ABCD Study publications are authored by ABCD investigators, collaborators, and non-ABCD researchers. The analysis methodologies, findings, and interpretations expressed in these publications are those of the authors and do not constitute an endorsement by the ABCD Study®.

Please note that the publications listed here include empirical as well as non-empirical papers (e.g., focused review articles, editorials).

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Title Journal Authors Year Details
Toggle Discovery of genomic loci of the human cerebral cortex using genetically informed brain atlases. Science (New York, N.Y.) Makowski C, van der Meer D, Dong W, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine the impact of genetic variants on the brain, we used genetically informed brain atlases in genome-wide association studies of regional cortical surface area and thickness in 39,898 adults and 9136 children. We uncovered 440 genome-wide significant loci in the discovery cohort and 800 from a post hoc combined meta-analysis. Loci in adulthood were largely captured in childhood, showing signatures of negative selection, and were linked to early neurodevelopment and pathways associated with neuropsychiatric risk. Opposing gradations of decreased surface area and increased thickness were associated with common inversion polymorphisms. Inferior frontal regions, encompassing Broca’s area, which is important for speech, were enriched for human-specific genomic elements. Thus, a mixed genetic landscape of conserved and human-specific features is concordant with brain hierarchy and morphogenetic gradients.

Journal

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Published

2022/02/03

Authors

Makowski C, van der Meer D, Dong W, Wang H, Wu Y, Zou J, Liu C, Rosenthal SB, Hagler DJ, Fan CC, Kremen WS, Andreassen OA, Jernigan TL, Dale AM, Zhang K, Visscher PM, Yang J, Chen CH

Keywords

DOI

10.1126/science.abe8457
Toggle The Role of School Environment in Brain Structure, Connectivity, and Mental Health in Children: A Multimodal Investigation. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Much work has been dedicated to understanding the effects of adverse home environments on brain development. While the school social and learning environment plays a role in child development, little work has been done to investigate the impact of the school environment on the developing brain. The goal of the present study was to examine associations between the school environment, brain structure and connectivity, and mental health.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2022/02/02

Authors

Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S

Keywords

Adolescence, Brain gray and white matter, Magnetic resonance imaging, Neuroimaging, Resting-state functional connectivity, School environment

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.01.006
Toggle The positive-negative mode link between brain connectivity, demographics and behaviour: a pre-registered replication of Smith . (2015). Royal Society open science Goyal N, Moraczewski D, Bandettini PA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

In mental health research, it has proven difficult to find measures of brain function that provide reliable indicators of mental health and well-being, including susceptibility to mental health disorders. Recently, a family of data-driven analyses have provided such reliable measures when applied to large, population-level datasets. In the current pre-registered replication study, we show that the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) methods previously developed using resting-state magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity and subject measures (SMs) of cognition and behaviour from healthy adults are also effective in measuring well-being (a ‘positive-negative axis’) in an independent developmental dataset. Our replication was successful in two out of three of our pre-registered criteria, such that a primary CCA mode’s weights displayed a significant positive relationship and explained a significant amount of variance in both functional connectivity and SMs. The only criterion that was not successful was that compared to other modes the magnitude of variance explained by the primary CCA mode was smaller than predicted, a result that could indicate a developmental trajectory of a primary mode. This replication establishes a signature neurotypical relationship between connectivity and phenotype, opening new avenues of research in neuroscience with clear clinical applications.

Journal

Royal Society open science

Published

2022/02/02

Authors

Goyal N, Moraczewski D, Bandettini PA, Finn ES, Thomas AG

Keywords

Human Connectome Project, adolescent brain cognitive development, connectomics, functional connectivity, network neuroscience, replication

DOI

10.1098/rsos.201090
Toggle Charting brain growth and aging at high spatial precision. eLife Rutherford S, Fraza C, Dinga R, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Defining reference models for population variation, and the ability to study individual deviations is essential for understanding inter-individual variability and its relation to the onset and progression of medical conditions. In this work, we assembled a reference cohort of neuroimaging data from 82 sites (N=58,836; ages 2-100) and used normative modeling to characterize lifespan trajectories of cortical thickness and subcortical volume. Models are validated against a manually quality checked subset (N=24,354) and we provide an interface for transferring to new data sources. We showcase the clinical value by applying the models to a transdiagnostic psychiatric sample (N=1985), showing they can be used to quantify variability underlying multiple disorders whilst also refining case-control inferences. These models will be augmented with additional samples and imaging modalities as they become available. This provides a common reference platform to bind results from different studies and ultimately paves the way for personalized clinical decision-making.

Journal

eLife

Published

2022/02/01

Authors

Rutherford S, Fraza C, Dinga R, Kia SM, Wolfers T, Zabihi M, Berthet P, Worker A, Verdi S, Andrews D, Han LK, Bayer JM, Dazzan P, McGuire P, Mocking RT, Schene A, Sripada C, Tso IF, Duval ER, Chang SE, Penninx BW, Heitzeg MM, Burt SA, Hyde LW, Amaral D, Wu Nordahl C, Andreasssen OA, Westlye LT, Zahn R, Ruhe HG, Beckmann C, Marquand AF

Keywords

big data, brain chart, growth chart, human, individual prediction, lifespan, neuroscience, normative model

DOI

10.7554/eLife.72904
Toggle Association of Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores for Multiple Psychiatric and Common Traits in Preadolescent Youths at Risk of Suicide. JAMA network open Joo YY, Moon SY, Wang HH, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youths worldwide, but no available means exist to identify the risk of suicide in this population.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/02/01

Authors

Joo YY, Moon SY, Wang HH, Kim H, Lee EJ, Kim JH, Posner J, Ahn WY, Choi I, Kim JW, Cha J

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.48585
Toggle Parental psychological problems were associated with higher screen time and the use of mature-rated media in children. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Pulkki-Råback L, Barnes JD, Elovainio M, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Parents’ psychological problems may affect children’s screen time, but research has been scarce. We examined the association between parental psychological problems and children’s screen media behaviours in a nationally representative sample.

Journal

Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)

Published

2022/01/31

Authors

Pulkki-Råback L, Barnes JD, Elovainio M, Hakulinen C, Sourander A, Tremblay MS, Guerrero MD

Keywords

children, mental health, parents, screen time, social media

DOI

10.1111/apa.16253
Toggle Spatio-temporal directed acyclic graph learning with attention mechanisms on brain functional time series and connectivity. Medical image analysis Huang SG, Xia J, Xu L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

We develop a deep learning framework, spatio-temporal directed acyclic graph with attention mechanisms (ST-DAG-Att), to predict cognition and disease using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This ST-DAG-Att framework comprises of two neural networks, (1) spatio-temporal graph convolutional network (ST-graph-conv) to learn the spatial and temporal information of functional time series at multiple temporal and spatial graph scales, where the graph is represented by the brain functional network, the spatial convolution is over the space of this graph, and the temporal convolution is over the time dimension; (2) functional connectivity convolutional network (FC-conv) to learn functional connectivity features, where the functional connectivity is derived from embedded multi-scale fMRI time series and the convolutional operation is applied along both edge and node dimensions of the brain functional network. This framework also consists of an attention component, i.e., functional connectivity-based spatial attention (FC-SAtt), that generates a spatial attention map through learning the local dependency among high-level features of functional connectivity and emphasizing meaningful brain regions. Moreover, both the ST-graph-conv and FC-conv networks are designed as feed-forward models structured as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). Our experiments employ two large-scale datasets, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD, n=7693) and Open Access Series of Imaging Study-3 (OASIS-3, n=1786). Our results show that the ST-DAG-Att model is generalizable from cognition prediction to age prediction. It is robust to independent samples obtained from different sites of the ABCD study. It outperforms the existing machine learning techniques, including support vector regression (SVR), elastic net’s mixture with random forest, spatio-temporal graph convolution, and BrainNetCNN.

Journal

Medical image analysis

Published

2022/01/30

Authors

Huang SG, Xia J, Xu L, Qiu A

Keywords

Attention mechanism, Brain functional network, Directed acyclic graph, Graph neural network, Graph pooling, Multi-scale analysis

DOI

10.1016/j.media.2022.102370
Toggle Age-related changes and longitudinal stability of individual differences in ABCD Neurocognition measures. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Anokhin AP, Luciana M, Banich M, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Temporal stability of individual differences is an important prerequisite for accurate tracking of prospective relationships between neurocognition and real-world behavioral outcomes such as substance abuse and psychopathology. Here we report age-related changes and longitudinal test-retest stability (TRS) for the Neurocognition battery of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, which included the NIH Toolbox (TB) Cognitive Domain and additional memory and visuospatial processing tests administered at baseline (ages 9-11) and two-year follow-up. As expected, performance improved significantly with age, but the effect size varied broadly, with Pattern Comparison and the Crystallized Cognition Composite showing the largest age-related gain (Cohen’s d:.99 and.97, respectively). TRS ranged from fair (Flanker test: r = 0.44) to excellent (Crystallized Cognition Composite: r = 0.82). A comparison of longitudinal changes and cross-sectional age-related differences within baseline and follow-up assessments suggested that, for some measures, longitudinal changes may be confounded by practice effects and differences in task stimuli or procedure between baseline and follow-up. In conclusion, a subset of measures showed good stability of individual differences despite significant age-related changes, warranting their use as prospective predictors. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of observed longitudinal changes as indicators of neurocognitive development.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/01/28

Authors

Anokhin AP, Luciana M, Banich M, Barch D, Bjork JM, Gonzalez MR, Gonzalez R, Haist F, Jacobus J, Lisdahl K, McGlade E, McCandliss B, Nagel B, Nixon SJ, Tapert S, Kennedy JT, Thompson W

Keywords

Development, Longitudinal, Neurocognition, Test-retest reliability

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101078
Toggle The Pandemic's Toll on Young Adolescents: Prevention and Intervention Targets to Preserve Their Mental Health. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Kiss O, Alzueta E, Yuksel D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is characterized by dramatic physical, social, and emotional changes, making teens particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This longitudinal study identifies young adolescents who are most vulnerable to the psychological toll of the pandemic and provides insights to inform strategies to help adolescents cope better in times of crisis.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2022/01/26

Authors

Kiss O, Alzueta E, Yuksel D, Pohl KM, de Zambotti M, Műller-Oehring EM, Prouty D, Durley I, Pelham WE, McCabe CJ, Gonzalez MR, Brown SA, Wade NE, Marshall AT, Sowell ER, Breslin FJ, Lisdahl KM, Dick AS, Sheth CS, McCandliss BD, Guillaume M, Van Rinsveld AM, Dowling GJ, Tapert SF, Baker FC

Keywords

Adolescents, COVID-19, Children, Mental-health, Pandemic, Sex differences, Sleep

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.023
Toggle Socioeconomic status, BMI, and brain development in children. Translational psychiatry Dennis E, Manza P, Volkow ND 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is associated with deficits in executive function and changes in cortical morphology. Furthermore, rates of childhood obesity are greater among low SES children and childhood obesity is also associated with cortical alterations and impaired neurocognition, specifically in the domain of executive function. To investigate the influence of BMI on the relationships between SES and both neurocognition and brain morphology, we used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study to construct multiple linear regression models and conduct mediation analyses. Overall, SES as measured by household income, highest level of parental education, and area deprivation, was associated with lower BMI, greater total and prefrontal cortical volume, and better performance on assessments of executive function. Mediation analysis indicated that BMI had a significant indirect effect on associations between area deprivation and both total and prefrontal cortical volumes. BMI also played a mediating role in the associations between area deprivation and composite neurocognitive scores, which were driven by performance on tasks of working memory and cognitive flexibility, but not cognitive control. These findings suggest that BMI should be considered in future studies investigating the relationship between low SES and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2022/01/24

Authors

Dennis E, Manza P, Volkow ND

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-022-01779-3
Toggle Birth Weight and Childhood Psychopathology in the ABCD Cohort: Association is Strongest for Attention Problems and is Moderated by Sex. Research on child and adolescent psychopathology Dooley N, Clarke M, Cotter D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Many studies have shown low birth weight is associated with psychopathology later in life, particularly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The association is well-replicated, independent from a variety of potential familial confounds, and follows a dose-response curve (decreasing birth weight linked with increasing odds of disorder). However, the specificity of the association to attention problems is called into question by the extent of comorbidity in ADHD, and recent findings that the association is stronger for autism than ADHD. We test the relative dose-response strength of birth weight on multiple aspects of behavior to explore specificity of the effect to attention problems. We also test recent suggestions that the association between birth weight and attention problems is driven by males. Our sample consisted of 9,076 children aged 9-10 from the United States (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study). Outcomes included 9 problem-scales and the total problems scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Attention problems were the most strongly associated with birth weight after controlling for gestational age, potential familial confounds, and multiple testing, supporting the outcome-specificity of this association. Contrary to recent registry-based findings, an association between birth weight and an autism scale was not observed. Sex moderated the effect of birth weight on total problems, attention problems and aggressive behavior such that these inverse associations were strongly driven by males. Our findings have strong implications for sex-specific prediction and etiological models of childhood psychopathology.

Journal

Research on child and adolescent psychopathology

Published

2022/01/24

Authors

Dooley N, Clarke M, Cotter D, Cannon M

Keywords

ADHD, Attention, Birth weight, Child mental health, Foetal growth, Gestation

DOI

10.1007/s10802-021-00859-0
Toggle Neural signatures of data-driven psychopathology dimensions at the transition to adolescence. European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists Modabbernia A, Michelini G, Reichenberg A, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

One of the challenges in human neuroscience is to uncover associations between brain organization and psychopathology in order to better understand the biological underpinnings of mental disorders. Here, we aimed to characterize the neural correlates of psychopathology dimensions obtained using two conceptually different data-driven approaches.

