongenetic factors an individual is exposed to across their lifespan. Research suggests that exposomic vulnerability for schizophrenia is associated not only with psychosis but also, to a degree, with general psychopathology. Here, we investigated to what degree exposome factors are associated with psychosis and general psychopathology.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2022/06/01

Authors

Pries LK, Moore TM, Visoki E, Sotelo I, Barzilay R, Guloksuz S

Keywords

Adolescents, Adversity, Environment, Exposome, Psychopathology, Psychosis, p-factor

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.05.005
Toggle Anxiety, depression, and substance experimentation in childhood. PloS one Klein RJ, Gyorda JA, Jacobson NC 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated that adults with comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are significantly more likely to show pathological use of drugs or alcohol. Few studies, however, have examined associations of this type in children. A better understanding of the relationships between affective disorders and substance experimentation in childhood could help clarify the complex ways in which pathological substance use symptoms develop early in life. The present study included 11,785 children (Mage = 9.9) participating in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Depressive and anxiety disorder diagnoses were evaluated as concurrent predictors of experimentation with alcohol and tobacco. A series of linear regressions revealed that children with either depressive or anxiety disorders were significantly more likely to experiment with alcohol or tobacco. However, children with both depressive and anxiety diagnoses were not more likely to experiment than children without a diagnosis. These results suggest that anxiety or depressive diagnoses in childhood may be associated with a greater likelihood of substance experimentation, but severe psychological distress may suppress these effects.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2022/05/24

Authors

Klein RJ, Gyorda JA, Jacobson NC

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0265239
Toggle The Mediating Role of Family Acceptance and Conflict on Suicidality among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth. Archives of suicide research : official journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research Klein DA, Ahmed AE, Murphy MA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Prior research suggests sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are profoundly impacted by levels of parental support. This study assessed mediating effects of generalized family acceptance and conflict on lifetime suicidal behaviors among a large diverse sample comprising both SGM and non-SGM youth in early adolescence, when intervention to optimize family dynamics may be critical.

Journal

Archives of suicide research : official journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research

Published

2022/05/24

Authors

Klein DA, Ahmed AE, Murphy MA, Pearlman AT, Johnson N, Gray JC, Schvey NA

Keywords

Children, LGBT, parent, suicidal behaviors, suicide, transgender

DOI

10.1080/13811118.2022.2075815
Toggle Relationship Between Neighborhood Poverty and Externalizing Symptoms in Children: Mediation and Moderation by Environmental Factors and Brain Structure. Child psychiatry and human development Maxwell MY, Taylor RL, Barch DM 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children living in poverty exhibit worse mental health outcomes, and various environmental and neurological risk factors may contribute to or mitigate this relationship. However, previous research has not examined the interplay of neighborhood SES, mental health, and relevant mechanisms. We examined the extent to which neighborhood poverty uniquely contributes to children’s internalizing/externalizing disorder symptoms, as well as identified whether brain measures, toxin levels, and neighborhood threat mediated this relationship and whether socioemotional support moderated it. Data were collected from 8623 9-10 year olds as part of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Using a secondary data analysis, we found that neighborhood poverty was positively associated with externalizing symptoms and mediated by reduced intracranial volume and parents/children reporting feeling less safe. Parental support (i.e., Parental Monitoring Survey) attenuated this link, but only for children lower in poverty. Consideration of these risk factors for psychopathology could improve the outcome of holistic interventions.

Journal

Child psychiatry and human development

Published

2022/05/21

Authors

Maxwell MY, Taylor RL, Barch DM

Keywords

Brain development, Children’s internalizing, Early life adversity, Externalizing disorders, Neighborhood poverty, Socioemotional support

DOI

10.1007/s10578-022-01369-w
Toggle A practical guide for researchers and reviewers using the ABCD Study and other large longitudinal datasets. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Saragosa-Harris NM, Chaku N, MacSweeney N, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

As the largest longitudinal study of adolescent brain development and behavior to date, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® has provided immense opportunities for researchers across disciplines since its first data release in 2018. The size and scope of the study also present a number of hurdles, which range from becoming familiar with the study design and data structure to employing rigorous and reproducible analyses. The current paper is intended as a guide for researchers and reviewers working with ABCD data, highlighting the features of the data (and the strengths and limitations therein) as well as relevant analytical and methodological considerations. Additionally, we explore justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts as they pertain to the ABCD Study and other large-scale datasets. In doing so, we hope to increase both accessibility of the ABCD Study and transparency within the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/05/20