Journal

European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists

Published

2022/01/24

Authors

Modabbernia A, Michelini G, Reichenberg A, Kotov R, Barch D, Frangou S

Keywords

Adolescence, development, neuroimaging, population neuroscience, psychopathology

DOI

10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.2262
Toggle Differentiating distinct and converging neural correlates of types of systemic environmental exposures. Human brain mapping Vargas TG, Damme KSF, Mittal VA 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Systemic environmental disadvantage relates to a host of health and functional outcomes. Specific structural factors have seldom been linked to neural structure, however, clouding understanding of putative mechanisms. Examining relations during childhood/preadolescence, a dynamic period of neurodevelopment, could aid bridge this gap. A total of 10,213 youth were recruited from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Self-report and objective measures (Census and Federal bureau of investigation metrics extracted using geocoding) of environmental exposures were used, including stimulation indexing lack of safety and high attentional demands, discrepancy indexing social exclusion/lack of belonging, and deprivation indexing lack of environmental enrichment. Environmental measures were related to cortical thickness, surface area, and subcortical volume regions, controlling for other environmental exposures and accounting for other brain regions. Self-report (|β| = .04-.09) and objective (|β| = .02-.06) environmental domains related to area/thickness in overlapping (e.g., insula, caudal anterior cingulate), and unique regions (e.g., for discrepancy, rostral anterior and isthmus cingulate, implicated in socioemotional functions; for stimulation, precuneus, critical for cue reactivity and integration of environmental cues; and for deprivation, superior frontal, integral to executive functioning). For stimulation and discrepancy exposures, self-report and objective measures showed similarities in correlate regions, while deprivation exposures evidenced distinct correlates for self-report and objective measures. Results represent a necessary step toward broader work aimed at establishing mechanisms and correlates of structural disadvantage, highlighting the relevance of going beyond aggregate models by considering types of environmental factors, and the need to incorporate both subjective and objective measurements in these efforts.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/01/22

Authors

Vargas TG, Damme KSF, Mittal VA

Keywords

chronic stress, development, environment, neural, systemic factors

DOI

10.1002/hbm.25783
Toggle The Prevalence of Preadolescent Eating Disorders in the United States. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Murray SB, Ganson KT, Chu J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) in young children remains relatively unknown. Here, we aimed to assess the prevalence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge ED (BED), and their subclinical derivatives, among 10- to 11-year-old children in the United States.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2022/01/22

Authors

Murray SB, Ganson KT, Chu J, Jann K, Nagata JM

Keywords

Anorexia nervosa, Binge, Bulimia nervosa, Child eating disorders, Eating disorder, Eating disorders

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.031
Toggle Stability of polygenic scores across discovery genome-wide association studies. HGG advances Schultz LM, Merikangas AK, Ruparel K, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Polygenic scores (PGS) are commonly evaluated in terms of their predictive accuracy at the population level by the proportion of phenotypic variance they explain. To be useful for precision medicine applications, they also need to be evaluated at the individual level when phenotypes are not necessarily already known. We investigated the stability of PGS in European American (EUR) and African American (AFR)-ancestry individuals from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort and the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study using different discovery genome-wide association study (GWAS) results for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and height. We found that pairs of EUR-ancestry GWAS for the same trait had genetic correlations >0.92. However, PGS calculated from pairs of same-ancestry and different-ancestry GWAS had correlations that ranged from <0.01 to 0.74. PGS stability was greater for height than for PTSD or T2D. A series of height GWAS in the UK Biobank suggested that correlation between PGS is strongly dependent on the extent of sample overlap between the discovery GWAS. Focusing on the upper end of the PGS distribution, different discovery GWAS do not consistently identify the same individuals in the upper quantiles, with the best case being 60% of individuals above the 80th percentile of PGS overlapping from one height GWAS to another. The degree of overlap decreases sharply as higher quantiles, less heritable traits, and different-ancestry GWAS are considered. PGS computed from different discovery GWAS have only modest correlation at the individual level, underscoring the need to proceed cautiously with integrating PGS into precision medicine applications.

Journal

HGG advances

Published

2022/01/21

Authors

Schultz LM, Merikangas AK, Ruparel K, Jacquemont S, Glahn DC, Gur RE, Barzilay R, Almasy L

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, African American, PRS-CS, PTSD, Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, UK Biobank, ancestry, height, methods development, type 2 diabetes

DOI

10.1016/j.xhgg.2022.100091
Toggle Psychiatric comorbidity associated with weight status in 9 to 10 year old children. Pediatric obesity Smith KE, Mason TB 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Paediatric overweight and obesity (OW/OB) constitute a serious public health concern. Given that psychological problems may be key contributors to the onset and maintenance of paediatric obesity, the present study examined past and current psychiatric comorbidities across the weight spectrum during middle childhood among a nationally representative sample.

Journal

Pediatric obesity

Published

2022/01/19

Authors

Smith KE, Mason TB

Keywords

children, comorbidity, mental health, obesity, overweight, weight

DOI

10.1111/ijpo.12883
Toggle Functional connectome mediates the association between sleep disturbance and mental health in preadolescence: A longitudinal mediation study. Human brain mapping Yang FN, Liu TT, Wang Z 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sleep disturbance is known to be associated with various mental disorders and often precedes the onset of mental disorders in youth. Given the increasingly acknowledged bidirectional influence between sleep disturbance and mental disorders, we aim to identify a shared neural mechanism that underlies sleep disturbance and mental disorders in preadolescents. We analyzed a dataset of 9,350 9-10 year-old children, among whom 8,845 had 1-year follow-up data, from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Linear mixed-effects models, mediation analysis, and longitudinal mediation analysis were used to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance, mental disorders, and resting-state network connectivity. Out of 186 unique connectivities, the effect of total sleep disturbance (TSP, from Sleep Disturbance Scale) and mental problems (MP, from Child Behavior Checklist) converged in the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN). Within- and between-network connectivities (DMN-DAN, DMN-DMN, DAN-DAN) mediated the relationship between baseline TSD and MP at 1-year follow-up and the relationship between baseline MP and TSD at 1-year follow-up. The pathway model in which sleep disturbance and mental problems affect each other through two anticorrelated brain networks (DMN and DAN) suggests a common neural mechanism between them. Longitudinally, a less segregated DMN and DAN is associated with negative outcomes on mental well-being and sleep disturbance a year later. These findings have important implications for the design of prevention and neurofeedback intervention for mental disorders and sleep problems.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/01/18

Authors

Yang FN, Liu TT, Wang Z

Keywords

adolescent psychiatry, cognition, functional neuroimaging, longitudinal mediation analysis, mental health, sleep

DOI

10.1002/hbm.25772
Toggle Decoupling Sleep and Brain Size in Childhood: An Investigation of Genetic Covariation in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry global open science Hernandez LM, Kim M, Hernandez C, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood sleep problems are common and among the most frequent and impairing comorbidities of childhood psychiatric disorders. In adults, sleep disturbances are heritable and show strong genetic associations with brain morphology; however, little is known about the genetic architecture of childhood sleep and potential etiological links between sleep, brain development, and pediatric-onset psychiatric symptoms.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2022/01/17

Authors

Hernandez LM, Kim M, Hernandez C, Thompson W, Fan CC, Galván A, Dapretto M, Bookheimer SY, Fuligni A, Gandal MJ

Keywords

ADHD, Brain, Childhood, Genetics, Heritability, Insomnia

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.12.011
Toggle Corrigendum to "Microstructural development from 9 to 14 years: Evidence from the ABCD Study" [Dev. Cognit. Neurosci. 53 (2022) 101044]. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/01/14

Authors

Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, Hagler DJ, Sugrue L, Nedelec P, Fan CC, Thompson WK, Jernigan TL, Dale AM

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101063
Toggle General Psychopathology, Cognition, and the Cerebral Cortex in 10-Year-Old Children: Insights From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Frontiers in human neuroscience Patel Y, Parker N, Salum GA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

General psychopathology and cognition are likely to have a bidirectional influence on each other. Yet, the relationship between brain structure, psychopathology, and cognition remains unclear. This brief report investigates the association between structural properties of the cerebral cortex [surface area, cortical thickness, intracortical myelination indexed by the T1w/T2w ratio, and neurite density assessed by restriction spectrum imaging (RSI)] with general psychopathology and cognition in a sample of children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Higher levels of psychopathology and lower levels of cognitive ability were associated with a smaller cortical surface area. Inter-regionally-across the cerebral cortex-the strength of association between an area and psychopathology is strongly correlated with the strength of association between an area and cognition. Taken together, structural deviations particularly observed in the cortical surface area influence both psychopathology and cognition.

Journal

Frontiers in human neuroscience

Published

2022/01/13

Authors

Patel Y, Parker N, Salum GA, Pausova Z, Paus T

Keywords

MRI, brain development, cerebral cortex, cohort, growth

DOI

10.3389/fnhum.2021.781554
Toggle Associations between cognition and polygenic liability to substance involvement in middle childhood: Results from the ABCD study. Drug and alcohol dependence Paul SE, Hatoum AS, Barch DM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Cognition is robustly associated with substance involvement. This relationship is attributable to multiple factors, including genetics, though such contributions show inconsistent patterns in the literature. For instance, genome-wide association studies point to potential positive relationships between educational achievement and common substance use but negative relationships with heavy and/or problematic substance use.

Journal

Drug and alcohol dependence

Published

2022/01/10

Authors

Paul SE, Hatoum AS, Barch DM, Thompson WK, Agrawal A, Bogdan R, Johnson EC

Keywords

Cognitive ability, Polygenic risk, Substance use, Substance use disorder

DOI

10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109277
Toggle Brain morphometry points to emerging patterns of psychosis, depression, and anxiety vulnerability over a 2-year period in childhood. Psychological medicine Vargas TG, Mittal VA 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Gray matter morphometry studies have lent seminal insights into the etiology of mental illness. Existing research has primarily focused on adults and then, typically on a single disorder. Examining brain characteristics in late childhood, when the brain is preparing to undergo significant adolescent reorganization and various forms of serious psychopathology are just first emerging, may allow for a unique and highly important perspective of overlapping and unique pathogenesis.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2022/01/07

Authors

Vargas TG, Mittal VA

Keywords

Anxiety, MRI, depression, neural, neuroimaging, psychosis, schizophrenia

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721005304
Toggle Measurement of gender and sexuality in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Potter AS, Dube SL, Barrios LC, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is a longitudinal study of adolescent brain development and health that includes over 11,800 youth in the United States. The ABCD study includes broad developmental domains, and gender and sexuality are two of these with noted changes across late childhood and early adolescence. The Gender Identity and Sexual Health (GISH) workgroup recommends measures of gender and sexuality for the ABCD study, prioritizing those that are developmentally sensitive, capture individual differences in the experience of gender and sexuality, and minimize participant burden. This manuscript describes the gender and sexuality measures used in ABCD and provides guidance for researchers using these data. Data showing the utility of these measures and longitudinal trends are presented. Including assessment of gender and sexuality in ABCD allows for characterization of developmental trajectories of gender and sexuality, and the broad scope of ABCD data collection allows examination of identity development in an intersectional manner.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/01/04

Authors

Potter AS, Dube SL, Barrios LC, Bookheimer S, Espinoza A, Feldstein Ewing SW, Freedman EG, Hoffman EA, Ivanova M, Jefferys H, McGlade EC, Tapert SF, Johns MM

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development, Gender, Sexuality

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101057
Toggle Adolescent Verbal Memory as a Psychosis Endophenotype: A Genome-Wide Association Study in an Ancestrally Diverse Sample. Genes Wang B, Giannakopoulou O, Austin-Zimmerman I, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Verbal memory impairment is one of the most prominent cognitive deficits in psychosis. However, few studies have investigated the genetic basis of verbal memory in a neurodevelopmental context, and most genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a GWAS on verbal memory in a maximum of 11,017 participants aged 8.9 to 11.1 years in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, recruited from a diverse population in the United States. Verbal memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which included three measures of verbal memory: immediate recall, short-delay recall, and long-delay recall. We adopted a mixed-model approach to perform a joint GWAS of all participants, adjusting for ancestral background and familial relatedness. The inclusion of participants from all ancestries increased the power of the GWAS. Two novel genome-wide significant associations were found for short-delay and long-delay recall verbal memory. In particular, one locus (rs9896243) associated with long-delay recall was mapped to the NSF (N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor, Vesicle Fusing ATPase) gene, indicating the role of membrane fusion in adolescent verbal memory. Based on the GWAS in the European subset, we estimated the SNP-heritability to be 15% to 29% for the three verbal memory traits. We found that verbal memory was genetically correlated with schizophrenia, providing further evidence supporting verbal memory as an endophenotype for psychosis.

Journal

Genes

Published

2022/01/03

Authors

Wang B, Giannakopoulou O, Austin-Zimmerman I, Irizar H, Harju-Seppänen J, Zartaloudi E, Bhat A, McQuillin A, Kuchenbäcker K, Bramon E

Keywords

endophenotype, genome-wide association study, neurodevelopment, psychosis, schizophrenia, verbal memory

DOI

10.3390/genes13010106
Toggle Screen Time Use Among US Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA pediatrics Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Cattle CJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

This cross-sectional study reviews findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study on digital media use by US youths during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2022/01/01

Authors

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Cattle CJ, Ganson KT, Iyer P, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.4334
Toggle Reducing the Effects of Motion Artifacts in fMRI: A Structured Matrix Completion Approach. IEEE transactions on medical imaging Balachandrasekaran A, Cohen AL, Afacan O, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used to study the functional organization of normal and pathological brains. However, the fMRI signal may be contaminated by subject motion artifacts that are only partially mitigated by motion correction strategies. These artifacts lead to distance-dependent biases in the inferred signal correlations. To mitigate these spurious effects, motion-corrupted volumes are censored from fMRI time series. Censoring can result in discontinuities in the fMRI signal, which may lead to substantial alterations in functional connectivity analysis. We propose a new approach to recover the missing entries from censoring based on structured low rank matrix completion. We formulated the artifact-reduction problem as the recovery of a super-resolved matrix from unprocessed fMRI measurements. We enforced a low rank prior on a large structured matrix, formed from the samples of the time series, to recover the missing entries. The recovered time series, in addition to being motion compensated, are also slice-time corrected at a fine temporal resolution. To achieve a fast and memory-efficient solution for our proposed optimization problem, we employed a variable splitting strategy. We validated the algorithm with simulations, data acquired under different motion conditions, and datasets from the ABCD study. Functional connectivity analysis showed that the proposed reconstruction resulted in connectivity matrices with lower errors in pair-wise correlation than non-censored and censored time series based on a standard processing pipeline. In addition, seed-based correlation analyses showed improved delineation of the default mode network. These demonstrate that the method can effectively reduce the adverse effects of motion in fMRI analysis.

Journal

IEEE transactions on medical imaging

Published

2021/12/30

Authors

Balachandrasekaran A, Cohen AL, Afacan O, Warfield SK, Gholipour A

Keywords

DOI

10.1109/TMI.2021.3107829
Toggle Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity among adolescents in the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Preventive medicine reports Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Dooley EE, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate adolescents’ moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) during the COVID-19 pandemic with regards to sociodemographic characteristics and determine mental health and resiliency factors associated with MVPA among a diverse national sample of adolescents ages 10-14 years. Data were collected during the pandemic in May 2020 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD, N = 5,153), a national prospective cohort study in the U.S. MVPA was quantified as the product of reported duration and frequency (hours per week), which was further summarized as the proportion meeting age-appropriate 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. A similar estimate was generated using MVPA data collected prior to the pandemic. Mental health and resiliency measures were collected during the pandemic. Regression models examined associations between mental health or resiliency measures and MVPA during the pandemic. Median MVPA was 2 h per week (IQR 0, 6). Overall, the percentage of the cohort meeting MVPA guidelines decreased from 16.1% (pre-pandemic) to 8.9% (during the pandemic). Racial/ethnic minority adolescents and adolescents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidelines during the pandemic. Poorer mental health, COVID-related worry, and stress were associated with lower MVPA, while more social support and coping behaviors were associated with higher MVPA during the pandemic. In this large, national sample of adolescents, the proportion of those meeting MVPA Guidelines was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic, with significant disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Interventions to promote social support and coping behaviors may improve MVPA levels among adolescents during the pandemic.