Authors

Saragosa-Harris NM, Chaku N, MacSweeney N, Guazzelli Williamson V, Scheuplein M, Feola B, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Demir-Lira E, McNeilly EA, Huffman LG, Whitmore L, Michalska KJ, Damme KS, Rakesh D, Mills KL

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, Adolescent development, Longitudinal research, Open research, Practical guide

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101115
Toggle Associations between screen time and internalizing disorder diagnoses among 9- to 10-year-olds. Journal of affective disorders Roberston L, Twenge JM, Joiner TE, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children and adolescents spend an increasing amount of time with screen media. Identifying correlates of youth mental disorders has become more urgent with rates of depression, self-harm, suicide attempts, and suicide deaths rising sharply among U.S. children and adolescents after 2012. This study examined the relationship between screen time and internalizing disorders in preadolescent children between the ages of 9 and 10.

Journal

Journal of affective disorders

Published

2022/05/18

Authors

Roberston L, Twenge JM, Joiner TE, Cummins K

Keywords

Anxiety, Depression, Internalizing disorders, Mass media, Sociocultural factors, Suicide prevention

DOI

10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.071
Toggle Multi-tract multi-symptom relationships in pediatric concussion. eLife Guberman GI, Stojanovski S, Nishat E, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The heterogeneity of white matter damage and symptoms in concussion has been identified as a major obstacle to therapeutic innovation. In contrast, most diffusion MRI (dMRI) studies on concussion have traditionally relied on group-comparison approaches that average out heterogeneity. To leverage, rather than average out, concussion heterogeneity, we combined dMRI and multivariate statistics to characterize multi-tract multi-symptom relationships.

Journal

eLife

Published

2022/05/17

Authors

Guberman GI, Stojanovski S, Nishat E, Ptito A, Bzdok D, Wheeler AL, Descoteaux M

Keywords

diffusion MRI, human, medicine, multivariate statistics, neuroscience, pediatric concussions

DOI

10.7554/eLife.70450
Toggle Associations of Family Distress, Family Income, and Acculturation on Pediatric Cognitive Performance Using the NIH Toolbox: Implications for Clinical and Research Settings. Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists Thompson RC, Montena AL, Liu K, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

There is a growing recognition that the use of conventional norms (e.g., age, sex, years of education, race) as proxies to capture a broad range of sociocultural variability on cognitive performance is suboptimal, limiting sample representativeness. The present study evaluated the incremental utility of family income, family conflict, and acculturation beyond the established associations of age, gender,maternal years of education, and race on cognitive performance.

Journal

Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists

Published

2022/05/16

Authors

Thompson RC, Montena AL, Liu K, Watson J, Warren SL

Keywords

Assessment, Cross-cultural/minority, Executive functions, Fluency (verbal/nonverbal), Learning and Memory, Norms/normative studies

DOI

10.1093/arclin/acab082
Toggle General and Specific Factors of Environmental Stress and Their Associations With Brain Structure and Dimensions of Psychopathology. Biological psychiatry global open science Jeong HJ, Moore TM, Durham EL, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Early-life stressors can adversely affect the developing brain. While hierarchical modeling has established the existence of a general factor of psychopathology, no studies have modeled a general factor of environmental stress and related this factor to brain development. Using a large sample of children from the ABCD (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development) Study, the current study aimed to identify general and specific factors of environmental stress and test their associations with brain structure and psychopathology.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2022/05/13

Authors

Jeong HJ, Moore TM, Durham EL, Reimann GE, Dupont RM, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Berman MG, Lahey BB, Kaczkurkin AN

Keywords

Brain development, Environmental risk factors, Hierarchical modeling, Neuroimaging, Psychopathology, Stress

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.04.004
Toggle Limits to the generalizability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of youth: An examination of ABCD Study® baseline data. Brain imaging and behavior Cosgrove KT, McDermott TJ, White EJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study examined how resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data quality and availability relate to clinical and sociodemographic variables within the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. A sample of participants with an adequate sample of quality baseline rs-fMRI data containing low average motion (framewise displacement ≤ 0.15; low-noise; n = 4,356) was compared to a sample of participants without an adequate sample of quality data and/or containing high average motion (higher-noise; n = 7,437) using Chi-squared analyses and t-tests. A linear mixed model examined relationships between clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and average head motion in the sample with low-noise data. Relative to the sample with higher-noise data, the low-noise sample included more females, youth identified by parents as non-Hispanic white, and youth with married parents, higher parent education, and greater household incomes (ORs = 1.32-1.42). Youth in the low-noise sample were also older and had higher neurocognitive skills, lower BMIs, and fewer externalizing and neurodevelopmental problems (ds = 0.12-0.30). Within the low-noise sample, several clinical and demographic characteristics related to motion. Thus, participants with low-noise rs-fMRI data may be less representative of the general population and motion may remain a confound in this sample. Future rs-fMRI studies of youth should consider these limitations in the design and analysis stages in order to optimize the representativeness and clinical relevance of analyses and results.