Journal

Preventive medicine reports

Published

2021/12/27

Authors

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Dooley EE, Iyer P, Ganson KT, Pettee Gabriel K

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Adolescents, COVID-19, Coronavirus, Exercise, HHS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, Physical activity, RRR, Rapid Response Research

DOI

10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101685
Toggle Genetic Association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Major Depression With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry Lee PH, Doyle AE, Li X, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicide is among the leading causes of death in children and adolescents. There are well-known risk factors of suicide, including childhood abuse, family conflicts, social adversity, and psychopathology. While suicide risk is also known to be heritable, few studies have investigated genetic risk in younger individuals.

Journal

Biological psychiatry

Published

2021/12/22

Authors

Lee PH, Doyle AE, Li X, Silberstein M, Jung JY, Gollub RL, Nierenberg AA, Liu RT, Kessler RC, Perlis RH, Fava M

Keywords

ADHD, Adolescents, Children, Depression, Polygenic risk score, Suicide

DOI

10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.11.026
Toggle The Emotional Word-Emotional Face Stroop task in the ABCD study: Psychometric validation and associations with measures of cognition and psychopathology. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Smolker HR, Wang K, Luciana M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Characterizing the interactions among attention, cognitive control, and emotion during adolescence may provide important insights into why this critical developmental period coincides with a dramatic increase in risk for psychopathology. However, it has proven challenging to develop a single neurobehavioral task that simultaneously engages and differentially measures these diverse domains. In the current study, we describe properties of performance on the Emotional Word-Emotional Face Stroop (EWEFS) task in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a task that allows researchers to concurrently measure processing speed/attentional vigilance (i.e., performance on congruent trials), inhibitory control (i.e., Stroop interference effect), and emotional information processing (i.e., difference in performance on trials with happy as compared to angry distracting faces). We first demonstrate that the task manipulations worked as designed and that Stroop performance is associated with multiple cognitive constructs derived from different measures at a prior time point. We then show that Stroop metrics tapping these three domains are preferentially associated with aspects of externalizing psychopathology and inattention. These results highlight the potential of the EWEFS task to help elucidate the longitudinal dynamics of attention, inhibitory control, and emotion across adolescent development, dynamics which may be altered by level of psychopathology.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/12/21

Authors

Smolker HR, Wang K, Luciana M, Bjork JM, Gonzalez R, Barch DM, McGlade EC, Kaiser RH, Friedman NP, Hewitt JK, Banich MT

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescence, Emotion, Inhibitory control, Psychopathology, Stroop

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101054
Toggle Functional brain network community structure in childhood: Unfinished territories and fuzzy boundaries. NeuroImage Tooley UA, Bassett DS, Mackey AP 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adult cortex is organized into distributed functional communities. Yet, little is known about community architecture of children’s brains. Here, we uncovered the community structure of cortex in childhood using fMRI data from 670 children aged 9-11 years (48% female, replication sample n=544, 56% female) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. We first applied a data-driven community detection approach to cluster cortical regions into communities, then employed a generative model-based approach called the weighted stochastic block model to further probe community interactions. Children showed similar community structure to adults, as defined by Yeo and colleagues in 2011, in early-developing sensory and motor communities, but differences emerged in transmodal areas. Children have more cortical territory in the limbic community, which is involved in emotion processing, than adults. Regions in association cortex interact more flexibly across communities, creating uncertainty for the model-based assignment algorithm, and perhaps reflecting cortical boundaries that are not yet solidified. Uncertainty was highest for cingulo-opercular areas involved in flexible deployment of cognitive control. Activation and deactivation patterns during a working memory task showed that both the data-driven approach and a set of adult communities statistically capture functional organization in middle childhood. Collectively, our findings suggest that community boundaries are not solidified by middle childhood.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/12/21

Authors

Tooley UA, Bassett DS, Mackey AP

Keywords

Community structure, Development, Graph theory, Network neuroscience, Networks

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118843
Toggle Impact of COVID-19 on Youth With ADHD: Predictors and Moderators of Response to Pandemic Restrictions on Daily Life. Journal of attention disorders Rosenthal E, Franklin-Gillette S, Jung HJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

We examined COVID-19 symptoms and infection rates, disruptions to functioning, and moderators of pandemic response for 620 youth with ADHD and 614 individually matched controls (70% male;  = 12.4) participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. There were no group differences in COVID-19 infection rate; however, youth with ADHD were more likely to exhibit COVID-19 symptoms ( = 0.25), greater sleep problems ( = -0.52), fear and negative emotions to infection risk ( = -0.56), trouble with remote learning ( = -0.54), rule-breaking behavior related to COVID-19 restrictions ( = -0.23), family conflict ( = -0.13), and were less prepared for the next school year ( = 0.38). Youth with ADHD were less responsive to protective environmental variables (e.g., parental monitoring, school engagement) during the pandemic and may need more specialized support with return to in-person schooling and daily activities.

Journal

Journal of attention disorders

Published

2021/12/17

Authors

Rosenthal E, Franklin-Gillette S, Jung HJ, Nelson A, Evans SW, Power TJ, Yerys BE, Dever BV, Reckner E, DuPaul GJ

Keywords

ADD/ADHD, COVID-19, functional impairment

DOI

10.1177/10870547211063641
Toggle Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Adolescent Recreational Screen Time Reporting During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. Academic pediatrics Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To describe the relationship between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent recreational screen time and to determine sociodemographic predictors of recreational screen time reporting differences during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

Journal

Academic pediatrics

Published

2021/12/16

Authors

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, Ganson KT, Chu J, Conroy AA

Keywords

adolescents, coronavirus disease 2019, media use, parents, screen time

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2021.12.008
Toggle One-year predictions of delayed reward discounting in the adolescent brain cognitive development study. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology Owens MM, Hahn S, Allgaier N, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Delayed reward discounting (DRD) refers to the extent to which an individual devalues a reward based on a temporal delay and is known to be elevated in individuals with substance use disorders and many mental illnesses. DRD has been linked previously with both features of brain structure and function, as well as various behavioral, psychological, and life-history factors. However, there has been little work on the neurobiological and behavioral antecedents of DRD in childhood. This is an important question, as understanding the antecedents of DRD can provide signs of mechanisms in the development of psychopathology. The present study used baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study ( = 4,042) to build machine learning models to predict DRD at the first follow-up visit, 1 year later. In separate machine learning models, we tested elastic net regression, random forest regression, light gradient boosting regression, and support vector regression. In five-fold cross-validation on the training set, models using an array of questionnaire/task variables were able to predict DRD, with these findings generalizing to a held-out (i.e., “lockbox”) test set of 20% of the sample. Key predictive variables were neuropsychological test performance at baseline, socioeconomic status, screen media activity, psychopathology, parenting, and personality. However, models using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain variables did not reliably predict DRD in either the cross-validation or held-out test set. These results suggest a combination of questionnaire/task variables as antecedents of excessive DRD in late childhood, which may presage the development of problematic substance use in adolescence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

Journal

Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology

Published

2021/12/16

Authors

Owens MM, Hahn S, Allgaier N, MacKillop J, Albaugh M, Yuan D, Juliano A, Potter A, Garavan H

Keywords

DOI

10.1037/pha0000532
Toggle Prevalence, predictors, and treatment of eating disorders in children: a national study. Psychological medicine Sanzari CM, Levin RY, Liu RT 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although the prevalence rates of preadolescent eating disorders (EDs) are on the rise, considerably less is known about the correlates and treatment of EDs in this age group. Clarifying the epidemiology of EDs in preadolescent children is a necessary first step to understand the nature and scope of this problem in this age group.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2021/12/15

Authors

Sanzari CM, Levin RY, Liu RT

Keywords

ABCD study, Epidemiology, eating disorders, preadolescence

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721004992
Toggle Associations of circulating C-reactive proteins, APOE ε4, and brain markers for Alzheimer's disease in healthy samples across the lifespan. Brain, behavior, and immunity Wang Y, Grydeland H, Roe JM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele (APOE ε4) and higher circulating level of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been extensively investigated as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Paradoxically, APOE ε4 has been associated with lower levels of blood CRP in middle-aged and older populations. However, few studies have investigated this intriguing relation and its impact on neurological markers for AD in younger ages, nor across the whole lifespan. Here, we examine associations of blood CRP levels, APOE ε4, and biomarkers for AD in a cognitively healthy lifespan cohort (N up to 749; 20-81 years of age) and replicate the findings in UK Biobank (N = 304 322; 37-72 years of age), the developmental ABCD study (N = 10 283; 9-11 years of age), and a middle-aged sample (N = 339; 40-65 years of age). Hippocampal volume, brain amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque levels, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ and tau species, and neurofilament protein light protein (NFL) were used as AD biomarkers in subsamples. In addition, we examined the genetic contribution to the variation of CRP levels over different CRP ranges using polygenic scores for CRP (PGS-CRP). Our results show APOE ε4 consistently associates with low blood CRP levels across all age groups (p < 0.05). Strikingly, both ε4 and PGS-CRP associated mainly with blood CRP levels within the low range (<5mg/L). We then show both APOE ε4 and high CRP levels associate with smaller hippocampus volumes across the lifespan (p < 0.025). APOE ε4 was associated with high Aβ plaque levels in the brain (FDR-corrected p = 8.69×10), low levels of CSF Aβ42 (FDR-corrected p = 6.9×10), and lower ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 (FDR-corrected p = 5.08×10). Blood CRP levels were weakly correlated with higher ratio of CSF Aβ42 to Aβ40 (p = 0.03, FDR-corrected p = 0.4). APOE ε4 did not correlate with blood concentrations of another 9 inflammatory cytokines, and none of these cytokines correlated with AD biomarkers. CONCLUSION: The inverse correlation between APOEε 4 and blood CRP levels existed before any pathological AD biomarker was observed, and only in the low CRP level range. Thus, we suggest to investigate whether APOEε 4 can confer risk by being associated with a lower inflammatory response to daily exposures, possibly leading to greater accumulation of low-grade inflammatory stress throughout life. A lifespan perspective is needed to understand this relationship concerning risk of developing AD.

Journal

Brain, behavior, and immunity

Published

2021/12/14

Authors

Wang Y, Grydeland H, Roe JM, Pan M, Magnussen F, Amlien IK, Watne LO, Idland AV, Bertram L, Gundersen TE, Pascual-Leone A, Cabello-Toscano M, Tormos JM, Bartres-Faz D, Drevon CA, Fjell AM, Walhovd KW

Keywords

APOE, Alzheimer’s disease, CRP, Hippocampal volume, Inflammation

DOI

10.1016/j.bbi.2021.12.008
Toggle Transforming the Future of Adolescent Health: Opportunities From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Hoffman EA, LeBlanc K, Weiss SRB, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2021/12/13

Authors

Hoffman EA, LeBlanc K, Weiss SRB, Dowling GJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.008
Toggle Brain network coupling associated with cognitive performance varies as a function of a child's environment in the ABCD study. Nature communications Ellwood-Lowe ME, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Bunge SA 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Prior research indicates that lower resting-state functional coupling between two brain networks, lateral frontoparietal network (LFPN) and default mode network (DMN), relates to cognitive test performance, for children and adults. However, most of the research that led to this conclusion has been conducted with non-representative samples of individuals from higher-income backgrounds, and so further studies including participants from a broader range of socioeconomic backgrounds are required. Here, in a pre-registered study, we analyzed resting-state fMRI from 6839 children ages 9-10 years from the ABCD dataset. For children from households defined as being above poverty (family of 4 with income > $25,000, or family of 5+ with income > $35,000), we replicated prior findings; that is, we found that better performance on cognitive tests correlated with weaker LFPN-DMN coupling. For children from households defined as being in poverty, the direction of association was reversed, on average: better performance was instead directionally related to stronger LFPN-DMN connectivity, though there was considerable variability. Among children in households below poverty, the direction of this association was predicted in part by features of their environments, such as school type and parent-reported neighborhood safety. These results highlight the importance of including representative samples in studies of child cognitive development.

Journal

Nature communications

Published

2021/12/10

Authors

Ellwood-Lowe ME, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Bunge SA

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41467-021-27336-y
Toggle Measurement matters: An individual differences examination of family socioeconomic factors, latent dimensions of children's experiences, and resting state functional brain connectivity in the ABCD sample. Developmental cognitive neuroscience DeJoseph ML, Herzberg MP, Sifre RD, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The variation in experiences between high and low-socioeconomic status contexts are posited to play a crucial role in shaping the developing brain and may explain differences in child outcomes. Yet, examinations of SES and brain development have largely been limited to distal proxies of these experiences (e.g., income comparisons). The current study sought to disentangle the effects of multiple socioeconomic indices and dimensions of more proximal experiences on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in a sample of 7834 youth (aged 9-10 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We applied moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) to establish measurement invariance among three latent environmental dimensions of experience (material/economic deprivation, caregiver social support, and psychosocial threat). Results revealed measurement biases as a function of child age, sex, racial group, family income, and parental education, which were statistically adjusted in the final MNLFA scores. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that socioeconomic indices and psychosocial threat differentially predicted variation in frontolimbic networks, and threat statistically moderated the association between income and connectivity between the dorsal and ventral attention networks. Findings illuminate the importance of reducing measurement biases to gain a more socioculturally-valid understanding of the complex and nuanced links between socioeconomic context, children’s experiences, and neurodevelopment.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/12/08

Authors

DeJoseph ML, Herzberg MP, Sifre RD, Berry D, Thomas KM

Keywords

Adversity, Childhood, MNLFA, Resting state functional connectivity, Socioeconomic status

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101043
Toggle Predicting multilingual effects on executive function and individual connectomes in children: An ABCD study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Kwon YH, Yoo K, Nguyen H, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

While there is a substantial amount of work studying multilingualism’s effect on cognitive functions, little is known about how the multilingual experience modulates the brain as a whole. In this study, we analyzed data of over 1,000 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to examine whether monolinguals and multilinguals differ in executive function, functional brain connectivity, and brain-behavior associations. We observed significantly better performance from multilingual children than monolinguals in working-memory tasks. In one finding, we were able to classify multilinguals from monolinguals using only their whole-brain functional connectome at rest and during an emotional n-back task. Compared to monolinguals, the multilingual group had different functional connectivity mainly in the occipital lobe and subcortical areas during the emotional n-back task and in the occipital lobe and prefrontal cortex at rest. In contrast, we did not find any differences in behavioral performance and functional connectivity when performing a stop-signal task. As a second finding, we investigated the degree to which behavior is reflected in the brain by implementing a connectome-based behavior prediction approach. The multilingual group showed a significant correlation between observed and connectome-predicted individual working-memory performance scores, while the monolingual group did not show any correlations. Overall, our observations suggest that multilingualism enhances executive function and reliably modulates the corresponding brain functional connectome, distinguishing multilinguals from monolinguals even at the developmental stage.

Journal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Published

2021/12/07

Authors

Kwon YH, Yoo K, Nguyen H, Jeong Y, Chun MM

Keywords

children, fMRI, functional connectivity, multilingualism, working memory

DOI

10.1073/pnas.2110811118
Toggle Internalizing-externalizing comorbidity and regional brain volumes in the ABCD study. Development and psychopathology Schettini E, Wilson S, Beauchaine TP 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Despite nonoverlapping diagnostic criteria, internalizing and externalizing disorders show substantial comorbidity. This comorbidity is attributable, at least in part, to transdiagnostic neuroaffective mechanisms. Both unipolar depression and externalizing disorders are characterized by structural and functional compromises in the striatum and its projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and other frontal regions. Smaller volumes and dampened reward responding in these regions are associated with anhedonia and irritability – mood states that cut across the internalizing and externalizing spectra. In contrast, smaller amygdala volumes and dampened amygdala function differentiate externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. Little is known, however, about associations between internalizing-externalizing comorbidity and brain volumes in these regions, or whether such patterns differ by sex. Using a transdiagnostic, research domain criteria (RDoC)-informed approach, we evaluate associations between heterotypic (Internalizing × Externalizing) symptom interactions and striatal, amygdalar, and ACC volumes among participants in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study ( = 6,971, mean age 9.9 years, 51.6% female). Heterotypic symptoms were associated with ACC volumes for both sexes, over and above the main effects of internalizing and externalizing alone. However, heterotypic comorbidity was associated with larger ACC volumes for girls, but with smaller ACC volumes for boys. These findings suggest a need for further studies and transdiagnostic assessment by sex.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/12/07

Authors

Schettini E, Wilson S, Beauchaine TP

Keywords

RDoC, amygdala, anterior cingulate, heterotypic comorbidity, striatum

DOI

10.1017/s0954579421000560
Toggle Reward Processing in Children With Psychotic-Like Experiences. Schizophrenia bulletin open Harju-Seppänen J, Irizar H, Bramon E, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Alterations to striatal reward pathways have been identified in individuals with psychosis. They are hypothesized to be a key mechanism that generate psychotic symptoms through the production of aberrant attribution of motivational salience and are proposed to result from accumulated childhood adversity and genetic risk, making the striatal system hyper-responsive to stress. However, few studies have examined whether children with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) also exhibit these alterations, limiting our understanding of how differences in reward processing relate to hallucinations and delusional ideation in childhood. Consequently, we examined whether PLEs and PLE-related distress were associated with reward-related activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The sample consisted of children ( = 6718) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study aged 9-10 years who had participated in the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task in functional MRI. We used robust mixed-effects linear regression models to investigate the relationship between PLEs and NAcc activation during the reward anticipation and reward outcome stages of the MID task. Analyses were adjusted for gender, household income, ethnicity, depressive symptoms, movement in the scanner, pubertal development, scanner ID, subject and family ID. There was no reliable association between PLEs and alterations to anticipation- or outcome-related striatal reward processing. We discuss the implications for developmental models of psychosis and suggest a developmental delay model of how PLEs may arise at this stage of development.

Journal

Schizophrenia bulletin open

Published

2021/12/04

Authors

Harju-Seppänen J, Irizar H, Bramon E, Blakemore SJ, Mason L, Bell V

Keywords

childhood, fMRI, psychotic-like experiences

DOI

10.1093/schizbullopen/sgab054
Toggle Associations Between Traumatic Stress, Brain Volumes and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Children: Data from the ABCD Study. Behavior genetics Bustamante D, Amstadter AB, Pritikin JN, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Reduced volumes in brain regions of interest (ROIs), primarily from adult samples, are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We extended this work to children using data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® (N = 11,848; M = 9.92). Structural equation modeling and an elastic-net (EN) machine-learning approach were used to identify potential effects of traumatic events (TEs) on PTSD symptoms (PTSDsx) directly, and indirectly via the volumes 300 subcortical and cortical ROIs. We then estimated the genetic and environmental variation in the phenotypes. TEs were directly associated with PTSDsx (r = 0.92) in children, but their indirect effects (r < 0.0004)-via the volumes of EN-identified subcortical and cortical ROIs-were negligible at this age. Additive genetic factors explained a modest proportion of the variance in TEs (23.4%) and PTSDsx (21.3%), and accounted for most of the variance of EN-identified volumes of four of the five subcortical (52.4-61.8%) three of the nine cortical ROIs (46.4-53.3%) and cerebral white matter in the left hemisphere (57.4%). Environmental factors explained most of the variance in TEs (C = 61.6%, E = 15.1%), PTSDsx (residual-C = 18.4%, residual-E = 21.8%), right lateral ventricle (C = 15.2%, E = 43.1%) and six of the nine EN-identified cortical ROIs (C = 4.0-13.6%, E = 56.7-74.8%). There is negligible evidence that the volumes of brain ROIs are associated with the indirect effects of TEs on PTSDsx at this age. Overall, environmental factors accounted for more of the variation in TEs and PTSDsx. Whereas additive genetic factors accounted for most of the variability in the volumes of a minority of cortical and in most of subcortical ROIs.

Journal

Behavior genetics

Published

2021/12/03

Authors

Bustamante D, Amstadter AB, Pritikin JN, Brick TR, Neale MC

Keywords

Brain, Children, Environment, Genetic, MRI, PTSD, Regularization

DOI

10.1007/s10519-021-10092-6
Toggle Microstructural development from 9 to 14 years: Evidence from the ABCD Study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

During late childhood behavioral changes, such as increased risk-taking and emotional reactivity, have been associated with the maturation of cortico-cortico and cortico-subcortical circuits. Understanding microstructural changes in both white matter and subcortical regions may aid our understanding of how individual differences in these behaviors emerge. Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a framework for modelling diffusion-weighted imaging that decomposes the diffusion signal from a voxel into hindered, restricted, and free compartments. This yields greater specificity than conventional methods of characterizing diffusion. Using RSI, we quantified voxelwise restricted diffusion across the brain and measured age associations in a large sample (n = 8086) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study aged 9-14 years. Older participants showed a higher restricted signal fraction across the brain, with the largest associations in subcortical regions, particularly the basal ganglia and ventral diencephalon. Importantly, age associations varied with respect to the cytoarchitecture within white matter fiber tracts and subcortical structures, for example age associations differed across thalamic nuclei. This suggests that age-related changes may map onto specific cell populations or circuits and highlights the utility of voxelwise compared to ROI-wise analyses. Future analyses will aim to understand the relevance of this microstructural developmental for behavioral outcomes.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/12/03

Authors

Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, Hagler DJ, Sugrue L, Nedelec P, Fan CC, Thompson WK, Jernigan TL, Dale AM

Keywords

Adolescence, Development, Diffusion, Microstructure, Neuroimaging, Subcortical

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101044
Toggle Psychotic-Like Experiences Associated with Sleep Disturbance and Brain Volumes in Youth: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. JCPP advances Lunsford-Avery JR, Damme KSF, Vargas T, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sleep disturbance is characteristic of schizophrenia and at-risk populations, suggesting a possible etiological role in psychosis. Biological mechanisms underlying associations between sleep and psychosis vulnerability are unclear, although reduced sleep-regulatory brain structure volumes are a proposed contributor. This study is the first to examine relationships between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs; subclinical symptoms reflecting psychosis vulnerability/risk), sleep, and brain volumes in youth.

Journal

JCPP advances

Published

2021/12/02

Authors

Lunsford-Avery JR, Damme KSF, Vargas T, Sweitzer MM, Mittal VA

Keywords

brain volumes, psychosis, psychotic-like experiences, sleep, structural MRI, thalamus

DOI

10.1002/jcv2.12055
Toggle Association of Outdoor Ambient Fine Particulate Matter With Intracellular White Matter Microstructural Properties Among Children. JAMA network open Burnor E, Cserbik D, Cotter DL, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Outdoor particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2.5) is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant that may affect the developing brain. Little is known about associations between PM2.5 and white matter connectivity.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Burnor E, Cserbik D, Cotter DL, Palmer CE, Ahmadi H, Eckel SP, Berhane K, McConnell R, Chen JC, Schwartz J, Jackson R, Herting MM

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.38300
Toggle Parental Education and Children's Sleep Disturbance: Minorities' Diminished Returns. International journal of epidemiologic research Assari S 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

While increased parental education reduces children’s sleep problems, less is known about racial variation in such protection. According to Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, economic resources such as parental education show weaker health effects for minority groups such as Blacks and Latinos than non-Latino Whites, which is due to racism and social stratification. In this study, we investigated the association between parental education and children’s sleep problems, as a proxy of sleep problems, by race.

Journal

International journal of epidemiologic research

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Assari S

Keywords

Children, Parental education, Sleep problems

DOI

10.34172/ijer.2021.06
Toggle Testing whether implicit emotion regulation mediates the association between discrimination and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood: An RDoC perspective. Development and psychopathology Vargas TG, Mittal VA 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Discrimination has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes, though it is unclear how early in life this association becomes apparent. Implicit emotion regulation, developing during childhood, is a foundational skill tied to a range of outcomes. Implicit emotion regulation has yet to be tested as an associated process for mental illness symptoms that can often emerge during this sensitive developmental period. Youth aged 9-11 were recruited for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Associations between psychotic-like experiences, depressive symptoms, and total discrimination (due to race, ethnicity, nationality, weight, or sexual minority status) were tested, as well as associations with implicit emotion regulation measures (emotional updating working memory and inhibitory control). Analyses examined whether associations with symptoms were mediated by implicit emotion regulation. Discrimination related to decreased implicit emotion regulation performance, and increased endorsement of depressive symptoms and psychotic-like experiences. Emotional updating working memory performance partially mediated the association between discrimination and psychotic-like experiences, while emotional inhibitory control did not. Discrimination and implicit emotion regulation could serve as putative transdiagnostic markers of vulnerability. Results support the utility of using multiple units of analysis to improve understanding of complex emerging neurocognitive functions and developmentally sensitive periods.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Vargas TG, Mittal VA

Keywords

depression, discrimination, emotion, emotion regulation, psychosis, systemic

DOI

10.1017/S0954579421000638
Toggle Comparison of European, African, Asian, and Other/Mixed Race American Children for the Association Between Household Income and Perceived Discrimination. International journal of travel medicine and global health Assari S, Ayoubian A, Caldwell CH 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Perceived discrimination is one of the reasons behind racial/ethnic health disparities. However, less is known about racial and ethnic groups differ in social determinants of discrimination. This study aimed to compare the association between household income and perceived discrimination among American children of different racial/ethnic groups.

Journal

International journal of travel medicine and global health

Published

2021/12/01

Authors

Assari S, Ayoubian A, Caldwell CH

Keywords

Discrimination, Education, Health, Income, Racism, Socioeconomic Status

DOI

10.34172/ijtmgh.2021.06
Toggle Multimodal Ensemble Deep Learning to Predict Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children. Frontiers in neuroinformatics Menon SS, Krishnamurthy K 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, collectively referred to as disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), are prevalent psychiatric disorders in children. Early diagnosis of DBDs is crucial because they can increase the risks of other mental health and substance use disorders without appropriate psychosocial interventions and treatment. However, diagnosing DBDs is challenging as they are often comorbid with other disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and depression. In this study, a multimodal ensemble three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D CNN) deep learning model was used to classify children with DBDs and typically developing children. The study participants included 419 females and 681 males, aged 108-131 months who were enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Children were grouped based on the presence of DBDs ( = 550) and typically developing ( = 550); assessments were based on the scores from the Child Behavior Checklist and on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children-Present and Lifetime version for DSM-5. The diffusion, structural, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data were used as input data to the 3D CNN. The model achieved 72% accuracy in classifying children with DBDs with 70% sensitivity, 72% specificity, and an F1-score of 70. In addition, the discriminative power of the classifier was investigated by identifying the cortical and subcortical regions primarily involved in the prediction of DBDs using a gradient-weighted class activation mapping method. The classification results were compared with those obtained using the three neuroimaging modalities individually, and a connectome-based graph CNN and a multi-scale recurrent neural network using only the rs-fMRI data.

Journal

Frontiers in neuroinformatics

Published

2021/11/24

Authors

Menon SS, Krishnamurthy K

Keywords

3D CNN, deep learning, disruptive behavior disorders, multimodal ensemble learning, neuroimaging

DOI

10.3389/fninf.2021.742807
Toggle Graph auto-encoding brain networks with applications to analyzing large-scale brain imaging datasets. NeuroImage Liu M, Zhang Z, Dunson DB 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

There has been a huge interest in studying human brain connectomes inferred from different imaging modalities and exploring their relationships with human traits, such as cognition. Brain connectomes are usually represented as networks, with nodes corresponding to different regions of interest (ROIs) and edges to connection strengths between ROIs. Due to the high-dimensionality and non-Euclidean nature of networks, it is challenging to depict their population distribution and relate them to human traits. Current approaches focus on summarizing the network using either pre-specified topological features or principal components analysis (PCA). In this paper, building on recent advances in deep learning, we develop a nonlinear latent factor model to characterize the population distribution of brain graphs and infer their relationships to human traits. We refer to our method as Graph AuTo-Encoding (GATE). We applied GATE to two large-scale brain imaging datasets, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study and the Human Connectome Project (HCP) for adults, to study the structural brain connectome and its relationship with cognition. Numerical results demonstrate huge advantages of GATE over competitors in terms of prediction accuracy, statistical inference, and computing efficiency. We found that the structural connectome has a stronger association with a wide range of human cognitive traits than was apparent using previous approaches.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/11/22

Authors

Liu M, Zhang Z, Dunson DB

Keywords

Brain networks, Graph CNN, Non-linear factor analysis, Replicated networks, Variational auto-encoder

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118750
Toggle Brain structural associations with depression in a large early adolescent sample (the ABCD study®). EClinicalMedicine Shen X, MacSweeney N, Chan SWY, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide with > 50% of cases emerging before the age of 25 years. Large-scale neuroimaging studies in depression implicate robust structural brain differences in the disorder. However, most studies have been conducted in adults and therefore, the temporal origins of depression-related imaging features remain largely unknown. This has important implications for understanding aetiology and informing timings of potential intervention.

Journal

EClinicalMedicine

Published

2021/11/20

Authors

Shen X, MacSweeney N, Chan SWY, Barbu MC, Adams MJ, Lawrie SM, Romaniuk L, McIntosh AM, Whalley HC

Keywords

Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, Adolescent depression, Big data, Brain structure

DOI

10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101204
Toggle Minding the Gap: Adolescent and Parent/Caregiver Reporter Discrepancies on Symptom Presence, Impact of Covariates, and Clinical Implications. Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners Ford SH, McCoy TP 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Primary care practitioners (PCPs) provide care to adolescents in the context of their families. Supporting parent/caregiver knowledge of symptoms can create opportunities for better recognition of symptoms that can then lead to early identification, intervention, and prevention of poor outcomes.