Journal

Brain imaging and behavior

Published

2022/05/12

Authors

Cosgrove KT, McDermott TJ, White EJ, Mosconi MW, Thompson WK, Paulus MP, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Aupperle RL

Keywords

ABCD Study, Generalizability, Head motion, Resting-state fMRI, Sociodemographic factors

DOI

10.1007/s11682-022-00665-2
Toggle The impact of digital media on children's intelligence while controlling for genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic background. Scientific reports Sauce B, Liebherr M, Judd N, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Digital media defines modern childhood, but its cognitive effects are unclear and hotly debated. We believe that studies with genetic data could clarify causal claims and correct for the typically unaccounted role of genetic predispositions. Here, we estimated the impact of different types of screen time (watching, socializing, or gaming) on children’s intelligence while controlling for the confounding effects of genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic status. We analyzed 9855 children from the USA who were part of the ABCD dataset with measures of intelligence at baseline (ages 9-10) and after two years. At baseline, time watching (r = - 0.12) and socializing (r = - 0.10) were negatively correlated with intelligence, while gaming did not correlate. After two years, gaming positively impacted intelligence (standardized β =  + 0.17), but socializing had no effect. This is consistent with cognitive benefits documented in experimental studies on video gaming. Unexpectedly, watching videos also benefited intelligence (standardized β =  + 0.12), contrary to prior research on the effect of watching TV. Although, in a posthoc analysis, this was not significant if parental education (instead of SES) was controlled for. Broadly, our results are in line with research on the malleability of cognitive abilities from environmental factors, such as cognitive training and the Flynn effect.

Journal

Scientific reports

Published

2022/05/11

Authors

Sauce B, Liebherr M, Judd N, Klingberg T

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41598-022-11341-2
Toggle Prediction of the trajectories of depressive symptoms among children in the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study using machine learning approach. Journal of affective disorders Xiang Q, Chen K, Peng L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Depression often first emerges during adolescence and evidence shows that the long-term patterns of depressive symptoms over time are heterogeneous. It is meaningful to predict the trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescents to find early intervention targets.

Journal

Journal of affective disorders

Published

2022/05/08

Authors

Xiang Q, Chen K, Peng L, Luo J, Jiang J, Chen Y, Lan L, Song H, Zhou X

Keywords

Adolescents, Depressive symptoms, Machine learning, Prediction model, Trajectories

DOI

10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.020
Toggle Parent-Child Concordance and Discordance in Family Violence Reporting: A Descriptive Analysis from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Journal of interpersonal violence Hogan JN, Garcia AM, Tomko RL, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood trauma exposure, including witnessing or experiencing family violence, is associated with a variety of poor outcomes such as increased likelihood of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors across the lifespan. Early treatment may help to buffer these effects, but parents and youth display only moderate levels of agreement in reporting family violence, making it more difficult to identify children who have been exposed. Additionally, most studies on family violence reporting have focused primarily on small samples in specific high-risk populations, and little is known about the generalizability of these findings. Thus, the present study assessed concordance in family violence reporting and its correlates using the population-based, demographically diverse sample from the U.S. Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Participants were 10,532 children between 9 and 10 years old, and their parent or guardian, from 21 sites across the United States. Overall, 30% ( = 3119) of the sample reported family violence and most of those reports ( = 2629) had discordant violence reporting, meaning child- and parent-report did not correspond with each other. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of participants belonging in one of the following groups: no violence reported, concordant violence reported, and discordant violence reported. Results indicated that Black or Non-Hispanic children, male children, and children with greater externalizing problems were more likely to report family violence, and parents with lower levels of education and income were more likely to report family violence. These findings likely reflect differences in distribution of risk factors among racial and ethnic minoritized individuals including increased parenting stress and decreased access to mental health treatment. Among those reporting violence, Hispanic children and children with less externalizing problems were more likely to be in the discordant group. Findings suggest that both parent and child reports are needed to assess violence and screen for appropriate services.

Journal

Journal of interpersonal violence

Published

2022/05/07

Authors

Hogan JN, Garcia AM, Tomko RL, Squeglia LM, Flanagan JC

Keywords

child abuse, concordance, discordance, family violence, interpersonal violence

DOI

10.1177/08862605221081928