Journal

Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners

Published

2021/11/19

Authors

Ford SH, McCoy TP

Keywords

Adolescent health, advocacy, anhedonia, communication, depressed mood, family-centered care

DOI

10.1016/j.pedhc.2021.09.010
Toggle Brain signatures in children who contemplate suicide: learning from the large-scale ABCD study. Psychological medicine Wiglesworth A, Falke CA, Fiecas M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicide is the second-leading cause of death in youth. Understanding the neural correlates of suicide ideation (SI) in children is crucial to ongoing efforts to understand and prevent youth suicide. This study characterized key neural networks during rest and emotion task conditions in an epidemiologically informed sample of children who report current, past, or no SI.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2021/11/17

Authors

Wiglesworth A, Falke CA, Fiecas M, Luciana M, Cullen KR, Klimes-Dougan B

Keywords

Children, default mode network, fMRI, salience network, suicide

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721004074
Toggle Persistent and distressing psychotic-like experiences using adolescent brain cognitive development℠ study data. Molecular psychiatry Karcher NR, Loewy RL, Savill M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with a range of impairments; a subset of children experiencing PLEs will develop psychiatric disorders, including psychotic disorders. A potential distinguishing factor between benign PLEs versus PLEs that are clinically relevant is whether PLEs are distressing and/or persistent. The current study used three waves of Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ (ABCD) study PLEs assessments to examine the extent to which persistent and/or distressing PLEs were associated with relevant baseline risk factors (e.g., cognition) and functioning/mental health service utilization domains. Four groups varying in PLE persistence and distress endorsement were created based on all available data in ABCD Release 3.0, with group membership not contingent on complete data: persistent distressing PLEs (n = 272), transient distressing PLEs (n = 298), persistent non-distressing PLEs (n = 221), and transient non-distressing PLEs (n = 536) groups. Using hierarchical linear models, results indicated youth with distressing PLEs, whether transient or persistent, showed delayed developmental milestones (β = 0.074, 95%CI:0.013,0.134) and altered structural MRI metrics (β = -0.0525, 95%CI:-0.100,-0.005). Importantly, distress interacted with PLEs persistence for the domains of functioning/mental health service utilization (β = 0.079, 95%CI:0.016,0.141), other reported psychopathology (β = 0.101, 95%CI:0.030,0.170), cognition (β = -0.052, 95%CI:0.-0.099,-0.002), and environmental adversity (β = 0.045, 95%CI:0.003,0.0.86; although no family history effects), with the interaction characterized by greatest impairment in the persistent distressing PLEs group. These results have implications for disentangling the importance of distress and persistence for PLEs with regards to impairments, including functional, pathophysiological, and environmental outcomes. These novel longitudinal data underscore that it is often only in the context of distress that persistent PLEs were related to impairments.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2021/11/16

Authors

Karcher NR, Loewy RL, Savill M, Avenevoli S, Huber RS, Makowski C, Sher KJ, Barch DM

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-021-01373-x
Toggle Neural vulnerability and hurricane-related media are associated with post-traumatic stress in youth. Nature human behaviour Dick AS, Silva K, Gonzalez R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The human toll of disasters extends beyond death, injury and loss. Post-traumatic stress (PTS) can be common among directly exposed individuals, and children are particularly vulnerable. Even children far removed from harm’s way report PTS, and media-based exposure may partially account for this phenomenon. In this study, we examine this issue using data from nearly 400 9- to 11-year-old children collected before and after Hurricane Irma, evaluating whether pre-existing neural patterns moderate associations between hurricane experiences and later PTS. The ‘dose’ of both self-reported objective exposure and media exposure predicted PTS, the latter even among children far from the hurricane. Furthermore, neural responses in brain regions associated with anxiety and stress conferred particular vulnerability. For example, heightened amygdala reactivity to fearful stimuli moderated the association between self-reported media exposure and PTS. Collectively, these findings show that for some youth with measurable vulnerability, consuming extensive disaster-related media may offer an alternative pathway to disaster exposure that transcends geography and objective risk.

Journal

Nature human behaviour

Published

2021/11/15

Authors

Dick AS, Silva K, Gonzalez R, Sutherland MT, Laird AR, Thompson WK, Tapert SF, Squeglia LM, Gray KM, Nixon SJ, Cottler LB, La Greca AM, Gurwitch RH, Comer JS

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41562-021-01216-3
Toggle Widespread attenuating changes in brain connectivity associated with the general factor of psychopathology in 9- and 10-year olds. Translational psychiatry Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Convergent research identifies a general factor (“P factor”) that confers transdiagnostic risk for psychopathology. Large-scale networks are key organizational units of the human brain. However, studies of altered network connectivity patterns associated with the P factor are limited, especially in early adolescence when most mental disorders are first emerging. We studied 11,875 9- and 10-year olds from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, of whom 6593 had high-quality resting-state scans. Network contingency analysis was used to identify altered interconnections associated with the P factor among 16 large-scale networks. These connectivity changes were then further characterized with quadrant analysis that quantified the directionality of P factor effects in relation to neurotypical patterns of positive versus negative connectivity across connections. The results showed that the P factor was associated with altered connectivity across 28 network cells (i.e., sets of connections linking pairs of networks); p values < 0.05 FDR-corrected for multiple comparisons. Higher P factor scores were associated with hypoconnectivity within default network and hyperconnectivity between default network and multiple control networks. Among connections within these 28 significant cells, the P factor was predominantly associated with “attenuating” effects (67%; p < 0.0002), i.e., reduced connectivity at neurotypically positive connections and increased connectivity at neurotypically negative connections. These results demonstrate that the general factor of psychopathology produces attenuating changes across multiple networks including default network, involved in spontaneous responses, and control networks involved in cognitive control. Moreover, they clarify mechanisms of transdiagnostic risk for psychopathology and invite further research into developmental causes of distributed attenuated connectivity.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2021/11/09

Authors

Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, Kessler D, Greathouse T, Rutherford S, Clark DA, Hyde LW, Weigard A, Brislin SJ, Hicks B, Heitzeg M

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-021-01708-w
Toggle Racism May Interrupt Age-related Brain Growth of African American Children in the United States. Journal of pediatrics & child health care Assari S, Mincy R 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Considerable research has documented age-related growth in brain size as a marker of normal brain development. This is particularly important because brain volume has a significant role in overall cognitive performance. However, less research is done on whether age-related changes in the global brain volume differ across diverse racial and ethnic groups. We hypothesized that age-related growth in brain size would be disrupted in African American children who are historically affected by racism.

Journal

Journal of pediatrics & child health care

Published

2021/11/09

Authors

Assari S, Mincy R

Keywords

MRI, age, brain development, global brain volume, racism, social determinants, structural MRI

DOI

10.26420/jpediatrchildhealthcare.2021.1047
Toggle Brain-wide functional connectivity patterns support general cognitive ability and mediate effects of socioeconomic status in youth. Translational psychiatry Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

General cognitive ability (GCA) is an individual difference dimension linked to important academic, occupational, and health-related outcomes and its development is strongly linked to differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Complex abilities of the human brain are realized through interconnections among distributed brain regions, but brain-wide connectivity patterns associated with GCA in youth, and the influence of SES on these connectivity patterns, are poorly understood. The present study examined functional connectomes from 5937 9- and 10-year-olds in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) multi-site study. Using multivariate predictive modeling methods, we identified whole-brain functional connectivity patterns linked to GCA. In leave-one-site-out cross-validation, we found these connectivity patterns exhibited strong and statistically reliable generalization at 19 out of 19 held-out sites accounting for 18.0% of the variance in GCA scores (cross-validated partial η). GCA-related connections were remarkably dispersed across brain networks: across 120 sets of connections linking pairs of large-scale networks, significantly elevated GCA-related connectivity was found in 110 of them, and differences in levels of GCA-related connectivity across brain networks were notably modest. Consistent with prior work, socioeconomic status was a strong predictor of GCA in this sample, and we found that distributed GCA-related brain connectivity patterns significantly statistically mediated this relationship (mean proportion mediated: 15.6%, p < 2 × 10). These results demonstrate that socioeconomic status and GCA are related to broad and diffuse differences in functional connectivity architecture during early adolescence, potentially suggesting a mechanism through which socioeconomic status influences cognitive development.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2021/11/08

Authors

Sripada C, Angstadt M, Taxali A, Clark DA, Greathouse T, Rutherford S, Dickens JR, Shedden K, Gard AM, Hyde LW, Weigard A, Heitzeg M

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-021-01704-0
Toggle Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study Linked External Data (LED): Protocol and practices for geocoding and assignment of environmental data. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Fan CC, Marshall A, Smolker H, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Our brain is constantly shaped by our immediate environments, and while some effects are transient, some have long-term consequences. Therefore, it is critical to identify which environmental risks have evident and long-term impact on brain development. To expand our understanding of the environmental context of each child, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® incorporates the use of geospatial location data to capture a range of individual, neighborhood, and state level data based on the child’s residential location in order to elucidate the physical environmental contexts in which today’s youth are growing up. We review the major considerations and types of geocoded information incorporated by the Linked External Data Environmental (LED) workgroup to expand on the built and natural environmental constructs in the existing and future ABCD Study data releases. Understanding the environmental context of each youth furthers the consortium’s mission to understand factors that may influence individual differences in brain development, providing the opportunity to inform public policy and health organization guidelines for child and adolescent health.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/11/08

Authors

Fan CC, Marshall A, Smolker H, Gonzalez MR, Tapert SF, Barch DM, Sowell E, Dowling GJ, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Ross J, Thompson WK, Herting MM

Keywords

Built environment, Environmental health, Environmental neuroscience, Natural environment, Neighborhood

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101030
Toggle Pubertal timing and functional neurodevelopmental alterations independently mediate the effect of family conflict on adolescent psychopathology. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Petrican R, Miles S, Rudd L, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis that early life adversity (ELA) heightens psychopathology risk by concurrently altering pubertal and neurodevelopmental timing, and associated gene transcription signatures. Analyses focused on threat- (family conflict/neighbourhood crime) and deprivation-related ELAs (parental inattentiveness/unmet material needs), using longitudinal data from 1514 biologically unrelated youths in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Typical developmental changes in white matter microstructure corresponded to widespread BOLD signal variability (BOLD increases (linked to cell communication and biosynthesis genes) and region-specific task-related BOLD increases/decreases (linked to signal transduction, immune and external environmental response genes). Increasing resting-state (RS), but decreasing task-related BOLD predicted normative functional network segregation. Family conflict was the strongest concurrent and prospective contributor to psychopathology, while material deprivation constituted an additive risk factor. ELA-linked psychopathology was predicted by higher Time 1 threat-evoked BOLD (associated with axonal development, myelination, cell differentiation and signal transduction genes), reduced Time 2 RS BOLD (associated with cell metabolism and attention genes) and greater Time 1 to Time 2 control/attention network segregation. Earlier pubertal timing and neurodevelopmental alterations independently mediated ELA effects on psychopathology. Our results underscore the differential roles of the immediate and wider external environment(s) in concurrent and longer-term ELA consequences.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/11/06

Authors

Petrican R, Miles S, Rudd L, Wasiewska W, Graham KS, Lawrence AD

Keywords

BOLD variability, Early life adversity, Externalizing problems, Functional brain networks, Neurodevelopment, Structure-function coupling, Transcriptomics

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101032
Toggle Concussion Among Children in the United States General Population: Incidence and Risk Factors. Frontiers in neurology Cook NE, Iverson GL 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of concussion and risk factors for sustaining concussion among children from the United States general population. This prospective cohort study used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Children were recruited from schools across the US, sampled to reflect the sociodemographic variation of the US population. The current sample includes 11,013 children aged 9 to 10 years old (47.6% girls; 65.5% White) who were prospectively followed for an average of 1 year (mean = 367.9 days, SD = 40.8, range 249-601). The primary outcome was caregiver-reported concussion during a 1 year follow-up period. Logistic regression was used to determine which potential clinical, health history, and behavioral characteristics (assessed at baseline) were prospectively associated with concussion. In the 1 year follow-up period between ages 10 and 11, 1 in 100 children ( = 123, 1.1%) sustained a concussion. In univariate models, three baseline predictors (ADHD, prior concussion, and accident proneness) were significantly associated with sustaining a concussion. In a multivariate model, controlling for all other predictors, only prior concussion remained significantly associated with the occurrence of a concussion during the observation period (Odds Ratio = 5.49, 95% CI: 3.40-8.87). The most robust and only independent prospective predictor of sustaining a concussion was history of a prior concussion. History of concussion is associated with 5.5 times greater odds of sustaining concussion between ages 10 and 11 among children from the general US population.

Journal

Frontiers in neurology

Published

2021/11/01

Authors

Cook NE, Iverson GL

Keywords

epidemiology, head trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, pediatric, traumatic injury

DOI

10.3389/fneur.2021.773927
Toggle Greater radiologic evidence of hypothalamic gliosis predicts adiposity gain in children at risk for obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) Sewaybricker LE, Kee S, Melhorn SJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study investigated, in a large pediatric population, whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) gliosis is associated with baseline or change over 1 year in body adiposity.

Journal

Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

Published

2021/11/01

Authors

Sewaybricker LE, Kee S, Melhorn SJ, Schur EA

Keywords

DOI

10.1002/oby.23286
Toggle History of Depression, Elevated Body Mass Index, and Waist-to-Height Ratio in Preadolescent Children. Psychosomatic medicine Lewis-de Los Angeles WW, Liu RT 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate whether a history of depression or self-injurious thoughts and behaviors predict elevated body mass index (BMI) and elevated waist-to-height ratio in preadolescents.

Journal

Psychosomatic medicine

Published

2021/11/01

Authors

Lewis-de Los Angeles WW, Liu RT

Keywords

DOI

10.1097/PSY.0000000000000982
Toggle Demographic and mental health assessments in the adolescent brain and cognitive development study: Updates and age-related trajectories. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Barch DM, Albaugh MD, Baskin-Sommers A, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study of 11,880 youth incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to mental health across childhood and adolescence in participating youth, as well as information about family mental health history. We have previously described the logic and content of the mental health assessment battery at Baseline and 1-year follow-up. Here, we describe changes to that battery and issues and clarifications that have emerged, as well as additions to the mental health battery at the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year follow-ups. We capitalize on the recent release of longitudinal data for caregiver and youth report of mental health data to evaluate trajectories of dimensions of psychopathology as a function of demographic factors. For both caregiver and self-reported mental health symptoms, males showed age-related decreases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, while females showed an increase in internalizing symptoms with age. Multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (caregiver education, family income, financial adversity, neighborhood poverty) accounted for unique variance in both caregiver and youth-reported externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These data highlight the importance of examining developmental trajectories of mental health as a function of key factors such as sex and socioeconomic environment.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/10/29

Authors

Barch DM, Albaugh MD, Baskin-Sommers A, Bryant BE, Clark DB, Dick AS, Feczko E, Foxe JJ, Gee DG, Giedd J, Glantz MD, Hudziak JJ, Karcher NR, LeBlanc K, Maddox M, McGlade EC, Mulford C, Nagel BJ, Neigh G, Palmer CE, Potter AS, Sher KJ, Tapert SF, Thompson WK, Xie L

Keywords

Assessment, Longitudinal assessment, Mental health, Psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101031
Toggle Contributions of PTSD polygenic risk and environmental stress to suicidality in preadolescents. Neurobiology of stress Daskalakis NP, Schultz LM, Visoki E, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicidal ideation and attempts (i.e., suicidality) are complex behaviors driven by environmental stress, genetic susceptibility, and their interaction. Preadolescent suicidality is a major health problem with rising rates, yet its underlying biology is understudied. Here we studied effects of genetic stress susceptibility, approximated by the polygenic risk score (PRS) for post-traumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD), on preadolescent suicidality in participants from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study®. We further evaluated PTSD-PRS effects on suicidality in the presence of environmental stressors that are established suicide risk factors. Analyses included both European and African ancestry participants using PRS calculated based on summary statistics from ancestry-specific genome-wide association studies. In European ancestry participants (N = 4,619, n = 378 suicidal), PTSD-PRS was associated with preadolescent suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, 95%CI 1-1.25, p = 0.038). Results in African ancestry participants (N = 1,334, n = 130 suicidal) showed a similar direction but were not statistically significant (OR = 1.21, 95%CI 0.93-1.57, p = 0.153). Sensitivity analyses using non-psychiatric polygenic score for height and using cross-ancestry PTSD-PRS did not reveal any association with suicidality, supporting the specificity of the association of ancestry-specific PTSD-PRS with suicidality. Environmental stressors were robustly associated with suicidality across ancestries with moderate effect size for negative life events and family conflict (OR 1.27-1.6); and with large effect size (OR ∼ 4) for sexual-orientation discrimination. When combined with environmental factors, PTSD-PRS showed marginal additive effects in explaining variability in suicidality, with no evidence for G × E interaction. Results support use of cross-phenotype PRS, specifically stress-susceptibility, as a genetic marker for suicidality risk early in the lifespan.

Journal

Neurobiology of stress

Published

2021/10/27

Authors

Daskalakis NP, Schultz LM, Visoki E, Moore TM, Argabright ST, Harnett NG, DiDomenico GE, Warrier V, Almasy L, Barzilay R

Keywords

Child psychiatry, PTSD, Polygenic risk score, Stress, Suicide

DOI

10.1016/j.ynstr.2021.100411
Toggle Shorter Duration and Lower Quality Sleep Have Widespread Detrimental Effects on Developing Functional Brain Networks in Early Adolescence. Cerebral cortex communications Brooks SJ, Katz ES, Stamoulis C 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sleep is critical for cognitive health, especially during complex developmental periods such as adolescence. However, its effects on maturating brain networks that support cognitive function are only partially understood. We investigated the impact of shorter duration and reduced quality sleep, common stressors during development, on functional network properties in early adolescence-a period of significant neural maturation, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from 5566 children (median age = 120.0 months; 52.1% females) in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development cohort. Decreased sleep duration, increased sleep latency, frequent waking up at night, and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms were associated with lower topological efficiency, flexibility, and robustness of visual, sensorimotor, attention, fronto-parietal control, default-mode and/or limbic networks, and with aberrant changes in the thalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cerebellum ( < 0.05). These widespread effects, many of which were body mass index-independent, suggest that unhealthy sleep in early adolescence may impair neural information processing and integration across incompletely developed networks, potentially leading to deficits in their cognitive correlates, including attention, reward, emotion processing and regulation, memory, and executive control. Shorter sleep duration, frequent snoring, difficulty waking up, and daytime sleepiness had additional detrimental network effects in nonwhite participants, indicating racial disparities in the influence of sleep metrics.

Journal

Cerebral cortex communications

Published

2021/10/26

Authors

Brooks SJ, Katz ES, Stamoulis C

Keywords

adolescence, brain, connectome, sleep duration, sleep quality

DOI

10.1093/texcom/tgab062
Toggle Large-scale functional brain networks of maladaptive childhood aggression identified by connectome-based predictive modeling. Molecular psychiatry Ibrahim K, Noble S, He G, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Disruptions in frontoparietal networks supporting emotion regulation have been long implicated in maladaptive childhood aggression. However, the association of connectivity between large-scale functional networks with aggressive behavior has not been tested. The present study examined whether the functional organization of the connectome predicts severity of aggression in children. This cross-sectional study included a transdiagnostic sample of 100 children with aggressive behavior (27 females) and 29 healthy controls without aggression or psychiatric disorders (13 females). Severity of aggression was indexed by the total score on the parent-rated Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. During fMRI, participants completed a face emotion perception task of fearful and calm faces. Connectome-based predictive modeling with internal cross-validation was conducted to identify brain networks that predicted aggression severity. The replication and generalizability of the aggression predictive model was then tested in an independent sample of children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Connectivity predictive of aggression was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (medial-frontal, frontoparietal), social functioning (default mode, salience), and emotion processing (subcortical, sensorimotor) (r = 0.31, RMSE = 9.05, p = 0.005). Out-of-sample replication (p < 0.002) and generalization (p = 0.007) of findings predicting aggression from the functional connectome was demonstrated in an independent sample of children from the ABCD study (n = 1791; n = 1701). Individual differences in large-scale functional networks contribute to variability in maladaptive aggression in children with psychiatric disorders. Linking these individual differences in the connectome to variation in behavioral phenotypes will advance identification of neural biomarkers of maladaptive childhood aggression to inform targeted treatments.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2021/10/25

Authors

Ibrahim K, Noble S, He G, Lacadie C, Crowley MJ, McCarthy G, Scheinost D, Sukhodolsky DG

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-021-01317-5
Toggle Editorial: Polygenic Risk Scores in Child Psychiatry, Research Promise, and Potential Clinical Pitfalls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shaw P 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for mental disorders have become a major player in child psychiatry research. PRSs quantify a child’s risk for childhood psychiatric disorders by summing the effects of a multitude of common risk genetic variants across the entire genome. Each genetic variant in isolation contributes a minuscule amount to the disorder, but their combined effect can be substantial. The study by Pat et al. illustrates how PRSs can be used as a starting point to examine the mechanisms that might link common genetic variant risk with symptoms. In their exploration of how genes, cognition, and psychopathology may be tied together, the authors apply meticulous analytic techniques to a rich, open dataset (the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development [ABCD] cohort) and report fascinating results.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2021/10/23

Authors

Shaw P

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2021.10.010
Toggle Investigating the Link Between Depression, Cognition, and Motivation in Late Childhood. Child psychiatry and human development Steinberger DC, Barch DM 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Research has revealed broad cognitive deficits (e.g., memory, learning) in depression, and that motivation may account for this link. We tested the state (i.e., only present during depression), trait (i.e., underlying vulnerability) and scar (i.e., lasting corollary) hypotheses of cognitive dysfunction in depression. We additionally tested subjective motivation as a mediator of the concurrent depression-cognition link. In a longitudinal sample of 11,878 children ages 9-11, we found no evidence of a concurrent state or longitudinal trait or scar relationship between depression and cognition. The pattern of depression-cognition relationships-which precluded a mediator analysis-in our childhood sample is a departure from previous studies. Our findings indicate that cognitive deficits are not strongly associated with depression in childhood, in contrast with the impairment commonly seen in older individuals with depression.

Journal

Child psychiatry and human development

Published

2021/10/22

Authors

Steinberger DC, Barch DM

Keywords

Children, Cognitive function, Depression, Longitudinal analysis, Motivation

DOI

10.1007/s10578-021-01267-7
Toggle Passive Sensing of Preteens' Smartphone Use: An Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Cohort Substudy. JMIR mental health Wade NE, Ortigara JM, Sullivan RM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Concerns abound regarding childhood smartphone use, but studies to date have largely relied on self-reported screen use. Self-reporting of screen use is known to be misreported by pediatric samples and their parents, limiting the accurate determination of the impact of screen use on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Thus, a more passive, objective measurement of smartphone screen use among children is needed.

Journal

JMIR mental health

Published

2021/10/18

Authors

Wade NE, Ortigara JM, Sullivan RM, Tomko RL, Breslin FJ, Baker FC, Fuemmeler BF, Delrahim Howlett K, Lisdahl KM, Marshall AT, Mason MJ, Neale MC, Squeglia LM, Wolff-Hughes DL, Tapert SF, Bagot KS

Keywords

mobile phone, passive sensing, preadolescents, screen time, screen use, smartphone use

DOI

10.2196/29426
Toggle Associations among negative life events, changes in cortico-limbic connectivity, and psychopathology in the ABCD Study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Brieant AE, Sisk LM, Gee DG 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adversity exposure is a risk factor for psychopathology, which most frequently onsets during adolescence, and prior research has demonstrated that alterations in cortico-limbic connectivity may account in part for this association. In a sample of youth from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (N = 4006), we tested a longitudinal structural equation model to examine the indirect effect of adversity exposure (negative life events) on later psychopathology via changes in cortico-limbic resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). We also examined the potential protective effects of parental acceptance. Generally, cortico-limbic connectivity became more strongly negative between baseline and year 2 follow-up, suggesting that stronger negative correlations within these cortico-limbic networks may reflect a more mature phenotype. Exposure to a greater number of negative life events was associated with stronger negative cortico-limbic rsFC which, in turn, was associated with lower internalizing (but not externalizing) symptoms. The indirect effect of negative life events on internalizing symptoms via cortico-limbic rsFC was significant. Parental acceptance did not moderate the association between negative life events and rsFC. Our findings highlight how stressful childhood experiences may accelerate neurobiological maturation in specific cortico-limbic connections, potentially reflecting an adaptive process that protects against internalizing problems in the context of adversity.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/10/16

Authors

Brieant AE, Sisk LM, Gee DG

Keywords

Adversity, Cortico-limbic, Psychopathology, Resting-state fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101022
Toggle An update on the assessment of culture and environment in the ABCD Study®: Emerging literature and protocol updates over three measurement waves. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Gonzalez R, Thompson EL, Sanchez M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Advances in our understanding of risk and resilience factors in adolescent brain health and development increasingly demand a broad set of assessment tools that consider a youth’s peer, family, school, neighborhood, and cultural contexts in addition to neurobiological, genetic, and biomedical information. The Culture and Environment (CE) Workgroup (WG) of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study curates these important components of the protocol throughout ten years of planned data collection. In this report, the CE WG presents an update on the evolution of the ABCD Study® CE protocol since study inception (Zucker et al., 2018), as well as emerging findings that include CE measures. Background and measurement characteristics of instruments present in the study since baseline have already been described in our 2018 report, and therefore are only briefly described here. New measures introduced since baseline are described in more detail. Descriptive statistics on all measures are presented based on a total sample of 11,000+ youth and their caregivers assessed at baseline and the following two years. Psychometric properties of the measures, including longitudinal aspects of the data, are reported, along with considerations for future measurement waves. The CE WG ABCD® components are an essential part of the overall protocol that permits characterization of the unique cultural and social environment within which each developing brain is transactionally embedded.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/10/16

Authors

Gonzalez R, Thompson EL, Sanchez M, Morris A, Gonzalez MR, Feldstein Ewing SW, Mason MJ, Arroyo J, Howlett K, Tapert SF, Zucker RA

Keywords

Development, acculturation, cultural identity, family effects, social interactions, substance use

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101021
Toggle Risk of lead exposure, subcortical brain structure, and cognition in a large cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children. PloS one Marshall AT, McConnell R, Lanphear BP, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Lead, a toxic metal, affects cognitive development at the lowest measurable concentrations found in children, but little is known about its direct impact on brain development. Recently, we reported widespread decreases in cortical surface area and volume with increased risks of lead exposure, primarily in children of low-income families.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/10/14

Authors

Marshall AT, McConnell R, Lanphear BP, Thompson WK, Herting MM, Sowell ER

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0258469
Toggle Association between parental age, brain structure, and behavioral and cognitive problems in children. Molecular psychiatry Du J, Rolls ET, Gong W, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To investigate the relation between parental age, and behavioral, cognitive and brain differences in the children.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2021/10/14

Authors

Du J, Rolls ET, Gong W, Cao M, Vatansever D, Zhang J, Kang J, Cheng W, Feng J

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-021-01325-5
Toggle Adolescent civic engagement: Lessons from Black Lives Matter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Baskin-Sommers A, Simmons C, Conley M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

In 2020, individuals of all ages engaged in demonstrations condemning police brutality and supporting the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Research that used parent reports and trends commented on in popular media suggested that adolescents under 18 had become increasingly involved in this movement. In the first large-scale quantitative survey of adolescents’ exposure to BLM demonstrations, 4,970 youth (mean = 12.88 y) across the United States highlighted that they were highly engaged, particularly with media, and experienced positive emotions when exposed to the BLM movement. In addition to reporting strong engagement and positive emotions related to BLM demonstrations, Black adolescents in particular reported higher negative emotions when engaging with different types of media and more exposure to violence during in-person BLM demonstrations. Appreciating youth civic engagement, while also providing support for processing complex experiences and feelings, is important for the health and welfare of young people and society.

Journal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Published

2021/10/12

Authors

Baskin-Sommers A, Simmons C, Conley M, Chang SA, Estrada S, Collins M, Pelham W, Beckford E, Mitchell-Adams H, Berrian N, Tapert SF, Gee DG, Casey BJ

Keywords

Black Lives Matter, adolescents, demonstrations, race

DOI

10.1073/pnas.2109860118
Toggle A Comprehensive Overview of the Physical Health of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study Cohort at Baseline. Frontiers in pediatrics Palmer CE, Sheth C, Marshall AT, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Physical health in childhood is crucial for neurobiological as well as overall development, and can shape long-term outcomes into adulthood. The landmark, longitudinal Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD study), was designed to investigate brain development and health in almost 12,000 youth who were recruited when they were 9-10 years old and will be followed through adolescence and early adulthood. The overall goal of this paper is to provide descriptive analyses of physical health measures in the ABCD study at baseline, including but not limited to sleep, physical activity and sports involvement, and body mass index. Further this summary will describe how physical health measures collected from the ABCD cohort compare with current normative data and clinical guidelines. We propose this data set has the potential to facilitate clinical recommendations and inform national standards of physical health in this age group. This manuscript will also provide important information for ABCD users and help guide analyses investigating physical health including new avenues for health disparity research as it pertains to adolescent and young adult development.

Journal

Frontiers in pediatrics

Published

2021/10/05

Authors

Palmer CE, Sheth C, Marshall AT, Adise S, Baker FC, Chang L, Clark DB, Coronado C, Dagher RK, Diaz V, Dowling GJ, Gonzalez MR, Haist F, Herting MM, Huber RS, Jernigan TL, LeBlanc K, Lee K, Lisdahl KM, Neigh G, Patterson MW, Renshaw P, Rhee KE, Tapert S, Thompson WK, Uban K, Sowell ER, Yurgelun-Todd D

Keywords

developmental milestones, middle childhood, physical activity, physical health, puberty, sleep, sociodemographics

DOI

10.3389/fped.2021.734184
Toggle Heritability Analysis in Twins Indicates a Genetic Basis for Velopharyngeal Morphology. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Lee MK, Liu C, Leslie EJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The velopharyngeal mechanism is comprised of several muscular components that act in a coordinated manner to control airflow through the nose and mouth. Proper velopharyngeal function is essential for normal speech, swallowing, and breathing. The genetic basis of normal-range velopharyngeal morphology is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of velopharyngeal dimensions. We measured five velopharyngeal variables (velar length, velar thickness, effective velar length, levator muscle length and pharyngeal depth) from MRIs of 155 monozygotic and 208 dizygotic twin pairs and then calculated heritability for these traits using a structural equation modeling approach. The heritability estimates were statistically significant (95% confidence intervals excluded zero) and ranged from 0.19 to 0.46. There was also evidence of significant genetic correlations between pairs of traits, pointing to the influence of common genetic effects. These results indicate that genetic factors influence variation in clinically relevant velopharyngeal structures.

Journal

The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association

Published

2021/10/04

Authors

Lee MK, Liu C, Leslie EJ, Shaffer JR, Perry JL, Weinberg SM

Keywords

genetics, mRI, soft palate, structural equation modeling, uvula

DOI

10.1177/10556656211045530
Toggle Incipient alcohol use in childhood: Early alcohol sipping and its relations with psychopathology and personality. Development and psychopathology Watts AL, Wood PK, Jackson KM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Prior research has shown that sipping of alcohol begins to emerge during childhood and is potentially etiologically significant for later substance use problems. Using a large, community sample of 9- and 10-year-olds (N = 11,872; 53% female), we examined individual differences in precocious alcohol use in the form of alcohol sipping. We focused explicitly on features that are robust and well-demonstrated correlates of, and antecedents to, alcohol excess and related problems later in the lifespan, including youth- and parent-reported externalizing traits (i.e., impulsivity, behavioral inhibition and activation) and psychopathology. Seventeen percent of the sample reported sipping alcohol outside of a religiously sanctioned activity by age 9 or 10. Several aspects of psychopathology and personality emerged as small but reliable correlates of sipping. Nonreligious sipping was related to youth-reported impulsigenic traits, aspects of behavioral activation, prodromal psychotic-like symptoms, and mood disorder diagnoses, as well as parent-reported externalizing disorder diagnoses. Religious sipping was unexpectedly associated with certain aspects of impulsivity. Together, our findings point to the potential importance of impulsivity and other transdiagnostic indicators of psychopathology (e.g., emotion dysregulation, novelty seeking) in the earliest forms of drinking behavior.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/10/01

Authors

Watts AL, Wood PK, Jackson KM, Lisdahl KM, Heitzeg MM, Gonzalez R, Tapert SF, Barch DM, Sher KJ

Keywords

alcohol sipping, novelty seeking, personality, precocious alcohol use, psychopathology

DOI

10.1017/S0954579420000541
Toggle Callous-unemotional traits and reduced default mode network connectivity within a community sample of children. Development and psychopathology Umbach RH, Tottenham N 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits characterize a subset of youth at risk for persistent and serious antisocial behavior. Differences in resting state connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) have been associated with CU traits in forensic and clinical samples of adolescents and with deficient interpersonal/affective traits (often operationalized as Factor 1 psychopathy traits) in adults. It is unclear whether these brain-behavior associations extend to community-based children. Using mixed model analyses, we tested the associations between CU traits and within-network resting-state connectivity of seven task-activated networks and the DMN using data from 9,636 9-11-year-olds in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Even after accounting for comorbid externalizing problems, higher levels of CU traits were associated with reduced connectivity within the DMN. This finding is consistent with prior literature surrounding psychopathy and CU traits in clinically and forensically based populations, suggesting the correlation likely exists on a spectrum, can be detected in childhood, and is not restricted to children with significant antisocial behavior.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/10/01

Authors

Umbach RH, Tottenham N

Keywords

brain imaging developmental, callous-unemotional, resting state

DOI

10.1017/S0954579420000401
Toggle Longitudinal Impact of Childhood Adversity on Early Adolescent Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the ABCD Study Cohort: Does Race or Ethnicity Moderate Findings? Biological psychiatry global open science Stinson EA, Sullivan RM, Peteet BJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, mental health among youth has been negatively affected. Youth with a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), as well as youth from minoritized racial-ethnic backgrounds, may be especially vulnerable to experiencing COVID-19-related distress. The aims of this study are to examine whether exposure to pre-pandemic ACEs predicts mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in youth and whether racial-ethnic background moderates these effects.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2021/09/29

Authors

Stinson EA, Sullivan RM, Peteet BJ, Tapert SF, Baker FC, Breslin FJ, Dick AS, Gonzalez MR, Guillaume M, Marshall AT, McCabe CJ, Pelham WE, Van Rinsveld A, Sheth CS, Sowell ER, Wade NE, Wallace AL, Lisdahl KM

Keywords

Adolescence, Adverse childhood experiences, COVID-19, Health disparities, Mental health, Pandemic

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.08.007
Toggle Recalibrating expectations about effect size: A multi-method survey of effect sizes in the ABCD study. PloS one Owens MM, Potter A, Hyatt CS, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Effect sizes are commonly interpreted using heuristics established by Cohen (e.g., small: r = .1, medium r = .3, large r = .5), despite mounting evidence that these guidelines are mis-calibrated to the effects typically found in psychological research. This study’s aims were to 1) describe the distribution of effect sizes across multiple instruments, 2) consider factors qualifying the effect size distribution, and 3) identify examples as benchmarks for various effect sizes. For aim one, effect size distributions were illustrated from a large, diverse sample of 9/10-year-old children. This was done by conducting Pearson’s correlations among 161 variables representing constructs from all questionnaires and tasks from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study® baseline data. To achieve aim two, factors qualifying this distribution were tested by comparing the distributions of effect size among various modifications of the aim one analyses. These modified analytic strategies included comparisons of effect size distributions for different types of variables, for analyses using statistical thresholds, and for analyses using several covariate strategies. In aim one analyses, the median in-sample effect size was .03, and values at the first and third quartiles were .01 and .07. In aim two analyses, effects were smaller for associations across instruments, content domains, and reporters, as well as when covarying for sociodemographic factors. Effect sizes were larger when thresholding for statistical significance. In analyses intended to mimic conditions used in “real-world” analysis of ABCD data, the median in-sample effect size was .05, and values at the first and third quartiles were .03 and .09. To achieve aim three, examples for varying effect sizes are reported from the ABCD dataset as benchmarks for future work in the dataset. In summary, this report finds that empirically determined effect sizes from a notably large dataset are smaller than would be expected based on existing heuristics.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/09/23

Authors

Owens MM, Potter A, Hyatt CS, Albaugh M, Thompson WK, Jernigan T, Yuan D, Hahn S, Allgaier N, Garavan H

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0257535
Toggle Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in preadolescent children: A US population-based study. Translational psychiatry Lawrence HR, Burke TA, Sheehan AE, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The present study evaluated sociodemographic and diagnostic predictors of suicidal ideation and attempts in a nationally representative sample of preadolescent youth enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Rates and predictors of psychiatric treatment utilization among suicidal youth also were examined. Eleven thousand eight hundred and seventy-five 9- and 10-year-old children residing in the United States were assessed. Children and their parents/guardians provided reports of children’s lifetime history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and psychiatric disorders. Parents also reported on sociodemographic characteristics and mental health service utilization. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate sociodemographic and diagnostic correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts among youth with suicidal ideation, and treatment utilization among youth with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Lifetime prevalence rates were 14.33% for suicidal ideation and 1.26% for suicide attempts. Youth who identified as male, a sexual minority, or multiracial had greater odds of suicidal ideation, and sexual minority youth and youth with a low family income had greater odds of suicide attempts. Comorbid psychopathology was associated with higher odds of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. In youth, 34.59% who have suicidal ideation and 54.82% who had attempted suicide received psychiatric treatment. Treatment utilization among suicidal youth was lower among those who identified as female, Black, and Hispanic. Suicidal ideation and attempts among preadolescent children are concerningly high and targeted assessment and preventative efforts are needed, especially for males, racial, ethnic, and sexual minority youth, and those youth experiencing comorbidity.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2021/09/22

Authors

Lawrence HR, Burke TA, Sheehan AE, Pastro B, Levin RY, Walsh RFL, Bettis AH, Liu RT

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-021-01593-3
Toggle Vertex-wise multivariate genome-wide association study identifies 780 unique genetic loci associated with cortical morphology. NeuroImage Shadrin AA, Kaufmann T, van der Meer D, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Brain morphology has been shown to be highly heritable, yet only a small portion of the heritability is explained by the genetic variants discovered so far. Here we extended the Multivariate Omnibus Statistical Test (MOSTest) and applied it to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of vertex-wise structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical measures from N=35,657 participants in the UK Biobank. We identified 695 loci for cortical surface area and 539 for cortical thickness, in total 780 unique genetic loci associated with cortical morphology robustly replicated in 8,060 children of mixed ethnicity from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study®. This reflects more than 8-fold increase in genetic discovery at no cost to generalizability compared to the commonly used univariate GWAS methods applied to region of interest (ROI) data. Functional follow up including gene-based analyses implicated 10% of all protein-coding genes and pointed towards pathways involved in neurogenesis and cell differentiation. Power analysis indicated that applying the MOSTest to vertex-wise structural MRI data triples the effective sample size compared to conventional univariate GWAS approaches. The large boost in power obtained with the vertex-wise MOSTest together with pronounced replication rates and highlighted biologically meaningful pathways underscores the advantage of multivariate approaches in the context of highly distributed polygenic architecture of the human brain.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/09/21

Authors

Shadrin AA, Kaufmann T, van der Meer D, Palmer CE, Makowski C, Loughnan R, Jernigan TL, Seibert TM, Hagler DJ, Smeland OB, Motazedi E, Chu Y, Lin A, Cheng W, Hindley G, Thompson WK, Fan CC, Holland D, Westlye LT, Frei O, Andreassen OA, Dale AM

Keywords

Cortical surface area, Cortical thickness, Distributed polygenic architecture, Genome-wide association study, Multivariate vertex-wise analysis

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118603
Toggle Covariate Correcting Networks for Identifying Associations Between Socioeconomic Factors and Brain Outcomes in Children Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2021 Cho H, Park G, Isaiah A, et al. 2021
Link to Publication

Abstract

Brain development in adolescence is synthetically influenced by various factors such as age, education, and socioeconomic conditions. To identify an independent effect from a variable of interest (e.g., socioeconomic conditions), statistical models such as General Linear Model (GLM) are typically adopted to account for covariates (e.g., age and gender). However, statistical models may be vulnerable with insufficient sample size and outliers, and multiple tests for a whole brain analysis lead to inevitable false-positives without sufficient sensitivity. Hence, it is necessary to develop a unified framework for multiple tests that robustly fits the observation and increases sensitivity. We therefore propose a unified flexible neural network that optimizes on the contribution from the main variable of interest as introduced in original GLM, which leads to improved statistical outcomes. The results on group analysis with fractional anisotropy (FA) from Diffusion Tensor Images from Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study demonstrate that the proposed method provides much more selective and meaningful detection of ROIs related to socioeconomic status over conventional methods.

Journal

Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2021

Published

2021/09/21

Authors

Cho H, Park G, Isaiah A, et al.

Keywords

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87234-2_40
Toggle Sleep Disturbances, Obesity, and Cognitive Function in Childhood: A Mediation Analysis. Current developments in nutrition Mattey-Mora PP, Nelson EJ 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood cognitive development is influenced by biological and environmental factors. One such factor, obesity, impairs cognitive development and is associated with sleep disturbances.

Journal

Current developments in nutrition

Published

2021/09/15

Authors

Mattey-Mora PP, Nelson EJ

Keywords

BMI, childhood, cognitive function, crystallized cognition, fluid cognition, mediation analysis, obesity, sleep disturbances

DOI

10.1093/cdn/nzab119
Toggle Identifying profiles of brain structure and associations with current and future psychopathology in youth. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Mattoni M, Wilson S, Olino TM 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Brain structure is often studied as a marker of youth psychopathology by examining associations between volume or thickness of individual regions and specific diagnoses. However, these univariate approaches do not address whether the effect of a particular region may depend on the structure of other regions. Here, we identified subgroups of individuals with distinct profiles of brain structure and examined how these profiles were associated with concurrent and future youth psychopathology. We used latent profile analysis to identify distinct neuroanatomical profiles of subcortical region volume and orbitofrontal cortical thickness in the ABCD study (N = 9376, mean age = 9.91, SD = 0.62). We identified a five-profile solution consisting of a reduced subcortical volume profile, a reduced orbitofrontal thickness profile, a reduced limbic and elevated striatal volume profile, an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and reduced striatal volume profile, and an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and subcortical volume profile. While controlling for age, sex, and intracranial volume, profiles exhibited differences in concurrent psychopathology measured dimensionally and categorically and in psychopathology at 1-year follow-up measured dimensionally. Results show that profiles of brain structure have incremental validity for associations with youth psychopathology beyond intracranial volume.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/09/14

Authors

Mattoni M, Wilson S, Olino TM

Keywords

ABCD study, Brain profile, Brain structure, Latent profile analysis, Youth psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101013
Toggle Multimodal MR Images-Based Diagnosis of Early Adolescent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Multiple Kernel Learning. Frontiers in neuroscience Zhou X, Lin Q, Gui Y, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common brain diseases among children. The current criteria of ADHD diagnosis mainly depend on behavior analysis, which is subjective and inconsistent, especially for children. The development of neuroimaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drives the discovery of brain abnormalities in structure and function by analyzing multimodal neuroimages for computer-aided diagnosis of brain diseases. This paper proposes a multimodal machine learning framework that combines the Boruta based feature selection and Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) to integrate the multimodal features of structural and functional MRIs and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) for the diagnosis of early adolescent ADHD. The rich and complementary information of the macrostructural features, microstructural properties, and functional connectivities are integrated at the kernel level, followed by a support vector machine classifier for discriminating ADHD from healthy children. Our experiments were conducted on the comorbidity-free ADHD subjects and covariable-matched healthy children aged 9-10 chosen from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. This paper is the first work to combine structural and functional MRIs with DTI for early adolescents of the ABCD study. The results indicate that the kernel-level fusion of multimodal features achieves 0.698 of AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and 64.3% of classification accuracy for ADHD diagnosis, showing a significant improvement over the early feature fusion and unimodal features. The abnormal functional connectivity predictors, involving default mode network, attention network, auditory network, and sensorimotor mouth network, thalamus, and cerebellum, as well as the anatomical regions in basal ganglia, are found to encode the most discriminative information, which collaborates with macrostructure and diffusion alterations to boost the performances of disorder diagnosis.

Journal

Frontiers in neuroscience

Published

2021/09/14

Authors

Zhou X, Lin Q, Gui Y, Wang Z, Liu M, Lu H

Keywords

DTI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disorder diagnosis, early adolescent, multimodal MR images, multiple kernel learning, resting-state functional MRI, structural MRI

DOI

10.3389/fnins.2021.710133
Toggle General . specific vulnerabilities: polygenic risk scores and higher-order psychopathology dimensions in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Psychological medicine Waszczuk MA, Miao J, Docherty AR, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) capture genetic vulnerability to psychiatric conditions. However, PRSs are often associated with multiple mental health problems in children, complicating their use in research and clinical practice. The current study is the first to systematically test which PRSs associate broadly with all forms of childhood psychopathology, and which PRSs are more specific to one or a handful of forms of psychopathology.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2021/09/14

Authors

Waszczuk MA, Miao J, Docherty AR, Shabalin AA, Jonas KG, Michelini G, Kotov R

Keywords

Child Behavior Checklist, childhood psychopathology, general factor, genetic, polygenic

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721003639
Toggle Screen time and early adolescent mental health, academic, and social outcomes in 9- and 10- year old children: Utilizing the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development ℠ (ABCD) Study. PloS one Paulich KN, Ross JM, Lessem JM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

In a technology-driven society, screens are being used more than ever. The high rate of electronic media use among children and adolescents begs the question: is screen time harming our youth? The current study draws from a nationwide sample of 11,875 participants in the United States, aged 9 to 10 years, from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®). We investigate relationships between screen time and mental health, behavioral problems, academic performance, sleep habits, and peer relationships by conducting a series of correlation and regression analyses, controlling for SES and race/ethnicity. We find that more screen time is moderately associated with worse mental health, increased behavioral problems, decreased academic performance, and poorer sleep, but heightened quality of peer relationships. However, effect sizes associated with screen time and the various outcomes were modest; SES was more strongly associated with each outcome measure. Our analyses do not establish causality and the small effect sizes observed suggest that increased screen time is unlikely to be directly harmful to 9-and-10-year-old children.

Journal

PloS one

Published

2021/09/08

Authors

Paulich KN, Ross JM, Lessem JM, Hewitt JK

Keywords

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0256591
Toggle Genetic variation in endocannabinoid signaling is associated with differential network-level functional connectivity in youth. Journal of neuroscience research Sisk LM, Rapuano KM, Conley MI, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of emotional responses such as fear, and a number of studies have implicated endocannabinoid signaling in anxiety. The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) C385A polymorphism, which is associated with enhanced endocannabinoid signaling in the brain, has been identified across species as a potential protective factor from anxiety. In particular, adults with the variant FAAH 385A allele have greater fronto-amygdala connectivity and lower anxiety symptoms. Whether broader network-level differences in connectivity exist, and when during development this neural phenotype emerges, remains unknown and represents an important next step in understanding how the FAAH C385A polymorphism impacts neurodevelopment and risk for anxiety disorders. Here, we leveraged data from 3,109 participants in the nationwide Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study℠ (10.04 ± 0.62 years old; 44.23% female, 55.77% male) and a cross-validated, data-driven approach to examine associations between genetic variation and large-scale resting-state brain networks. Our findings revealed a distributed brain network, comprising functional connections that were both significantly greater (95% CI for p values = [<0.001, <0.001]) and lesser (95% CI for p values = [0.006, <0.001]) in A-allele carriers relative to non-carriers. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between genotype and the summarized connectivity of functional connections that were greater in A-allele carriers, such that non-carriers with connectivity more similar to A-allele carriers (i.e., greater connectivity) had lower anxiety symptoms (β = -0.041, p = 0.030). These findings provide novel evidence of network-level changes in neural connectivity associated with genetic variation in endocannabinoid signaling and suggest that genotype-associated neural differences may emerge at a younger age than genotype-associated differences in anxiety.

Journal

Journal of neuroscience research

Published

2021/09/08

Authors

Sisk LM, Rapuano KM, Conley MI, Greene AS, Horien C, Rosenberg MD, Scheinost D, Constable RT, Glatt CE, Casey BJ, Gee DG

Keywords

anxiety, brain development, brain networks, endocannabinoid signaling, functional connectivity

DOI

10.1002/jnr.24946
Toggle Cortical Thickness in bilingual and monolingual children: Relationships to language use and language skill. NeuroImage Vaughn KA, Nguyen MVH, Ronderos J, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

There is a growing body of evidence based on adult neuroimaging that suggests that the brain adapts to bilingual experiences to support language proficiency. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a useful source of data for evaluating this claim during childhood, as it involves data from a large sample of American children. Using the baseline ABCD Study data collected at ages nine and ten, the goal of this study was to identify differences in cortical thickness between bilinguals and monolinguals and to evaluate how variability in English vocabulary and English use within bilinguals might explain these group differences. We identified bilingual participants as children who spoke a non-English language and were exposed to the non-English language at home. We then identified a matched sample of English monolingual participants based on age, sex, pubertal status, parent education, household income, non-verbal IQ, and handedness. Bilinguals had thinner cortex than monolinguals in widespread cortical regions. Within bilinguals, more English use was associated with greater frontal and parietal cortical thickness; greater English vocabulary was associated with greater frontal and temporal cortical thickness. These findings replicate and extend previous research with bilingual children and highlight unexplained cortical thickness differences between bilinguals and monolinguals.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/09/07

Authors

Vaughn KA, Nguyen MVH, Ronderos J, Hernandez AE

Keywords

Bilingual, Child, Cortical Thickness, MRI

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118560
Toggle Motivation and Cognitive Abilities as Mediators Between Polygenic Scores and Psychopathology in Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Pat N, Riglin L, Anney R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Fundamental questions in biological psychiatry concern the mechanisms that mediate between genetic liability and psychiatric symptoms. Genetic liability for many common psychiatric disorders often confers transdiagnostic risk to develop a wide variety of psychopathological symptoms through yet unknown pathways. This study examined the psychological and cognitive pathways that might mediate the relationship between genetic liability (indexed by polygenic scores; PS) and broad psychopathology (indexed by p factor and its underlying dimensions).

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2021/09/07

Authors

Pat N, Riglin L, Anney R, Wang Y, Barch DM, Thapar A, Stringaris A

Keywords

ADHD, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development, MDD, polygenic score, transdiagnostic psychopathology

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2021.08.019
Toggle Children's Knowledge of Cannabis and Other Substances in States with Different Cannabis Use Regulations. Substance use & misuse Ross JM, Rieselbach MM, Hewitt JK, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

: Public acceptance of cannabis continues to increase across the US, yet there has been little research on how cannabis legalization affects young children. The present study compared knowledge of cannabis and other substances among children living in states with different cannabis laws and examined whether the association between such substance knowledge and externalizing behavior varies by state cannabis regulations. : Participants were from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®) at the baseline assessment ( = 11,875, ages 9-11, collected from 2016 to 2018). Chi-square difference tests were used to compare nested models testing group differences in knowledge of substances and the association between externalizing disorder/behavior and substance knowledge as a function of state legality of cannabis use (recreational, medical, low THC/CBD, none). : Children living in states with more permissive cannabis laws had a greater knowledge of cannabis and reported more alcohol experimentation. In contrast, knowledge regarding alcohol, tobacco, and other illicit drugs was not greater in children from states with more permissive cannabis laws. Externalizing disorder/behavior was not significantly associated with cannabis knowledge in any group and not significantly different across groups. The association between externalizing disorder/behavior and illicit drug knowledge was significant only in states with the recreational and medical use laws but did not differ significantly across groups. : Children living in environments with more permissive cannabis regulations have greater knowledge of cannabis, but not other substances, and report more experimentation with alcohol.

Journal

Substance use & misuse

Published

2021/09/05

Authors

Ross JM, Rieselbach MM, Hewitt JK, Banich MT, Rhee SH

Keywords

Cannabis, children, policies

DOI

10.1080/10826084.2021.1972316
Toggle Sociodemographic Correlates of Contemporary Screen Time Use among 9- and 10-Year-Old Children. The Journal of pediatrics Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Iyer P, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine sociodemographic correlates of contemporary screen time use among a diverse population-based sample of 9- and 10-year-old children.

Journal

The Journal of pediatrics

Published

2021/09/02

Authors

Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Iyer P, Chu J, Baker FC, Pettee Gabriel K, Garber AK, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K

Keywords

adolescents, pediatrics, screen time, smart phone, social media, television

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.08.077
Toggle Smaller Hippocampal Volume Among Black and Latinx Youth Living in High-Stigma Contexts. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Hatzenbuehler ML, Weissman DG, McKetta S, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine whether structural and individual forms of stigma are associated with neurodevelopment in children.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2021/09/02

Authors

Hatzenbuehler ML, Weissman DG, McKetta S, Lattanner MR, Ford JV, Barch DM, McLaughlin KA

Keywords

hippocampal volume, neurodevelopment, population neuroscience, stigma

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2021.08.017
Toggle Early Adolescent Substance Use Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Longitudinal Survey in the ABCD Study Cohort. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Pelham WE, Tapert SF, Gonzalez MR, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Evaluate changes in early adolescent substance use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using a prospective, longitudinal, nationwide cohort.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Pelham WE, Tapert SF, Gonzalez MR, McCabe CJ, Lisdahl KM, Alzueta E, Baker FC, Breslin FJ, Dick AS, Dowling GJ, Guillaume M, Hoffman EA, Marshall AT, McCandliss BD, Sheth CS, Sowell ER, Thompson WK, Van Rinsveld AM, Wade NE, Brown SA

Keywords

Anxiety, COVID-19, Depression, Drinking, Drug use, Stress

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.06.015
Toggle Predicting fluid intelligence in adolescence from structural MRI with deep learning methods Intelligence Saha S, Pagnozzi A, Bradford D, et al. 2021
Link to Publication

Abstract

Background
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of unsegmented structural T1w MR images of adolescent brain for predicting uncorrected/actual fluid intelligence scores without any predefined feature extraction. We also examined whether prediction of uncorrected scores is simply a harder problem from both biological and technical point of view, than prediction of residualised scores.

Methods
ABCD (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development) study data was used from 7709 children aged 9–10, including T1-weighted MRIs and fluid intelligence scores, with data split into training (n = 3739), validation (n = 415) and test (n = 3555) subsets. We developed several deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) models for both actual and residualised fluid intelligence score prediction from the MR images. State of the art, conventional or reverse 2D/3D CNN architectures were developed to perform the regression task and optimised based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r. The models were then compared with published results on the same dataset.

Results
Our proposed model achieved prediction accuracies of r = 0.18 (p < 0.001) for the validation and r = 0.1 (p < 0.05) for the test, for actual IQ prediction. Our results showed that, although we achieved ~10 times higher correlation for the residualised score prediction than the correlations reported by previous CNN studies, using the same unsegmented MR images, it could not exceed the actual IQ prediction performance. This suggests that the image features associated with covariates aided up in the uncorrected score prediction rather than making the task harder.

Conclusion
Our deep learning CNN was able to establish a weak but stable correlation between structural brain features and raw fluid intelligence. To improve neuroimaging-based fluid intelligence prediction performance, future studies will be required to explore ensembled regression strategies with multiple machine learning algorithms on multimodal MRIs.

Journal

Intelligence

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Saha S, Pagnozzi A, Bradford D, et al.

Keywords

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2021.101568
Toggle The relationship between brain structure and general psychopathology in preadolescents. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Mewton L, Lees B, Squeglia LM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

An emerging body of literature has indicated that broad, transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology are associated with alterations in brain structure across the life span. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between brain structure and broad dimensions of psychopathology in the critical preadolescent period when psychopathology is emerging.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Mewton L, Lees B, Squeglia LM, Forbes MK, Sunderland M, Krueger R, Koch FC, Baillie A, Slade T, Hoy N, Teesson M

Keywords

Generalized psychopathology, brain structure, externalizing, internalizing, preadolescence

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13513
Toggle Neural response to monetary loss among youth with disruptive behavior disorders and callous-unemotional traits in the ABCD study. NeuroImage. Clinical Byrd AL, Hawes SW, Waller R, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Etiological models highlight reduced punishment sensitivity as a core risk factor for disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The current study examined neural sensitivity to the anticipation and receipt of loss, one key aspect of punishment sensitivity, among youth with DBD, comparing those with and without CU traits. Data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (N = 11,874; Mage = 9.51; 48% female). Loss-related fMRI activity during the monetary incentive delay task was examined across 16 empirically-derived a priori brain regions (e.g., striatum, amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) and compared across the following groups: (1) typically developing (n = 693); (2) DBD (n = 995), subdivided into those (3) with CU traits (DBD + CU, n = 198), and (4) without CU traits (DBD-only, n = 276). Latent variable modeling was also employed to examine network-level activity. There were no significant between-group differences in brain activity to loss anticipation or receipt. Null findings were confirmed with and without covariates, using alternative grouping approaches, and in dimensional models. Network-level analyses also demonstrated comparable activity across groups during loss anticipation and receipt. Findings suggest that differences in punishment sensitivity among youth with DBD are unrelated to loss anticipation or receipt. More precise characterizations of other aspects punishment sensitivity are needed to understand risk for DBD and CU traits.

Journal

NeuroImage. Clinical

Published

2021/09/01

Authors

Byrd AL, Hawes SW, Waller R, Delgado MR, Sutherland MT, Dick AS, Trucco EM, Riedel MC, Pacheco-Colón I, Laird AR, Gonzalez R

Keywords

ABCD, Antisocial behavior, Callous-unemotional, Conduct problems, Imaging, Punishment sensitivity, fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102810
Toggle Widespread Positive Direct and Indirect Effects of Regular Physical Activity on the Developing Functional Connectome in Early Adolescence. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Brooks SJ, Parks SM, Stamoulis C 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is a period of profound but incompletely understood changes in the brain’s neural circuitry (the connectome), which is vulnerable to risk factors such as unhealthy weight, but may be protected by positive factors such as regular physical activity. In 5955 children (median age = 120 months; 50.86% females) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort, we investigated direct and indirect (through impact on body mass index [BMI]) effects of physical activity on resting-state networks, the backbone of the functional connectome that ubiquitously affects cognitive function. We estimated significant positive effects of regular physical activity on network connectivity, efficiency, robustness and stability (P ≤ 0.01), and on local topologies of attention, somatomotor, frontoparietal, limbic, and default-mode networks (P < 0.05), which support extensive processes, from memory and executive control to emotional processing. In contrast, we estimated widespread negative BMI effects in the same network properties and brain regions (P < 0.05). Additional mediation analyses suggested that physical activity could also modulate network topologies leading to better control of food intake, appetite and satiety, and ultimately lower BMI. Thus, regular physical activity may have extensive positive effects on the development of the functional connectome, and may be critical for improving the detrimental effects of unhealthy weight on cognitive health.

Journal

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Published

2021/08/26

Authors

Brooks SJ, Parks SM, Stamoulis C

Keywords

BMI, adolescence, brain networks, functional connectome, physical activity

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhab126