ABCD Study publications are authored by ABCD investigators, collaborators, and non-ABCD researchers. The analysis methodologies, findings, and interpretations expressed in these publications are those of the authors and do not constitute an endorsement by the ABCD Study®.

Please note that the publications listed here include empirical as well as non-empirical papers (e.g., focused review articles, editorials).

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Toggle T1w/T2w Ratio and Cognition in 9-to-11-Year-Old Children. Brain sciences Langensee L, Rumetshofer T, Behjat H, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood is a period of extensive cortical and neural development. Among other things, axons in the brain gradually become more myelinated, promoting the propagation of electrical signals between different parts of the brain, which in turn may facilitate skill development. Myelin is difficult to assess in vivo, and measurement techniques are only just beginning to make their way into standard imaging protocols in human cognitive neuroscience. An approach that has been proposed as an indirect measure of cortical myelin is the T1w/T2w ratio, a contrast that is based on the intensities of two standard structural magnetic resonance images. Although not initially intended as such, researchers have recently started to use the T1w/T2w contrast for between-subject comparisons of cortical data with various behavioral and cognitive indices. As a complement to these earlier findings, we computed individual cortical T1w/T2w maps using data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (N = 960; 449 females; aged 8.9 to 11.0 years) and related the T1w/T2w maps to indices of cognitive ability; in contrast to previous work, we did not find significant relationships between T1w/T2w values and cognitive performance after correcting for multiple testing. These findings reinforce existent skepticism about the applicability of T1w/T2w ratio for inter-individual comparisons.

Journal

Brain sciences

Published

2022/05/04

Authors

Langensee L, Rumetshofer T, Behjat H, Novén M, Li P, Mårtensson J

Keywords

T1w/T2w ratio, cognitive abilities, intracortical myelin, neurocognition, structural MRI

DOI

10.3390/brainsci12050599
Toggle Multivariate genome-wide association study on tissue-sensitive diffusion metrics highlights pathways that shape the human brain. Nature communications Fan CC, Loughnan R, Makowski C, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The molecular determinants of tissue composition of the human brain remain largely unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on this topic have had limited success due to methodological constraints. Here, we apply advanced whole-brain analyses on multi-shell diffusion imaging data and multivariate GWAS to two large scale imaging genetic datasets (UK Biobank and the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study) to identify and validate genetic association signals. We discover 503 unique genetic loci that have impact on multiple regions of human brain. Among them, more than 79% are validated in either of two large-scale independent imaging datasets. Key molecular pathways involved in axonal growth, astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation, and synaptogenesis during development are found to significantly impact the measured variations in tissue-specific imaging features. Our results shed new light on the biological determinants of brain tissue composition and their potential overlap with the genetic basis of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Journal

Nature communications

Published

2022/05/03

Authors

Fan CC, Loughnan R, Makowski C, Pecheva D, Chen CH, Hagler DJ, Thompson WK, Parker N, van der Meer D, Frei O, Andreassen OA, Dale AM

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41467-022-30110-3
Toggle Longer screen time utilization is associated with the polygenic risk for Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with mediation by brain white matter microstructure. EBioMedicine Yang A, Rolls ET, Dong G, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported to be associated with longer screen time utilization (STU) at the behavioral level. However, whether there are shared neural links between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU is not clear and has not been explored in a single large-scale dataset.

Journal

EBioMedicine

Published

2022/05/01

Authors

Yang A, Rolls ET, Dong G, Du J, Li Y, Feng J, Cheng W, Zhao XM

Keywords

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Brain tractography, Longitudinal analysis, Polygenic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Screen time utilization

DOI

10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104039
Toggle Effects of the physical and social environment on youth cognitive performance. Developmental psychobiology Meredith WJ, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Berman MG, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Individual differences in children’s cognitive abilities impact life and health outcomes. What factors influence these individual differences during development? Here, we test whether children’s environments predict cognitive performance, independent of well-characterized socioeconomic effects. We analyzed data from 9002 9- to 10-year olds from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, an ongoing longitudinal study with community samples across the United States. Using youth- and caregiver-report questionnaires and national database registries (e.g., neighborhood crime, walkability), we defined principal components summarizing children’s home, school, neighborhood, and cultural environments. In two independent samples (ns = 3475, 5527), environmental components explained unique variance in children’s general cognitive ability, executive functioning, and learning/memory abilities. Furthermore, increased neighborhood enrichment was associated with an attenuated relationship between sociodemographics and general cognitive abilities. Thus, the environment accounts for unique variance in cognitive performance in children and should be considered alongside sociodemographic factors to better understand brain functioning and behavior across development.

Journal

Developmental psychobiology

Published

2022/05/01

Authors

Meredith WJ, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Berman MG, Rosenberg MD

Keywords

cognition, development, individual differences, physical environment, social environment, socioeconomic factors

DOI

10.1002/dev.22258
Toggle The sexual brain, genes, and cognition: A machine-predicted brain sex score explains individual differences in cognitive intelligence and genetic influence in young children. Human brain mapping Kim K, Joo YY, Ahn G, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sex impacts the development of the brain and cognition differently across individuals. However, the literature on brain sex dimorphism in humans is mixed. We aim to investigate the biological underpinnings of the individual variability of sexual dimorphism in the brain and its impact on cognitive performance. To this end, we tested whether the individual difference in brain sex would be linked to that in cognitive performance that is influenced by genetic factors in prepubertal children (N = 9,658, ages 9-10 years old; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study). To capture the interindividual variability of the brain, we estimated the probability of being male or female based on the brain morphometry and connectivity features using machine learning (herein called a brain sex score). The models accurately classified the biological sex with a test ROC-AUC of 93.32%. As a result, a greater brain sex score correlated significantly with greater intelligence (p  < .001,  = .011-.034; adjusted for covariates) and higher cognitive genome-wide polygenic scores (GPSs) (p  < .001,  < .005). Structural equation models revealed that the GPS-intelligence association was significantly modulated by the brain sex score, such that a brain with a higher maleness score (or a lower femaleness score) mediated a positive GPS effect on intelligence (indirect effects = .006-.009; p = .002-.022; sex-stratified analysis). The finding of the sex modulatory effect on the gene-brain-cognition relationship presents a likely biological pathway to the individual and sex differences in the brain and cognitive performance in preadolescence.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/04/26

Authors

Kim K, Joo YY, Ahn G, Wang HH, Moon SY, Kim H, Ahn WY, Cha J

Keywords

cognitive performance, gene-brain-cognition pathway, genome-wide polygenic score, intelligence, machine learning, sex development

DOI

10.1002/hbm.25888
Toggle Internalizing Symptoms and Adverse Childhood Experiences Associated With Functional Connectivity in a Middle Childhood Sample. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Albertina EA, Barch DM, Karcher NR 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Research has found overlapping associations in adults of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) to both internalizing disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) and a history of traumatic events. The present study aimed to extend this previous research to a younger sample by examining RSFC associations with both internalizing symptoms and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in middle childhood.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2022/04/26

Authors

Albertina EA, Barch DM, Karcher NR

Keywords

ABCD, Adverse childhood experiences, Internalizing symptoms, Middle childhood, Mood disorders, Resting-state functional connectivity

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.04.001
Toggle Shared and unique brain network features predict cognitive, personality, and mental health scores in the ABCD study. Nature communications Chen J, Tam A, Kebets V, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

How individual differences in brain network organization track behavioral variability is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. Recent work suggests that resting-state and task-state functional connectivity can predict specific traits at the individual level. However, most studies focus on single behavioral traits, thus not capturing broader relationships across behaviors. In a large sample of 1858 typically developing children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, we show that predictive network features are distinct across the domains of cognitive performance, personality scores and mental health assessments. On the other hand, traits within each behavioral domain are predicted by similar network features. Predictive network features and models generalize to other behavioral measures within the same behavioral domain. Although tasks are known to modulate the functional connectome, predictive network features are similar between resting and task states. Overall, our findings reveal shared brain network features that account for individual variation within broad domains of behavior in childhood.

Journal

Nature communications

Published

2022/04/25

Authors

Chen J, Tam A, Kebets V, Orban C, Ooi LQR, Asplund CL, Marek S, Dosenbach NUF, Eickhoff SB, Bzdok D, Holmes AJ, Yeo BTT

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41467-022-29766-8
Toggle An open-access accelerated adult equivalent of the ABCD Study neuroimaging dataset (a-ABCD). NeuroImage Rapuano KM, Conley MI, Juliano AC, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

As public access to longitudinal developmental datasets like the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®) increases, so too does the need for resources to benchmark time-dependent effects. Scan-to-scan changes observed with repeated imaging may reflect development but may also reflect practice effects, day-to-day variability in psychological states, and/or measurement noise. Resources that allow disentangling these time-dependent effects will be useful in quantifying actual developmental change. We present an accelerated adult equivalent of the ABCD Study dataset (a-ABCD) using an identical imaging protocol to acquire magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural, diffusion-weighted, resting-state and task-based data from eight adults scanned five times over five weeks. We report on the task-based imaging data (n = 7). In-scanner stop-signal (SST), monetary incentive delay (MID), and emotional n-back (EN-back) task behavioral performance did not change across sessions. Post-scan recognition memory for emotional n-back stimuli, however, did improve as participants became more familiar with the stimuli. Functional MRI analyses revealed that patterns of task-based activation reflecting inhibitory control in the SST, reward success in the MID task, and working memory in the EN-back task were more similar within individuals across repeated scan sessions than between individuals. Within-subject, activity was more consistent across sessions during the EN-back task than in the SST and MID task, demonstrating differences in fMRI data reliability as a function of task. The a-ABCD dataset provides a unique testbed for characterizing the reliability of brain function, structure, and behavior across imaging modalities in adulthood and benchmarking neurodevelopmental change observed in the open-access ABCD Study.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2022/04/16

Authors

Rapuano KM, Conley MI, Juliano AC, Conan GM, Maza MT, Woodman K, Martinez SA, Earl E, Perrone A, Feczko E, Fair DA, Watts R, Casey BJ, Rosenberg MD

Keywords

Development, Inhibitory control, Reward processing, Working memory, fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119215
Toggle Computational Modeling of the n-Back Task in the ABCD Study: Associations of Drift Diffusion Model Parameters to Polygenic Scores of Mental Disorders and Cardiometabolic Diseases. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Pedersen ML, Alnæs D, van der Meer D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Cognitive dysfunction is common in mental disorders and represents a potential risk factor in childhood. The nature and extent of associations between childhood cognitive function and polygenic risk for mental disorders is unclear. We applied computational modeling to gain insight into mechanistic processes underlying decision making and working memory in childhood and their associations with polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for mental disorders and comorbid cardiometabolic diseases.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2022/04/12

Authors

Pedersen ML, Alnæs D, van der Meer D, Fernandez-Cabello S, Berthet P, Dahl A, Kjelkenes R, Schwarz E, Thompson WK, Barch DM, Andreassen OA, Westlye LT

Keywords

Cardiometabolic disease, Childhood, Cognitive computational modeling, Decision making, Mental disorder, Polygenic risk scores

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.03.012
Toggle Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Restricted Phenotypes Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Polygenic Risk Sensitivity in the ABCD Baseline Cohort. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Cordova MM, Antovich DM, Ryabinin P, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To evaluate the prevalence and major comorbidities of ADHD using different operational definitions in a newly available national dataset and to test the utility of operational definitions against genetic and cognitive correlates.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2022/04/12

Authors

Cordova MM, Antovich DM, Ryabinin P, Neighbor C, Mooney MA, Dieckmann NF, Miranda-Dominguez O, Nagel BJ, Fair DA, Nigg JT

Keywords

ADHD, comorbidity, executive function, polygenic score, prevalence

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2022.03.030
Toggle Common variants contribute to intrinsic human brain functional networks. Nature genetics Zhao B, Li T, Smith SM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The human brain forms functional networks of correlated activity, which have been linked with both cognitive and clinical outcomes. However, the genetic variants affecting brain function are largely unknown. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance images from 47,276 individuals to discover and validate common genetic variants influencing intrinsic brain activity. We identified 45 new genetic regions associated with brain functional signatures (P < 2.8 × 10), including associations to the central executive, default mode, and salience networks involved in the triple-network model of psychopathology. A number of brain activity-associated loci colocalized with brain disorders (e.g., the APOE ε4 locus with Alzheimer's disease). Variation in brain function was genetically correlated with brain disorders, such as major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Together, our study provides a step forward in understanding the genetic architecture of brain functional networks and their genetic links to brain-related complex traits and disorders.

Journal

Nature genetics

Published

2022/04/07

Authors

Zhao B, Li T, Smith SM, Xiong D, Wang X, Yang Y, Luo T, Zhu Z, Shan Y, Matoba N, Sun Q, Yang Y, Hauberg ME, Bendl J, Fullard JF, Roussos P, Lin W, Li Y, Stein JL, Zhu H

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41588-022-01039-6
Toggle Brain charts for the human lifespan. Nature Bethlehem RAI, Seidlitz J, White SR, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Over the past few decades, neuroimaging has become a ubiquitous tool in basic research and clinical studies of the human brain. However, no reference standards currently exist to quantify individual differences in neuroimaging metrics over time, in contrast to growth charts for anthropometric traits such as height and weight. Here we assemble an interactive open resource to benchmark brain morphology derived from any current or future sample of MRI data ( http://www.brainchart.io/ ). With the goal of basing these reference charts on the largest and most inclusive dataset available, acknowledging limitations due to known biases of MRI studies relative to the diversity of the global population, we aggregated 123,984 MRI scans, across more than 100 primary studies, from 101,457 human participants between 115 days post-conception to 100 years of age. MRI metrics were quantified by centile scores, relative to non-linear trajectories of brain structural changes, and rates of change, over the lifespan. Brain charts identified previously unreported neurodevelopmental milestones, showed high stability of individuals across longitudinal assessments, and demonstrated robustness to technical and methodological differences between primary studies. Centile scores showed increased heritability compared with non-centiled MRI phenotypes, and provided a standardized measure of atypical brain structure that revealed patterns of neuroanatomical variation across neurological and psychiatric disorders. In summary, brain charts are an essential step towards robust quantification of individual variation benchmarked to normative trajectories in multiple, commonly used neuroimaging phenotypes.

Journal

Nature

Published

2022/04/06

Authors

Bethlehem RAI, Seidlitz J, White SR, Vogel JW, Anderson KM, Adamson C, Adler S, Alexopoulos GS, Anagnostou E, Areces-Gonzalez A, Astle DE, Auyeung B, Ayub M, Bae J, Ball G, Baron-Cohen S, Beare R, Bedford SA, Benegal V, Beyer F, Blangero J, Blesa Cábez M, Boardman JP, Borzage M, Bosch-Bayard JF, Bourke N, Calhoun VD, Chakravarty MM, Chen C, Chertavian C, Chetelat G, Chong YS, Cole JH, Corvin A, Costantino M, Courchesne E, Crivello F, Cropley VL, Crosbie J, Crossley N, Delarue M, Delorme R, Desrivieres S, Devenyi GA, Di Biase MA, Dolan R, Donald KA, Donohoe G, Dunlop K, Edwards AD, Elison JT, Ellis CT, Elman JA, Eyler L, Fair DA, Feczko E, Fletcher PC, Fonagy P, Franz CE, Galan-Garcia L, Gholipour A, Giedd J, Gilmore JH, Glahn DC, Goodyer IM, Grant PE, Groenewold NA, Gunning FM, Gur RE, Gur RC, Hammill CF, Hansson O, Hedden T, Heinz A, Henson RN, Heuer K, Hoare J, Holla B, Holmes AJ, Holt R, Huang H, Im K, Ipser J, Jack CR, Jackowski AP, Jia T, Johnson KA, Jones PB, Jones DT, Kahn RS, Karlsson H, Karlsson L, Kawashima R, Kelley EA, Kern S, Kim KW, Kitzbichler MG, Kremen WS, Lalonde F, Landeau B, Lee S, Lerch J, Lewis JD, Li J, Liao W, Liston C, Lombardo MV, Lv J, Lynch C, Mallard TT, Marcelis M, Markello RD, Mathias SR, Mazoyer B, McGuire P, Meaney MJ, Mechelli A, Medic N, Misic B, Morgan SE, Mothersill D, Nigg J, Ong MQW, Ortinau C, Ossenkoppele R, Ouyang M, Palaniyappan L, Paly L, Pan PM, Pantelis C, Park MM, Paus T, Pausova Z, Paz-Linares D, Pichet Binette A, Pierce K, Qian X, Qiu J, Qiu A, Raznahan A, Rittman T, Rodrigue A, Rollins CK, Romero-Garcia R, Ronan L, Rosenberg MD, Rowitch DH, Salum GA, Satterthwaite TD, Schaare HL, Schachar RJ, Schultz AP, Schumann G, Schöll M, Sharp D, Shinohara RT, Skoog I, Smyser CD, Sperling RA, Stein DJ, Stolicyn A, Suckling J, Sullivan G, Taki Y, Thyreau B, Toro R, Traut N, Tsvetanov KA, Turk-Browne NB, Tuulari JJ, Tzourio C, Vachon-Presseau É, Valdes-Sosa MJ, Valdes-Sosa PA, Valk SL, van Amelsvoort T, Vandekar SN, Vasung L, Victoria LW, Villeneuve S, Villringer A, Vértes PE, Wagstyl K, Wang YS, Warfield SK, Warrier V, Westman E, Westwater ML, Whalley HC, Witte AV, Yang N, Yeo B, Yun H, Zalesky A, Zar HJ, Zettergren A, Zhou JH, Ziauddeen H, Zugman A, Zuo XN, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Bullmore ET, Alexander-Bloch AF

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41586-022-04554-y
Toggle Genetic variants associated with longitudinal changes in brain structure across the lifespan. Nature neuroscience Brouwer RM, Klein M, Grasby KL, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Human brain structure changes throughout the lifespan. Altered brain growth or rates of decline are implicated in a vast range of psychiatric, developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we identified common genetic variants that affect rates of brain growth or atrophy in what is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide association meta-analysis of changes in brain morphology across the lifespan. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging data from 15,640 individuals were used to compute rates of change for 15 brain structures. The most robustly identified genes GPR139, DACH1 and APOE are associated with metabolic processes. We demonstrate global genetic overlap with depression, schizophrenia, cognitive functioning, insomnia, height, body mass index and smoking. Gene set findings implicate both early brain development and neurodegenerative processes in the rates of brain changes. Identifying variants involved in structural brain changes may help to determine biological pathways underlying optimal and dysfunctional brain development and aging.

Journal

Nature neuroscience

Published

2022/04/05

Authors

Brouwer RM, Klein M, Grasby KL, Schnack HG, Jahanshad N, Teeuw J, Thomopoulos SI, Sprooten E, Franz CE, Gogtay N, Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Olde Loohuis LM, Whelan CD, Aghajani M, Alloza C, Alnæs D, Artiges E, Ayesa-Arriola R, Barker GJ, Bastin ME, Blok E, Bøen E, Breukelaar IA, Bright JK, Buimer EEL, Bülow R, Cannon DM, Ciufolini S, Crossley NA, Damatac CG, Dazzan P, de Mol CL, de Zwarte SMC, Desrivières S, Díaz-Caneja CM, Doan NT, Dohm K, Fröhner JH, Goltermann J, Grigis A, Grotegerd D, Han LKM, Harris MA, Hartman CA, Heany SJ, Heindel W, Heslenfeld DJ, Hohmann S, Ittermann B, Jansen PR, Janssen J, Jia T, Jiang J, Jockwitz C, Karali T, Keeser D, Koevoets MGJC, Lenroot RK, Malchow B, Mandl RCW, Medel V, Meinert S, Morgan CA, Mühleisen TW, Nabulsi L, Opel N, de la Foz VO, Overs BJ, Paillère Martinot ML, Redlich R, Marques TR, Repple J, Roberts G, Roshchupkin GV, Setiaman N, Shumskaya E, Stein F, Sudre G, Takahashi S, Thalamuthu A, Tordesillas-Gutiérrez D, van der Lugt A, van Haren NEM, Wardlaw JM, Wen W, Westeneng HJ, Wittfeld K, Zhu AH, Zugman A, Armstrong NJ, Bonfiglio G, Bralten J, Dalvie S, Davies G, Di Forti M, Ding L, Donohoe G, Forstner AJ, Gonzalez-Peñas J, Guimaraes JPOFT, Homuth G, Hottenga JJ, Knol MJ, Kwok JBJ, Le Hellard S, Mather KA, Milaneschi Y, Morris DW, Nöthen MM, Papiol S, Rietschel M, Santoro ML, Steen VM, Stein JL, Streit F, Tankard RM, Teumer A, van 't Ent D, van der Meer D, van Eijk KR, Vassos E, Vázquez-Bourgon J, Witt SH, , Adams HHH, Agartz I, Ames D, Amunts K, Andreassen OA, Arango C, Banaschewski T, Baune BT, Belangero SI, Bokde ALW, Boomsma DI, Bressan RA, Brodaty H, Buitelaar JK, Cahn W, Caspers S, Cichon S, Crespo-Facorro B, Cox SR, Dannlowski U, Elvsåshagen T, Espeseth T, Falkai PG, Fisher SE, Flor H, Fullerton JM, Garavan H, Gowland PA, Grabe HJ, Hahn T, Heinz A, Hillegers M, Hoare J, Hoekstra PJ, Ikram MA, Jackowski AP, Jansen A, Jönsson EG, Kahn RS, Kircher T, Korgaonkar MS, Krug A, Lemaitre H, Malt UF, Martinot JL, McDonald C, Mitchell PB, Muetzel RL, Murray RM, Nees F, Nenadić I, Oosterlaan J, Ophoff RA, Pan PM, Penninx BWJH, Poustka L, Sachdev PS, Salum GA, Schofield PR, Schumann G, Shaw P, Sim K, Smolka MN, Stein DJ, Trollor JN, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Walter H, Westlye LT, Whelan R, White T, Wright MJ, Medland SE, Franke B, Thompson PM, Hulshoff Pol HE

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41593-022-01042-4
Toggle Classification of suicidal thoughts and behaviour in children: results from penalised logistic regression analyses in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science van Velzen LS, Toenders YJ, Avila-Parcet A, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Despite efforts to predict suicide risk in children, the ability to reliably identify who will engage in suicide thoughts or behaviours has remained unsuccessful.

Journal

The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science

Published

2022/04/01

Authors

van Velzen LS, Toenders YJ, Avila-Parcet A, Dinga R, Rabinowitz JA, Campos AI, Jahanshad N, Rentería ME, Schmaal L

Keywords

Suicide, children, machine learning, penalised logistic regression, youth

DOI

10.1192/bjp.2022.7
Toggle Multivariate, Transgenerational Associations of the COVID-19 Pandemic Across Minoritized and Marginalized Communities. JAMA psychiatry Yip SW, Jordan A, Kohler RJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The experienced consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic have diverged across individuals, families, and communities, resulting in inequity within a host of factors. There is a gap of quantitative evidence about the transgenerational impacts of these experiences and factors.

Journal

JAMA psychiatry

Published

2022/04/01

Authors

Yip SW, Jordan A, Kohler RJ, Holmes A, Bzdok D

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.4331
Toggle Neurodevelopmental Profiles in Adolescence: Leveraging Data From the Landmark Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Mewton L, Squeglia L 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2022/04/01

Authors

Mewton L, Squeglia L

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.01.005
Toggle Neurobiological antecedents of multisite pain in children. Pain Kaplan CM, Schrepf A, Mawla I, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Altered brain structure and function is evident in adults with multisite chronic pain. Although many such adults trace their pain back to childhood, it has been difficult to disentangle whether central nervous system alterations precede or are consequences of chronic pain. If the former is true, aberrant brain activity may identify children vulnerable to developing chronic pain later in life. We examined structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging metrics in a subset of children from the first 2 assessments of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Children (aged 9-10) who were pain free at baseline and then developed multisite pain 1 year later (n = 115) were matched to control children who were pain free at both timepoints (n = 230). We analyzed brain structure (cortical thickness and gray matter volume) and function (spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity). Results were deemed significant at the cluster level P < 0.05 false discovery rate corrected for multiple comparisons. At baseline, children who subsequently developed multisite pain had increased neural activity in superior parietal /primary somatosensory and motor cortices and decreased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. They also exhibited stronger functional connectivity between the salience network, somatosensory, and default mode network regions. No significant differences in the brain structure were observed. Increased neural activity and functional connectivity between brain regions, consistent to that seen in adults with chronic pain, exist in children before developing multisite pain. These findings may represent a neural vulnerability to developing future chronic pain.

Journal

Pain

Published

2022/04/01

Authors

Kaplan CM, Schrepf A, Mawla I, Ichesco E, Boehnke KF, Beltz A, Foxen-Craft E, Puglia MP, Tsodikov A, Williams DA, Hassett AL, Clauw DJ, Harte SE, Harris RE

Keywords

DOI

10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002431
Toggle Understanding Associations Between Race/Ethnicity, Experiences of Discrimination, and Psychotic-like Experiences in Middle Childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Karcher NR, Klaunig MJ, Elsayed NM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The present study aimed to examine factors that may account for race/ethnicity differences in psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in a middle childhood sample, including evidence for experiences of discrimination as a psychosocial mediator of these differences.

Journal

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Published

2022/04/01

Authors

Karcher NR, Klaunig MJ, Elsayed NM, Taylor RL, Jay SY, Schiffman J

Keywords

ABCD Study, ethnicity, experiences of discrimination, psychotic-like experiences, race

DOI

10.1016/j.jaac.2022.03.025
Toggle Evaluation of Brain Alterations and Behavior in Children With Low Levels of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. JAMA network open Long X, Lebel C 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

High levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are associated with widespread behavioral and cognitive problems as well as structural alterations of the brain. However, it remains unclear whether low levels of PAE affect brain structure and function, and prior studies generally have not had well-matched control populations (eg, for sociodemographic variables).

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/04/01

Authors

Long X, Lebel C

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.5972
Toggle Neurobiological, familial and genetic risk factors for dimensional psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Molecular psychiatry Wainberg M, Jacobs GR, Voineskos AN, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is a key period for brain development and the emergence of psychopathology. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was created to study the biopsychosocial factors underlying healthy and pathological brain development during this period, and comprises the world’s largest youth cohort with neuroimaging, family history and genetic data.

Journal

Molecular psychiatry

Published

2022/03/31

Authors

Wainberg M, Jacobs GR, Voineskos AN, Tripathy SJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41380-022-01522-w
Toggle Automated Multiclass Artifact Detection in Diffusion MRI Volumes 3D Residual Squeeze-and-Excitation Convolutional Neural Networks. Frontiers in human neuroscience Ettehadi N, Kashyap P, Zhang X, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is widely used to investigate neuronal and structural development of brain. dMRI data is often contaminated with various types of artifacts. Hence, artifact type identification in dMRI volumes is an essential pre-processing step prior to carrying out any further analysis. Manual artifact identification amongst a large pool of dMRI data is a highly labor-intensive task. Previous attempts at automating this process are often limited to a binary classification (“poor” vs. “good” quality) of the dMRI volumes or focus on detecting a single type of artifact (e.g., motion, Eddy currents, etc.). In this work, we propose a deep learning-based automated multiclass artifact classifier for dMRI volumes. Our proposed framework operates in 2 steps. In the first step, the model predicts labels associated with 3D mutually exclusive collectively exhaustive (MECE) sub-volumes or “slabs” extracted from whole dMRI volumes. In the second step, through a voting process, the model outputs the artifact class present in the whole volume under investigation. We used two different datasets for training and evaluating our model. Specifically, we utilized 2,494 poor-quality dMRI volumes from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) and 4,226 from the Healthy Brain Network (HBN) dataset. Our results demonstrate accurate multiclass volume-level main artifact type prediction with 96.61 and 97.52% average accuracies on the ABCD and HBN test sets, respectively. Finally, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in dMRI pre-processing pipelines, we conducted a proof-of-concept dMRI analysis exploring the relationship between whole-brain fractional anisotropy (FA) and participant age, to test whether the use of our model improves the brain-age association.

Journal

Frontiers in human neuroscience

Published

2022/03/30

Authors

Ettehadi N, Kashyap P, Zhang X, Wang Y, Semanek D, Desai K, Guo J, Posner J, Laine AF

Keywords

artifacts, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, diffusion MRI, medical imaging, quality control

DOI

10.3389/fnhum.2022.877326
Toggle Executive Functions and Impulsivity as Transdiagnostic Correlates of Psychopathology in Childhood: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis. Frontiers in human neuroscience Freis SM, Morrison CL, Smolker HR, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Executive functions (EFs) and impulsivity are dimensions of self-regulation that are both related to psychopathology. However, self-report measures of impulsivity and laboratory EF tasks typically display small correlations, and existing research indicates that impulsivity and EFs may tap separate aspects of self-regulation that independently statistically predict psychopathology in adulthood. However, relationships between EFs, impulsivity, and psychopathology may be different in childhood compared to adulthood. Here, we examine whether these patterns hold in the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) sample, a national sample of over 11,000 children (including 749 twin pairs) ages 9-10 years. We examine the phenotypic and genetic relationships among latent variables for different components of EFs and multiple facets of impulsivity. Additionally, we assess how EFs and impulsivity relate to composite measures and latent variables of psychopathology derived from parent report. EFs were weakly correlated with impulsivity, and the strength varied by impulsivity facet, emphasizing their separability. We did not identify significant genetic and environmental correlations between EFs and impulsivity. Moreover, controlling for their small relationships with each other, both EFs and some facets of impulsivity statistically predicted an Externalizing factor, attention problems, and social problems, and twin analyses suggested these relationships were genetic in origin. These findings indicate that EFs and impulsivity represent phenotypically and genetically separable aspects of self-regulation that are both transdiagnostic correlates of psychopathology in childhood.

Journal

Frontiers in human neuroscience

Published

2022/03/25

Authors

Freis SM, Morrison CL, Smolker HR, Banich MT, Kaiser RH, Hewitt JK, Friedman NP

Keywords

behavior problems, cognitive control, executive control, heritability, self-regulation

DOI

10.3389/fnhum.2022.863235
Toggle Substance use onset in high-risk 9-13 year-olds in the ABCD study. Neurotoxicology and teratology Wade NE, Tapert SF, Lisdahl KM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

A key aim of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ (ABCD) Study is to document substance use onset, patterns, and sequelae across adolescent development. However, substance use misreporting can obscure accurate drug use characterization. Hair toxicology provides objective historical substance use data but is rarely used in studies of youth. Here, we compare objective hair toxicology results with self-reported substance use in high-risk youth.

Journal

Neurotoxicology and teratology

Published

2022/03/24

Authors

Wade NE, Tapert SF, Lisdahl KM, Huestis MA, Haist F

Keywords

Adolescents, Children, Hair samples, Hair toxicology, Self-report, Substance use, Substance use onset

DOI

10.1016/j.ntt.2022.107090
Toggle Multi-level predictors of depression symptoms in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Ho TC, Shah R, Mishra J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

While identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is critical for early prevention and intervention, most studies have sought to understand the role of isolated factors rather than across a broad set of factors. Here, we sought to examine multi-level factors that maximize the prediction of depression symptoms in US children participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2022/03/21

Authors

Ho TC, Shah R, Mishra J, May AC, Tapert SF

Keywords

ABCD Study, Adolescence, depression, functional MRI (fMRI), sleep

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13608
Toggle Bayesian interaction selection model for multimodal neuroimaging data analysis. Biometrics Zhao Y, Wu B, Kang J 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Multimodality or multiconstruct data arise increasingly in functional neuroimaging studies to characterize brain activity under different cognitive states. Relying on those high-resolution imaging collections, it is of great interest to identify predictive imaging markers and intermodality interactions with respect to behavior outcomes. Currently, most of the existing variable selection models do not consider predictive effects from interactions, and the desired higher-order terms can only be included in the predictive mechanism following a two-step procedure, suffering from potential misspecification. In this paper, we propose a unified Bayesian prior model to simultaneously identify main effect features and intermodality interactions within the same inference platform in the presence of high-dimensional data. To accommodate the brain topological information and correlation between modalities, our prior is designed by compiling the intermediate selection status of sequential partitions in light of the data structure and brain anatomical architecture, so that we can improve posterior inference and enhance biological plausibility. Through extensive simulations, we show the superiority of our approach in main and interaction effects selection, and prediction under multimodality data. Applying the method to the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, we characterize the brain functional underpinnings with respect to general cognitive ability under different memory load conditions.

Journal

Biometrics

Published

2022/03/20

Authors

Zhao Y, Wu B, Kang J

Keywords

Bayesian variable selection, brain imaging, cognitive development, data integration, interaction effects, multimodality

DOI

10.1111/biom.13648
Toggle Aberrant functional connectivity between reward and inhibitory control networks in pre-adolescent binge eating disorder. Psychological medicine Murray SB, Alba C, Duval CJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Behavioral features of binge eating disorder (BED) suggest abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control. Studies of adult populations suggest functional abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control networks. Despite behavioral markers often developing in children, the neurobiology of pediatric BED remains unstudied.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2022/03/18

Authors

Murray SB, Alba C, Duval CJ, Nagata JM, Cabeen RP, Lee DJ, Toga AW, Siegel SJ, Jann K

Keywords

Binge eating disorder, eating disorders, functional connectivity, inhibitory control, pre-adolescent eating disorders, reward sensitivity

DOI

10.1017/S0033291722000514
Toggle Prenatal cannabis exposure predicts attention problems, without changes on fMRI in adolescents. Neurotoxicology and teratology Cioffredi LA, Anderson H, Loso H, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

We hypothesized that prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) would be associated with increased attention problems and altered neurocognition in young adolescents.

Journal

Neurotoxicology and teratology

Published

2022/03/18

Authors

Cioffredi LA, Anderson H, Loso H, East J, Nguyen P, Garavan H, Potter A

Keywords

Attention, Brain development, Child behavior, Prenatal cannabis, fMRI

DOI

10.1016/j.ntt.2022.107089
Toggle Reproducible brain-wide association studies require thousands of individuals. Nature Marek S, Tervo-Clemmens B, Calabro FJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has transformed our understanding of the human brain through well-replicated mapping of abilities to specific structures (for example, lesion studies) and functions (for example, task functional MRI (fMRI)). Mental health research and care have yet to realize similar advances from MRI. A primary challenge has been replicating associations between inter-individual differences in brain structure or function and complex cognitive or mental health phenotypes (brain-wide association studies (BWAS)). Such BWAS have typically relied on sample sizes appropriate for classical brain mapping (the median neuroimaging study sample size is about 25), but potentially too small for capturing reproducible brain-behavioural phenotype associations. Here we used three of the largest neuroimaging datasets currently available-with a total sample size of around 50,000 individuals-to quantify BWAS effect sizes and reproducibility as a function of sample size. BWAS associations were smaller than previously thought, resulting in statistically underpowered studies, inflated effect sizes and replication failures at typical sample sizes. As sample sizes grew into the thousands, replication rates began to improve and effect size inflation decreased. More robust BWAS effects were detected for functional MRI (versus structural), cognitive tests (versus mental health questionnaires) and multivariate methods (versus univariate). Smaller than expected brain-phenotype associations and variability across population subsamples can explain widespread BWAS replication failures. In contrast to non-BWAS approaches with larger effects (for example, lesions, interventions and within-person), BWAS reproducibility requires samples with thousands of individuals.

Journal

Nature

Published

2022/03/16

Authors

Marek S, Tervo-Clemmens B, Calabro FJ, Montez DF, Kay BP, Hatoum AS, Donohue MR, Foran W, Miller RL, Hendrickson TJ, Malone SM, Kandala S, Feczko E, Miranda-Dominguez O, Graham AM, Earl EA, Perrone AJ, Cordova M, Doyle O, Moore LA, Conan GM, Uriarte J, Snider K, Lynch BJ, Wilgenbusch JC, Pengo T, Tam A, Chen J, Newbold DJ, Zheng A, Seider NA, Van AN, Metoki A, Chauvin RJ, Laumann TO, Greene DJ, Petersen SE, Garavan H, Thompson WK, Nichols TE, Yeo BTT, Barch DM, Luna B, Fair DA, Dosenbach NUF

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41586-022-04492-9
Toggle Cross-ethnicity/race generalization failure of behavioral prediction from resting-state functional connectivity. Science advances Li J, Bzdok D, Chen J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Algorithmic biases that favor majority populations pose a key challenge to the application of machine learning for precision medicine. Here, we assessed such bias in prediction models of behavioral phenotypes from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined the prediction bias using two independent datasets (preadolescent versus adult) of mixed ethnic/racial composition. When predictive models were trained on data dominated by white Americans (WA), out-of-sample prediction errors were generally higher for African Americans (AA) than for WA. This bias toward WA corresponds to more WA-like brain-behavior association patterns learned by the models. When models were trained on AA only, compared to training only on WA or an equal number of AA and WA participants, AA prediction accuracy improved but stayed below that for WA. Overall, the results point to the need for caution and further research regarding the application of current brain-behavior prediction models in minority populations.

Journal

Science advances

Published

2022/03/16

Authors

Li J, Bzdok D, Chen J, Tam A, Ooi LQR, Holmes AJ, Ge T, Patil KR, Jabbi M, Eickhoff SB, Yeo BTT, Genon S

Keywords

DOI

10.1126/sciadv.abj1812
Toggle Sleep disorders predict the 1-year onset, persistence, but not remission of psychotic experiences in preadolescence: a longitudinal analysis of the ABCD cohort data. European child & adolescent psychiatry Reeve S, Bell V 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The relationship between sleep disorder and psychotic experiences in preadolescence has not been extensively studied despite the potential for intervention. The current study addressed this relationship using the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort, which provided baseline data from 11,830 10- to 11-year-old; for 4910 of these, 1-year follow-up data were also available. A set of pre-registered multi-level regression models were applied to test whether (a) sleep disorder is associated with psychotic experiences at baseline; (b) baseline sleep disorder predicts psychotic experiences at follow-up; (c) the persistence of sleep disorder predicts persistence of psychotic experiences at follow-up; d) the remission of sleep disorder predicts the remission of psychotic experiences at follow-up. After controlling for potential confounders, sleep disorder was associated with psychotic experiences cross-sectionally (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.63), at 1-year follow-up (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57), and the persistence of sleep disorder predicted the persistence of psychotic experiences (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.44-2.04). However, remission of sleep problems did not predict remission of psychotic experiences (OR = 1.041, 95% CI 0.80-1.35). The results indicate that sleep disorders in preadolescence are common and associated with psychotic experiences, although the lack of co-remission raises questions about the mechanism of association. However, given these findings, and existing evidence in later adolescence and adults, further investigation of sleep as a preventative mental health intervention target in this age group is warranted.

Journal

European child & adolescent psychiatry

Published

2022/03/16

Authors

Reeve S, Bell V

Keywords

Longitudinal, Preadolescence, Psychotic experiences, Sleep, Stimulant medication

DOI

10.1007/s00787-022-01966-z
Toggle Association between racial/ethnic discrimination and pubertal development in early adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology Argabright ST, Moore TM, Visoki E, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Racial health disparities in the United States are a major concern, with Black or African Americans experiencing more morbidity and mortality at earlier ages compared to White Americans. More data is needed on the biological underpinnings of this phenomenon. One potential explanation for racial health disparities is that of accelerated aging, which is associated with increased stress exposure. Black Americans face disproportionate levels of environmental stress, specifically racial/ethnic discrimination. Here we investigated associations between self-reported experiences of discrimination and pubertal development (PD) in a diverse sample of young American adolescents (N = 11,235, mean age 10.9 years, 20.5% Black participants) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Compared to their non-Black counterparts, Black youth experienced more racial/ethnic discrimination in the past year (10.4% vs 3.1%) and had a greater likelihood of being in late/post-pubertal status (3.6% vs 1.5% in boys, 21.3% vs 11.4% in girls). In both sexes, multivariable regression models run in the full sample revealed a cross-sectional association of experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination with pubertal development (boys: standardized beta [β]=0.123, P < .001; girls: β = 0.110, P < .001) covarying for demographics, BMI, and dietary habits. Associations remained significant when controlling for multiple other environmental confounders including other forms of (non-racial/ethnic) discrimination and other environmental adversities including poverty and negative life events, and when using parent-reported assessment of pubertal development. Furthermore, racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with elevated estradiol levels in girls (β = 0.057, P = .002). Findings suggest an association between experiences of discrimination and pubertal development that is independent of multiple environmental stressors. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal mechanism.

Journal

Psychoneuroendocrinology

Published

2022/03/15

Authors

Argabright ST, Moore TM, Visoki E, DiDomenico GE, Taylor JH, Barzilay R

Keywords

Adolescence, Discrimination, Health disparities, Puberty, Stress

DOI

10.1016/j.psyneuen.2022.105727
Toggle Understanding patterns of heterogeneity in executive functioning during adolescence: Evidence from population-level data. Developmental science Chaku N, Barry K, Fowle J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Executive functioning (EF) is fundamental to positive development. Yet, little is known about how to best characterize constellations of EF skills that may inform disparate associations between EF and behavior during adolescence. In the current study, cross-validated latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to derive profiles of EF based on measures of inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility using data from 11,672 youth (52.2% male, mean age = 9.91 years) in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Four meaningful EF profiles emerged from the data representing Average EF, High EF, Low Inhibitory Control, and Low EF. Boys, youth from low-income households, and early developing youth were more likely to be in profiles distinguished by lower EF. Profile membership also predicted differences in externalizing, internalizing, and other problem behaviors assessed one year later. Findings indicate that youth may have distinct constellations of EF skills, underscoring the need for person-centered approaches that focus on patterns of individual characteristics.

Journal

Developmental science

Published

2022/03/11

Authors

Chaku N, Barry K, Fowle J, Hoyt LT

Keywords

adolescent brain cognitive development study, child behavior checklist, confirmatory factor analysis, executive functioning, latent profile analysis, person-centered research

DOI

10.1111/desc.13256
Toggle Explaining the Association Between Urbanicity and Psychotic-Like Experiences in Pre-Adolescence: The Indirect Effect of Urban Exposures. Frontiers in psychiatry Saxena A, Dodell-Feder D 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Urban living is a growing worldwide phenomenon with more than two-thirds of people expected to live in cities by 2050. Although there are many benefits to living in an urban environment, urbanicity has also been associated with deleterious health outcomes, including increased risk for psychotic outcomes particularly when the urban exposure occurs in pre-adolescence. However, the mechanisms underlying this association is unclear. Here, we utilize one-year follow-up data from a large (=7,979), nationwide study of pre-adolescence in the United States to clarify why urbanicity (i.e., census-tract population density) might impact psychotic-like experiences (PLE) by looking at the indirect effect of eight candidate urbanicity-related physical (e.g., pollution) and social (e.g., poverty) exposures. Consistent with other work, we found that of the evaluated exposures related to urbanicity, several were also related to increased number of PLE: PM, proximity to roads, census-level homes at-risk for exposure to lead paint, census-level poverty, and census-level income-disparity. These same urban-related exposures were also related to the persistence of PLE after 1 year, but not new onset of PLE. Mediation analysis revealed that a substantial proportion the urbanicity-PLE association (number and persistence) could be explained by PM (23-44%), families in poverty (68-93%), and income disparity (67-80%). Together, these findings suggest that specific urban-related exposures contribute to the existence and maintenance, but not onset of PLE, which might help to explain why those in urban environments are disproportionately at-risk for psychosis and point toward areas for public health intervention.

Journal

Frontiers in psychiatry

Published

2022/03/11

Authors

Saxena A, Dodell-Feder D

Keywords

deprivation, pollution, poverty, pre-adolescence, psychosis, psychotic-like experiences, urbanicity

DOI

10.3389/fpsyt.2022.831089
Toggle Cognitive performance in children and adolescents with psychopathology traits: A cross-sectional multicohort study in the general population. Development and psychopathology Blok E, Schuurmans IK, Tijburg AJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Psychopathology and cognitive development are closely related. Assessing the relationship between multiple domains of psychopathology and cognitive performance can elucidate which cognitive tasks are related to specific domains of psychopathology. This can help build theory and improve clinical decision-making in the future. In this study, we included 13,841 children and adolescents drawn from two large population-based samples (Generation R and ABCD studies). We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between three psychopathology domains (internalizing, externalizing, dysregulation profile (DP)) and four cognitive domains (vocabulary, fluid reasoning, working memory, and processing speed) and the full-scale intelligence quotient. Lastly, differential associations between symptoms of psychopathology and cognitive performance by sex were assessed. Results indicated that internalizing symptoms were related to worse performance in working memory and processing speed, but better performance in the verbal domain. Externalizing and DP symptoms were related to poorer global cognitive performance. Notably, those in the DP subgroup had a 5.0 point lower IQ than those without behavioral problems. Cognitive performance was more heavily affected in boys than in girls given comparable levels of psychopathology. Taken together, we provide evidence for globally worse cognitive performance in children and adolescents with externalizing and DP symptoms, with those in the DP subgroup being most heavily affected.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2022/03/07

Authors

Blok E, Schuurmans IK, Tijburg AJ, Hillegers M, Koopman-Verhoeff ME, Muetzel RL, Tiemeier H, White T

Keywords

Child Behavior Checklist, adolescence, childhood, cognition, psychopathology

DOI

10.1017/S0954579422000165
Toggle Characterizing the Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition and Error Processing in Children With Symptoms of Irritability and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the ABCD Study®. Frontiers in psychiatry Lee KS, Xiao J, Luo J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity, is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with executive dysfunctions, including response inhibition and error processing. Research has documented a common co-occurrence between ADHD and pediatric irritability. The latter is more characterized by affective symptoms, specifically frequent temper outbursts and low frustration tolerance relative to typically developing peers. Shared and non-shared neural correlates of youths with varied profiles of ADHD and irritability symptoms during childhood remain largely unknown. This study first classified a large sample of youths in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study at baseline into distinct phenotypic groups based on ADHD and irritability symptoms ( = 11,748), and then examined shared and non-shared neural correlates of response inhibition and error processing during the Stop Signal Task in a subset of sample with quality neuroimaging data ( = 5,948). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed four phenotypic groups, i.e., high ADHD with co-occurring irritability symptoms ( = 787, 6.7%), moderate ADHD with low irritability symptoms ( = 901, 7.7%), high irritability with no ADHD symptoms ( = 279, 2.4%), and typically developing peers with low ADHD and low irritability symptoms ( = 9,781, 83.3%). Latent variable modeling revealed group differences in the neural coactivation network supporting response inhibition in the fronto-parietal regions, but limited differences in error processing across frontal and posterior regions. These neural differences were marked by decreased coactivation in the irritability only group relative to youths with ADHD and co-occurring irritability symptoms and typically developing peers during response inhibition. Together, this study provided initial evidence for differential neural mechanisms of response inhibition associated with ADHD, irritability, and their co-occurrence. Precision medicine attending to individual differences in ADHD and irritability symptoms and the underlying mechanisms are warranted when treating affected children and families.

Journal

Frontiers in psychiatry

Published

2022/03/04

Authors

Lee KS, Xiao J, Luo J, Leibenluft E, Liew Z, Tseng WL

Keywords

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, error processing, functional magnetic resonance imaging, irritability, latent class analysis, latent variable modeling, response inhibition

DOI

10.3389/fpsyt.2022.803891
Toggle Individual-, peer-, and parent-level substance use-related factors among 9- and 10-year-olds from the ABCD Study: Prevalence rates and sociodemographic differences. Drug and alcohol dependence reports Martz ME, Heitzeg MM, Lisdahl KM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although a relatively large body of research has identified multiple factors associated with adolescent substance use, less is known about earlier substance-related factors during preadolescence, including curiosity to use substances. The present study examined individual-, peer-, and parent-level domains pertaining to substance use and how these domains vary by sociodemographic subgroups and substance type.

Journal

Drug and alcohol dependence reports

Published

2022/03/03

Authors

Martz ME, Heitzeg MM, Lisdahl KM, Cloak CC, Ewing SWF, Gonzalez R, Haist F, LeBlanc KH, Madden PA, Ross JM, Sher KJ, Tapert SF, Thompson WK, Wade NE

Keywords

ABCD Study, Alcohol, Marijuana, Nicotine, Parents, Peers

DOI

10.1016/j.dadr.2022.100037
Toggle The role of perceived threats on mental health, social, and neurocognitive youth outcomes: A multicontextual, person-centered approach. Development and psychopathology Conley MI, Hernandez J, Salvati JM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Perceived threat in youth’s environments can elevate risk for mental health, social, and neurocognitive difficulties throughout the lifespan. However, few studies examine variability in youth’s perceptions of threat across multiple contexts or evaluate outcomes across multiple domains, ultimately limiting our understanding of specific risks associated with perceived threats in different contexts. This study examined associations between perceived threat in youth’s neighborhood, school, and family contexts at ages 9-10 and mental health, social, and neurocognitive outcomes at ages 11-12 within a large US cohort ( = 5525) enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®). Latent profile analysis revealed four distinct profiles: Low Threat in all contexts, Elevated Family Threat, Elevated Neighborhood Threat, and Elevated Threat in all contexts. Mixed-effect models and post hoc pairwise comparisons showed that youth in Elevated Threat profile had poorer mental health and social outcomes 2 years later. Youth in the Elevated Family Threat profile uniquely showed increased disruptive behavior symptoms, whereas youth in the Elevated Neighborhood Threat profile predominantly displayed increased sleep problems and worse neurocognitive outcomes 2 years later. Together, findings highlight the importance of considering perceptions of threat across multiple contexts to achieve a more nuanced developmental picture.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2022/03/02

Authors

Conley MI, Hernandez J, Salvati JM, Gee DG, Baskin-Sommers A

Keywords

mental health, neurocognition, perceived threat, social functioning, youth environments

DOI

10.1017/S095457942100184X
Toggle Longitudinal Evidence of a Vicious Cycle Between Nucleus Accumbens Microstructure and Childhood Weight Gain. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Rapuano KM, Berrian N, Baskin-Sommers A, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Pediatric obesity is a growing public health concern. Previous work has observed diet to impact nucleus accumbens (NAcc) inflammation in rodents, measured by the reactive proliferation of glial cells. Recent work in humans has demonstrated a relationship between NAcc cell density-a proxy for neuroinflammation-and weight gain in youth; however, the directionality of this relationship in the developing brain and association with diet remains unknown.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2022/03/02

Authors

Rapuano KM, Berrian N, Baskin-Sommers A, Décarie-Spain L, Sharma S, Fulton S, Casey BJ, Watts R

Keywords

Adolescent health, Diet, Neuroinflammation, Nucleus accumbens, Pediatric obesity, Restriction spectrum imaging

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.01.002
Toggle Reliability and stability challenges in ABCD task fMRI data. NeuroImage Kennedy JT, Harms MP, Korucuoglu O, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Trait stability of measures is an essential requirement for individual differences research. Functional MRI has been increasingly used in studies that rely on the assumption of trait stability, such as attempts to relate task related brain activation to individual differences in behavior and psychopathology. However, recent research using adult samples has questioned the trait stability of task-fMRI measures, as assessed by test-retest correlations. To date, little is known about trait stability of task fMRI in children. Here, we examined within-session reliability and long-term stability of individual differences in task-fMRI measures using fMRI measures of brain activation provided by the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) Study Release v4.0 as an individual’s average regional activity, using its tasks focused on reward processing, response inhibition, and working memory. We also evaluated the effects of factors potentially affecting reliability and stability. Reliability and stability (quantified as the ratio of non-scanner related stable variance to all variances) was poor in virtually all brain regions, with an average value of 0.088 and 0.072 for short term (within-session) reliability and long-term (between-session) stability, respectively, in regions of interest (ROIs) historically-recruited by the tasks. Only one reliability or stability value in ROIs exceeded the ‘poor’ cut-off of 0.4, and in fact rarely exceeded 0.2 (only 4.9%). Motion had a pronounced effect on estimated reliability/stability, with the lowest motion quartile of participants having a mean reliability/stability 2.5 times higher (albeit still ‘poor’) than the highest motion quartile. Poor reliability and stability of task-fMRI, particularly in children, diminishes potential utility of fMRI data due to a drastic reduction of effect sizes and, consequently, statistical power for the detection of brain-behavior associations. This essential issue urgently needs to be addressed through optimization of task design, scanning parameters, data acquisition protocols, preprocessing pipelines, and data denoising methods.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2022/03/01

Authors

Kennedy JT, Harms MP, Korucuoglu O, Astafiev SV, Barch DM, Thompson WK, Bjork JM, Anokhin AP

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119046
Toggle Hyperbolic discounting rates and risk for problematic alcohol use in youth enrolled in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Addiction biology Kohler RJ, Lichenstein SD, Yip SW 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is the peak period for the emergence of substance use, which can lead to long-term psychosocial, occupational and interpersonal complications. Ongoing large-scale, longitudinal, consortium initiatives, such as the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate key risk factors for problematic substance use in a well-powered sample and to examine how changes in risk factors relate to symptoms across time. Delay discounting has been proposed as a putative risk marker for early substance-use initiation and other forms of psychopathology. However, the extent to which other factors (e.g., socio-economic status and cognitive ability) influence discounting behaviour in young adolescents is not well established. The present study leverages data from the ABCD study (n = 11 045) to assess associations between core demographic and familial variables and delay discounting in youth-operationalized using hyperbolic discounting rates (k)-before the onset of significant psychopathology. Model estimates revealed significant effects of individual difference factors (e.g., sex and socio-economic status) and alcohol risk status (based on family history) on delay discounting. No significant differences were observed in the primary sample when comparing the presence of parent drug problems or prenatal drug exposures. These effects will require replication in later waves of ABCD. Nonetheless, these results provide support for delay discounting as a potential risk marker for problematic alcohol use and demonstrate a relationship between key demographic variables and adolescent discounting behaviour. Further, these results provide an empirical baseline from which developmental trajectories of delay discounting and substance use may be tracked throughout future waves of ABCD.

Journal

Addiction biology

Published

2022/03/01

Authors

Kohler RJ, Lichenstein SD, Yip SW

Keywords

addiction, computational modelling, decision-making, development, initiation, reward

DOI

10.1111/adb.13160
Toggle Prenatal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure, Depression, and Brain Morphology in Middle Childhood: Results From the ABCD Study. Biological psychiatry global open science Moreau AL, Voss M, Hansen I, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure has been inconsistently linked to depression, and little is known about neural correlates. We examined whether prenatal SSRI exposure is associated with depressive symptoms and brain structure during middle childhood.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2022/02/26

Authors

Moreau AL, Voss M, Hansen I, Paul SE, Barch DM, Rogers CE, Bogdan R

Keywords

Child, Depression, MRI, Pregnancy, Prenatal, SSRI

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.02.005
Toggle Gray matter volumetric correlates of dimensional impulsivity traits in children: Sex differences and heritability. Human brain mapping Chen Y, Ide JS, Li CS, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Previous research investigated the cerebral volumetric correlates of impulsivity largely in moderate-sized samples and few have examined the distinct correlates of dimensions of impulsivity, sex differences, or heritability of the correlates. Here, we performed voxel-based morphometry analysis of data (n = 11,474; 5,452 girls, 9-10 years) curated from the Adolescent Brain Cognition Development project. In a linear regression with all five UPPS-P subscores as regressors and age in months, total intracranial volume, study site, and scanner model as covariates, higher levels of lack of premeditation, and sensation seeking were correlated with larger cortical and subcortical gray matter volumes (GMVs). In contrast, higher positive urgency was correlated with smaller GMVs in many of the same regions. The dimensional impulsivity traits also involved distinct volumetric correlates, with, for instance, sensation seeking and positive urgency specifically implicating bilateral caudate head/mid-cingulate cortex and bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex/left precentral gyrus, respectively. Boys relative to girls scored higher in all impulsivity dimensions. Girls relative to boys showed significantly stronger positive and negative correlations between sensation seeking and insula, putamen, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) GMVs and between positive urgency and cingulate cortex, insula, and IFG GMVs, respectively. With a subsample of twins, the dimensional impulsivity traits were weakly to moderately heritable in both girls and boys, and the GMV correlates were highly heritable in girls and boys combined. These findings collectively suggest shared and nonshared as well as sex differences in the cerebral volumetric bases of dimensional impulsivity traits and may facilitate research of externalizing psychopathology in children.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/02/25

Authors

Chen Y, Ide JS, Li CS, Chaudhary S, Le TM, Wang W, Zhornitsky S, Zhang S, Li CR

Keywords

ABCD, UPPS-P, VBM, heritability, impulsiveness

DOI

10.1002/hbm.25810
Toggle Altered resting fMRI spectral power in data-driven brain networks during development: A longitudinal study. Journal of neuroscience methods Agcaoglu O, Wilson TW, Wang YP, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Longitudinal studies provide a more precise measure of brain development over time, as they focus on within subject variability, as opposed to cross-sectional studies. This is especially important in children, where rapid brain development occurs, and inter-subject variability can be large. Tracking healthy brain development and identifying markers of typical development are also critically important to diagnose mental disorders at early ages.

Journal

Journal of neuroscience methods

Published

2022/02/23

Authors

Agcaoglu O, Wilson TW, Wang YP, Stephen JM, Fu Z, Calhoun VD

Keywords

Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, Frequency spectrum analysis, Independent component analysis, Longitudinal analysis - brain development, Resting state - eyes open - eyes closed

DOI

10.1016/j.jneumeth.2022.109537
Toggle Classifying Conduct Disorder Using a Biopsychosocial Model and Machine Learning Method. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Chan L, Simmons C, Tillem S, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Conduct disorder (CD) is a common syndrome with far-reaching effects. Risk factors for the development of CD span social, psychological, and biological domains. Researchers note that predictive models of CD are limited if the focus is on a single risk factor or even a single domain. Machine learning methods are optimized for the extraction of trends across multidomain data but have yet to be implemented in predicting the development of CD.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2022/02/22

Authors

Chan L, Simmons C, Tillem S, Conley M, Brazil IA, Baskin-Sommers A

Keywords

Biopsychosocial, Conduct disorder, Family, Graph analysis, Machine learning

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.02.004
Toggle Clouding Up Cognition? Secondhand Cannabis and Tobacco Exposure Related to Cognitive Functioning in Youth. Biological psychiatry global open science Wade NE, McCabe CJ, Wallace AL, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Increasing legalization of cannabis, in addition to longstanding rates of tobacco use, raises concerns for possible cognitive decrements from secondhand smoke or environmental exposure, although little research exists. We investigate the relation between cognition and secondhand and environmental cannabis and tobacco exposure in youth.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2022/02/22

Authors

Wade NE, McCabe CJ, Wallace AL, Gonzalez MR, Hoh E, Infante MA, Mejia MH, Haist F

Keywords

Adolescents, Cognition, Environmental smoke, Preadolescents, Secondhand cannabis, Secondhand smoke

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.01.010
Toggle Regional gray matter abnormalities in pre-adolescent binge eating disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry research Murray SB, Duval CJ, Balkchyan AA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Binge eating disorder (BED) is a pernicious psychiatric disorder which is linked with an array of multisystemic organ morbidity, broad psychiatric morbidity, and obesity. Despite behavioral markers often developing in early childhood, the neurobiological markers of early-onset BED remain understudied, and developmental pathophysiology remains poorly understood.

Journal

Psychiatry research

Published

2022/02/22

Authors

Murray SB, Duval CJ, Balkchyan AA, Cabeen RP, Nagata JM, Toga AW, Siegel SJ, Jann K

Keywords

Binge eating disorder, Eating disorders, Gray matter, Gray matter morphology, Voxel-based morphometry

DOI

10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114473
Toggle Exploring neural correlates of behavioral and academic resilience among children in poverty. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Ellwood-Lowe ME, Irving CN, Bunge SA 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Children in poverty must contend with systems that do not meet their needs. We explored what, at a neural level, helps explain children’s resilience in these contexts. Lower coupling between lateral frontoparietal network (LFPN) and default mode network (DMN)-linked, respectively, to externally- and internally-directed thought-has previously been associated with better cognitive performance. However, we recently found the opposite pattern for children in poverty. Here, we probed ecologically-valid assessments of performance. In a pre-registered study, we investigated trajectories of network coupling over ages 9-13 and their relation to school grades and attention problems. We analyzed longitudinal data from ABCD Study (N = 8366 children at baseline; 1303 below poverty). The link between cognitive performance and grades was weaker for children in poverty, highlighting the importance of ecologically-valid measures. As predicted, higher LFPN-DMN connectivity was linked to worse grades and attentional problems for children living above poverty, while children below poverty showed opposite tendencies. This interaction between LFPN-DMN connectivity and poverty related to children’s grades two years later; however, it was attenuated when controlling for baseline grades and was not related to attention longitudinally. Together, these findings suggest network connectivity is differentially related to performance in real-world settings for children above and below poverty.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/02/22

Authors

Ellwood-Lowe ME, Irving CN, Bunge SA

Keywords

Adaptation, Brain development, Brain networks, Cognitive, Environment, Functional connectivity, Poverty, Socioeconomic status

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101090
Toggle Parent-adolescent agreement in reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC public health Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To describe the agreement between parent- and adolescent- reports of adolescent moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and to determine sociodemographic factors associated with MVPA reporting differences during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal

BMC public health

Published

2022/02/16

Authors

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, Dooley EE, Ganson KT, Conroy AA, Pettee Gabriel K

Keywords

Adolescents, COVID-19, Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, Parents, Physical activity, Physical activity measurement

DOI

10.1186/s12889-022-12530-4
Toggle Companion Animals and Adolescent Stress and Adaptive Coping During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Anthrozoos Mueller MK, King EK, Halbreich ED, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant social disruptions for youth caused by lockdowns, school closures, and a lack of in-person social interactions. Companion animals are prevalent in US households and may provide a source of emotional support and motivation for youth to engage in adaptive coping behaviors during social challenges. The goals of this study were to assess if dog owners, non-dog pet owners, and non-pet owners differed in stress levels, positive affect, and use of adaptive coping strategies such as increased time outdoors, regular walking, and healthy behaviors. This study used data collected during the COVID-19 pandemic from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a large, nationally representative dataset of American youth. In a cross-sectional sample of 6,069 adolescents, there were significant, but small, relationships between owning a non-dog pet and lower levels of positive affect, and both dog owners and non-dog pet owners reported higher perceived stress compared with non-pet owners. Dog ownership was associated with higher odds of using healthy coping strategies compared with non-pet owners, but this relationship was not significant when controlling for demographic variables. Dog owners reported higher odds of having a walking routine and spending time outdoors compared with non-pet owners. Overall, the results suggest no buffering effect of pet ownership on youth mental wellbeing, but dog ownership is associated with some healthy coping behaviors linked to walking.

Journal

Anthrozoos

Published

2022/02/11

Authors

Mueller MK, King EK, Halbreich ED, Callina KS

Keywords

COVID-19, adaptive coping, adolescence, human–animal interaction, pets

DOI

10.1080/08927936.2022.2027093
Toggle Causal effects of psychostimulants on neural connectivity: a mechanistic, randomized clinical trial. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines Wang Y, Kessel E, Lee S, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Psychostimulants are frequently used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but side effects are common leading to many patients discontinuing treatment. Identifying neural mechanisms by which psychostimulants attenuate symptoms may guide the development of more refined and tolerable therapeutics.

Journal

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Published

2022/02/09

Authors

Wang Y, Kessel E, Lee S, Hong S, Raffanello E, Hulvershorn LA, Margolis A, Peterson BS, Posner J

Keywords

ADHD, Dynamic Functional MRI (fMRI), Lisdexamfetamine, Striatum, Structural Equation Modeling, Thalamus

DOI

10.1111/jcpp.13585
Toggle Resilience to COVID-19: Socioeconomic Disadvantage Associated With Positive Caregiver-Youth Communication and Youth Preventative Actions. Frontiers in public health Marshall AT, Hackman DA, Baker FC, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with larger COVID-19 disease burdens and pandemic-related economic impacts. We utilized the longitudinal Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study to understand how family- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage relate to disease burden, family communication, and preventative responses to the pandemic in over 6,000 youth-caregiver dyads. Data were collected at three timepoints (May-August 2020). Here, we show that both family- and neighborhood-level disadvantage were associated with caregivers’ reports of greater family COVID-19 disease burden, less perceived exposure risk, more frequent caregiver-youth conversations about COVID-19 risk/prevention and reassurance, and greater youth preventative behaviors. Families with more socioeconomic disadvantage may be adaptively incorporating more protective strategies to reduce emotional distress and likelihood of COVID-19 infection. The results highlight the importance of caregiver-youth communication and disease-preventative practices for buffering the economic and disease burdens of COVID-19, along with policies and programs that reduce these burdens for families with socioeconomic disadvantage.

Journal

Frontiers in public health

Published

2022/02/09

Authors

Marshall AT, Hackman DA, Baker FC, Breslin FJ, Brown SA, Dick AS, Gonzalez MR, Guillaume M, Kiss O, Lisdahl KM, McCabe CJ, Pelham WE, Sheth C, Tapert SF, Rinsveld AV, Wade NE, Sowell ER

Keywords

COVID-19, adolescence, caregivers, pandemic, socioeconomic factors

DOI

10.3389/fpubh.2022.734308
Toggle Associations between potentially traumatic events and psychopathology among preadolescents in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. Journal of traumatic stress Thompson EL, Lever NA, Connors KM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The current cross-sectional study aimed to extend the literature on childhood adversity by examining the unique associations between potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and a range of mental health concerns, including domain-specific versus comorbid concerns. Participants were 11,877 preadolescents (47.8% female, 15.0% Black, 20.3% Hispanic/Latinx, M  = 9.5 years) taking part in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study . The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was used to measure PTEs and caregiver- and child-reported mental health concerns. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were used for the outcomes of interest. Overall, PTEs were consistently associated with increased odds of experiencing comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders, significant AORs = 1.34-4.30, after accounting for children’s experiences of other PTEs and polyvictimization. In contrast, PTEs were generally not associated with meeting the criteria for diagnoses within only one domain (i.e., internalizing-only or externalizing-only diagnoses). We also found PTEs to be differentially related to the various mental health outcomes. In particular, witnessing domestic violence was consistently associated with children’s psychopathology. Other PTEs, such as witnessing community violence, were not associated with children’s psychopathology in the final model. Associations between PTEs and mental health concerns did not differ as a function of sex. Overall, the results support the notion that PTEs are associated with comorbid concerns rather than individual disorders. These findings have important implications for the screening of PTEs, continued research on the conceptualization of traumatic stress, and the importance of accounting for comorbidities across mental health domains.

Journal

Journal of traumatic stress

Published

2022/02/08

Authors

Thompson EL, Lever NA, Connors KM, Cloak CC, Reeves G, Chang L

Keywords

DOI

10.1002/jts.22793
Toggle Associations between social behaviors and experiences with neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation in middle childhood. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Geckeler KC, Barch DM, Karcher NR 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Emotion regulation is essential for successful social interactions and function, which are important aspects of middle childhood. The current study is one of the first to examine associations between neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation and indices of social behavior and experience during late middle childhood. We examined neural activation during the implicit emotion regulation condition of the Emotional N-back task using data from 8987 9- to 11-year-olds from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. The brain regions assessed included areas linked to social cognition, social behavior, and emotion recognition, including the amygdala, insula, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe. Greater number of close friends was associated with significantly higher activation of the fusiform gyrus, insula, temporoparietal junction, inferior parietal lobe, and superior temporal gyrus during implicit emotion regulation. Greater reciprocal social impairments were linked to decreased fusiform gyrus activation during implicit emotion regulation. More experiences of discrimination were associated with a significantly lower activation in the middle temporal gyrus during implicit emotion regulation. This study provides evidence that both positive and negative indices of children’s social experiences and behaviors are associated with neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation during late middle childhood. These findings suggest that both positive and negative indices of social behavior and experience, including those within and not within the youth’s control, are associated with generally unique neural correlates during implicit emotion regulation.

Journal

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Published

2022/02/08

Authors

Geckeler KC, Barch DM, Karcher NR

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41386-022-01286-5
Toggle Shared Genetic Etiology between Cortical Brain Morphology and Tobacco, Alcohol, and Cannabis Use. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) Rabinowitz JA, Campos AI, Ong JS, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with brain morphology and substance use behaviors (SUB). However, the genetic overlap between brain structure and SUB has not been well characterized. We leveraged GWAS summary data of 71 brain imaging measures and alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use to investigate their genetic overlap using linkage disequilibrium score regression. We used genomic structural equation modeling to model a “common SUB genetic factor” and investigated its genetic overlap with brain structure. Furthermore, we estimated SUB polygenic risk scores (PRS) and examined whether they predicted brain imaging traits using the Adolescent Behavior and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We identified 8 significant negative genetic correlations, including between (1) alcoholic drinks per week and average cortical thickness, and (2) intracranial volume with age of smoking initiation. We observed 5 positive genetic correlations, including those between (1) insula surface area and lifetime cannabis use, and (2) the common SUB genetic factor and pericalcarine surface area. SUB PRS were associated with brain structure variation in ABCD. Our findings highlight a shared genetic etiology between cortical brain morphology and SUB and suggest that genetic variants associated with SUB may be causally related to brain structure differences.

Journal

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Published

2022/02/08

Authors

Rabinowitz JA, Campos AI, Ong JS, García-Marín LM, Alcauter S, Mitchell BL, Grasby KL, Cuéllar-Partida G, Gillespie NA, Huhn AS, Martin NG, Thompson PM, Medland SE, Maher BS, Rentería ME

Keywords

alcohol use, cannabis use, genetics, neuroimaging, smoking behavior

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhab243
Toggle Structural brain measures among children with and without ADHD in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study cohort: a cross-sectional US population-based study. The lancet. Psychiatry Bernanke J, Luna A, Chang L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Structural neuroimaging research has identified a variety of abnormalities in cortical and subcortical structures in children with ADHD. However, studies to date have not employed large, non-referred samples, complete with data on potential confounding variables. Here, we tested for differences in structural MRI measures among children with and without ADHD using data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, the largest paediatric brain imaging study in the USA.

Journal

The lancet. Psychiatry

Published

2022/02/07

Authors

Bernanke J, Luna A, Chang L, Bruno E, Dworkin J, Posner J

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00505-8
Toggle Parental Arrest and Child Behavior: Differential Role of Executive Functioning among Racial Subgroups. Journal of child and family studies Johnson EI, Planalp EM, Poehlmann-Tynan J 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study examines relations among parental arrest, child executive functioning (EF), and problem behaviors among youth who participated in the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study ( = 11,875). Participants ranged in age from 9 to 10 ( = 9.91) years, and approximately half were girls (47.9%). Results of regression analyses that controlled for sociodemographic risk factors indicated that children who experienced parental arrest exhibited more internalizing and externalizing behaviors than comparison youth, particularly when their mother vs. father had been arrested. Results of analyses that were disaggregated by child race further revealed that EF appeared to play a differential role among White ( = 5851) and Black ( = 1451) children. Among White children, EF was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing behaviors regardless of whether or not a parent had been arrested. Among Black children, low levels of EF were associated with more internalizing behaviors in the context of parental arrest vs. no arrest, but high levels of EF did not appear to confer benefits. EF was not significantly related to externalizing behaviors among Black children. Taken together, results suggest that parental arrests have adverse implications for child well-being that warrant continued theoretical and empirical attention. Findings also suggest that, although EF may be broadly beneficial among White children, there appear to be constraints on the extent to which high EF benefits Black children, a finding that is discussed through the lens of racial stratification and that has important implications for future theory, research, and practice.

Journal

Journal of child and family studies

Published

2022/02/07

Authors

Johnson EI, Planalp EM, Poehlmann-Tynan J

Keywords

Executive functioning, Externalizing problems, Internalizing problems, Parental arrest, Racial stratification

DOI

10.1007/s10826-022-02251-y
Toggle Measuring retention within the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Feldstein Ewing SW, Dash GF, Thompson WK, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study aims to retain a demographically diverse sample of youth and one parent across 21 sites throughout its 10-year protocol while minimizing selective (systematic) attrition. To evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, the ABCD Retention Workgroup (RW) has employed a data-driven approach to examine, track, and intervene via three key metrics: (1) which youth completed visits late; (2) which youth missed visits; and (3) which youth withdrew from the study. The RW actively examines demographic (race, education level, family income) and site factors (visit satisfaction, distance from site, and enrollment in ancillary studies) to strategize efforts that will minimize disengagement and loss of participating youth and parents. Data showed that the most robust primary correlates of late visits were distance from study site, race, and parental education level. Race, lower parental education level, parental employment status, and lower family income were associated with higher odds of missed visits, while being enrolled in one of the ancillary studies was associated with lower odds of missed visits. Additionally, parents who were primary Spanish speakers withdrew at slightly higher rates. These findings provide insight into future targets for proactive retention efforts by the ABCD RW.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/02/04

Authors

Feldstein Ewing SW, Dash GF, Thompson WK, Reuter C, Diaz VG, Anokhin A, Chang L, Cottler LB, Dowling GJ, LeBlanc K, Zucker RA, Tapert SF, Brown SA, Garavan H

Keywords

ABCD study®, Adolescents, Longitudinal studies, Metrics, Retention

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101081
Toggle Discovery of genomic loci of the human cerebral cortex using genetically informed brain atlases. Science (New York, N.Y.) Makowski C, van der Meer D, Dong W, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

To determine the impact of genetic variants on the brain, we used genetically informed brain atlases in genome-wide association studies of regional cortical surface area and thickness in 39,898 adults and 9136 children. We uncovered 440 genome-wide significant loci in the discovery cohort and 800 from a post hoc combined meta-analysis. Loci in adulthood were largely captured in childhood, showing signatures of negative selection, and were linked to early neurodevelopment and pathways associated with neuropsychiatric risk. Opposing gradations of decreased surface area and increased thickness were associated with common inversion polymorphisms. Inferior frontal regions, encompassing Broca’s area, which is important for speech, were enriched for human-specific genomic elements. Thus, a mixed genetic landscape of conserved and human-specific features is concordant with brain hierarchy and morphogenetic gradients.

Journal

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Published

2022/02/03

Authors

Makowski C, van der Meer D, Dong W, Wang H, Wu Y, Zou J, Liu C, Rosenthal SB, Hagler DJ, Fan CC, Kremen WS, Andreassen OA, Jernigan TL, Dale AM, Zhang K, Visscher PM, Yang J, Chen CH

Keywords

DOI

10.1126/science.abe8457
Toggle The Role of School Environment in Brain Structure, Connectivity, and Mental Health in Children: A Multimodal Investigation. Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Much work has been dedicated to understanding the effects of adverse home environments on brain development. While the school social and learning environment plays a role in child development, little work has been done to investigate the impact of the school environment on the developing brain. The goal of the present study was to examine associations between the school environment, brain structure and connectivity, and mental health.

Journal

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

Published

2022/02/02

Authors

Rakesh D, Zalesky A, Whittle S

Keywords

Adolescence, Brain gray and white matter, Magnetic resonance imaging, Neuroimaging, Resting-state functional connectivity, School environment

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.01.006
Toggle The positive-negative mode link between brain connectivity, demographics and behaviour: a pre-registered replication of Smith . (2015). Royal Society open science Goyal N, Moraczewski D, Bandettini PA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

In mental health research, it has proven difficult to find measures of brain function that provide reliable indicators of mental health and well-being, including susceptibility to mental health disorders. Recently, a family of data-driven analyses have provided such reliable measures when applied to large, population-level datasets. In the current pre-registered replication study, we show that the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) methods previously developed using resting-state magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity and subject measures (SMs) of cognition and behaviour from healthy adults are also effective in measuring well-being (a ‘positive-negative axis’) in an independent developmental dataset. Our replication was successful in two out of three of our pre-registered criteria, such that a primary CCA mode’s weights displayed a significant positive relationship and explained a significant amount of variance in both functional connectivity and SMs. The only criterion that was not successful was that compared to other modes the magnitude of variance explained by the primary CCA mode was smaller than predicted, a result that could indicate a developmental trajectory of a primary mode. This replication establishes a signature neurotypical relationship between connectivity and phenotype, opening new avenues of research in neuroscience with clear clinical applications.

Journal

Royal Society open science

Published

2022/02/02

Authors

Goyal N, Moraczewski D, Bandettini PA, Finn ES, Thomas AG

Keywords

Human Connectome Project, adolescent brain cognitive development, connectomics, functional connectivity, network neuroscience, replication

DOI

10.1098/rsos.201090
Toggle Charting brain growth and aging at high spatial precision. eLife Rutherford S, Fraza C, Dinga R, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Defining reference models for population variation, and the ability to study individual deviations is essential for understanding inter-individual variability and its relation to the onset and progression of medical conditions. In this work, we assembled a reference cohort of neuroimaging data from 82 sites (N=58,836; ages 2-100) and used normative modeling to characterize lifespan trajectories of cortical thickness and subcortical volume. Models are validated against a manually quality checked subset (N=24,354) and we provide an interface for transferring to new data sources. We showcase the clinical value by applying the models to a transdiagnostic psychiatric sample (N=1985), showing they can be used to quantify variability underlying multiple disorders whilst also refining case-control inferences. These models will be augmented with additional samples and imaging modalities as they become available. This provides a common reference platform to bind results from different studies and ultimately paves the way for personalized clinical decision-making.

Journal

eLife

Published

2022/02/01

Authors

Rutherford S, Fraza C, Dinga R, Kia SM, Wolfers T, Zabihi M, Berthet P, Worker A, Verdi S, Andrews D, Han LK, Bayer JM, Dazzan P, McGuire P, Mocking RT, Schene A, Sripada C, Tso IF, Duval ER, Chang SE, Penninx BW, Heitzeg MM, Burt SA, Hyde LW, Amaral D, Wu Nordahl C, Andreasssen OA, Westlye LT, Zahn R, Ruhe HG, Beckmann C, Marquand AF

Keywords

big data, brain chart, growth chart, human, individual prediction, lifespan, neuroscience, normative model

DOI

10.7554/eLife.72904
Toggle Association of Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores for Multiple Psychiatric and Common Traits in Preadolescent Youths at Risk of Suicide. JAMA network open Joo YY, Moon SY, Wang HH, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youths worldwide, but no available means exist to identify the risk of suicide in this population.

Journal

JAMA network open

Published

2022/02/01

Authors

Joo YY, Moon SY, Wang HH, Kim H, Lee EJ, Kim JH, Posner J, Ahn WY, Choi I, Kim JW, Cha J

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.48585
Toggle Parental psychological problems were associated with higher screen time and the use of mature-rated media in children. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Pulkki-Råback L, Barnes JD, Elovainio M, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Parents’ psychological problems may affect children’s screen time, but research has been scarce. We examined the association between parental psychological problems and children’s screen media behaviours in a nationally representative sample.

Journal

Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)

Published

2022/01/31

Authors

Pulkki-Råback L, Barnes JD, Elovainio M, Hakulinen C, Sourander A, Tremblay MS, Guerrero MD

Keywords

children, mental health, parents, screen time, social media

DOI

10.1111/apa.16253
Toggle Spatio-temporal directed acyclic graph learning with attention mechanisms on brain functional time series and connectivity. Medical image analysis Huang SG, Xia J, Xu L, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

We develop a deep learning framework, spatio-temporal directed acyclic graph with attention mechanisms (ST-DAG-Att), to predict cognition and disease using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This ST-DAG-Att framework comprises of two neural networks, (1) spatio-temporal graph convolutional network (ST-graph-conv) to learn the spatial and temporal information of functional time series at multiple temporal and spatial graph scales, where the graph is represented by the brain functional network, the spatial convolution is over the space of this graph, and the temporal convolution is over the time dimension; (2) functional connectivity convolutional network (FC-conv) to learn functional connectivity features, where the functional connectivity is derived from embedded multi-scale fMRI time series and the convolutional operation is applied along both edge and node dimensions of the brain functional network. This framework also consists of an attention component, i.e., functional connectivity-based spatial attention (FC-SAtt), that generates a spatial attention map through learning the local dependency among high-level features of functional connectivity and emphasizing meaningful brain regions. Moreover, both the ST-graph-conv and FC-conv networks are designed as feed-forward models structured as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). Our experiments employ two large-scale datasets, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD, n=7693) and Open Access Series of Imaging Study-3 (OASIS-3, n=1786). Our results show that the ST-DAG-Att model is generalizable from cognition prediction to age prediction. It is robust to independent samples obtained from different sites of the ABCD study. It outperforms the existing machine learning techniques, including support vector regression (SVR), elastic net’s mixture with random forest, spatio-temporal graph convolution, and BrainNetCNN.

Journal

Medical image analysis

Published

2022/01/30

Authors

Huang SG, Xia J, Xu L, Qiu A

Keywords

Attention mechanism, Brain functional network, Directed acyclic graph, Graph neural network, Graph pooling, Multi-scale analysis

DOI

10.1016/j.media.2022.102370
Toggle Age-related changes and longitudinal stability of individual differences in ABCD Neurocognition measures. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Anokhin AP, Luciana M, Banich M, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Temporal stability of individual differences is an important prerequisite for accurate tracking of prospective relationships between neurocognition and real-world behavioral outcomes such as substance abuse and psychopathology. Here we report age-related changes and longitudinal test-retest stability (TRS) for the Neurocognition battery of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, which included the NIH Toolbox (TB) Cognitive Domain and additional memory and visuospatial processing tests administered at baseline (ages 9-11) and two-year follow-up. As expected, performance improved significantly with age, but the effect size varied broadly, with Pattern Comparison and the Crystallized Cognition Composite showing the largest age-related gain (Cohen’s d:.99 and.97, respectively). TRS ranged from fair (Flanker test: r = 0.44) to excellent (Crystallized Cognition Composite: r = 0.82). A comparison of longitudinal changes and cross-sectional age-related differences within baseline and follow-up assessments suggested that, for some measures, longitudinal changes may be confounded by practice effects and differences in task stimuli or procedure between baseline and follow-up. In conclusion, a subset of measures showed good stability of individual differences despite significant age-related changes, warranting their use as prospective predictors. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of observed longitudinal changes as indicators of neurocognitive development.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/01/28

Authors

Anokhin AP, Luciana M, Banich M, Barch D, Bjork JM, Gonzalez MR, Gonzalez R, Haist F, Jacobus J, Lisdahl K, McGlade E, McCandliss B, Nagel B, Nixon SJ, Tapert S, Kennedy JT, Thompson W

Keywords

Development, Longitudinal, Neurocognition, Test-retest reliability

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101078
Toggle The Pandemic's Toll on Young Adolescents: Prevention and Intervention Targets to Preserve Their Mental Health. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Kiss O, Alzueta E, Yuksel D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adolescence is characterized by dramatic physical, social, and emotional changes, making teens particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This longitudinal study identifies young adolescents who are most vulnerable to the psychological toll of the pandemic and provides insights to inform strategies to help adolescents cope better in times of crisis.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2022/01/26

Authors

Kiss O, Alzueta E, Yuksel D, Pohl KM, de Zambotti M, Műller-Oehring EM, Prouty D, Durley I, Pelham WE, McCabe CJ, Gonzalez MR, Brown SA, Wade NE, Marshall AT, Sowell ER, Breslin FJ, Lisdahl KM, Dick AS, Sheth CS, McCandliss BD, Guillaume M, Van Rinsveld AM, Dowling GJ, Tapert SF, Baker FC

Keywords

Adolescents, COVID-19, Children, Mental-health, Pandemic, Sex differences, Sleep

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.023
Toggle Socioeconomic status, BMI, and brain development in children. Translational psychiatry Dennis E, Manza P, Volkow ND 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is associated with deficits in executive function and changes in cortical morphology. Furthermore, rates of childhood obesity are greater among low SES children and childhood obesity is also associated with cortical alterations and impaired neurocognition, specifically in the domain of executive function. To investigate the influence of BMI on the relationships between SES and both neurocognition and brain morphology, we used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study to construct multiple linear regression models and conduct mediation analyses. Overall, SES as measured by household income, highest level of parental education, and area deprivation, was associated with lower BMI, greater total and prefrontal cortical volume, and better performance on assessments of executive function. Mediation analysis indicated that BMI had a significant indirect effect on associations between area deprivation and both total and prefrontal cortical volumes. BMI also played a mediating role in the associations between area deprivation and composite neurocognitive scores, which were driven by performance on tasks of working memory and cognitive flexibility, but not cognitive control. These findings suggest that BMI should be considered in future studies investigating the relationship between low SES and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Journal

Translational psychiatry

Published

2022/01/24

Authors

Dennis E, Manza P, Volkow ND

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41398-022-01779-3
Toggle Birth Weight and Childhood Psychopathology in the ABCD Cohort: Association is Strongest for Attention Problems and is Moderated by Sex. Research on child and adolescent psychopathology Dooley N, Clarke M, Cotter D, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Many studies have shown low birth weight is associated with psychopathology later in life, particularly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The association is well-replicated, independent from a variety of potential familial confounds, and follows a dose-response curve (decreasing birth weight linked with increasing odds of disorder). However, the specificity of the association to attention problems is called into question by the extent of comorbidity in ADHD, and recent findings that the association is stronger for autism than ADHD. We test the relative dose-response strength of birth weight on multiple aspects of behavior to explore specificity of the effect to attention problems. We also test recent suggestions that the association between birth weight and attention problems is driven by males. Our sample consisted of 9,076 children aged 9-10 from the United States (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study). Outcomes included 9 problem-scales and the total problems scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Attention problems were the most strongly associated with birth weight after controlling for gestational age, potential familial confounds, and multiple testing, supporting the outcome-specificity of this association. Contrary to recent registry-based findings, an association between birth weight and an autism scale was not observed. Sex moderated the effect of birth weight on total problems, attention problems and aggressive behavior such that these inverse associations were strongly driven by males. Our findings have strong implications for sex-specific prediction and etiological models of childhood psychopathology.

Journal

Research on child and adolescent psychopathology

Published

2022/01/24

Authors

Dooley N, Clarke M, Cotter D, Cannon M

Keywords

ADHD, Attention, Birth weight, Child mental health, Foetal growth, Gestation

DOI

10.1007/s10802-021-00859-0
Toggle Neural signatures of data-driven psychopathology dimensions at the transition to adolescence. European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists Modabbernia A, Michelini G, Reichenberg A, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

One of the challenges in human neuroscience is to uncover associations between brain organization and psychopathology in order to better understand the biological underpinnings of mental disorders. Here, we aimed to characterize the neural correlates of psychopathology dimensions obtained using two conceptually different data-driven approaches.

Journal

European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists

Published

2022/01/24

Authors

Modabbernia A, Michelini G, Reichenberg A, Kotov R, Barch D, Frangou S

Keywords

Adolescence, development, neuroimaging, population neuroscience, psychopathology

DOI

10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.2262
Toggle Differentiating distinct and converging neural correlates of types of systemic environmental exposures. Human brain mapping Vargas TG, Damme KSF, Mittal VA 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Systemic environmental disadvantage relates to a host of health and functional outcomes. Specific structural factors have seldom been linked to neural structure, however, clouding understanding of putative mechanisms. Examining relations during childhood/preadolescence, a dynamic period of neurodevelopment, could aid bridge this gap. A total of 10,213 youth were recruited from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Self-report and objective measures (Census and Federal bureau of investigation metrics extracted using geocoding) of environmental exposures were used, including stimulation indexing lack of safety and high attentional demands, discrepancy indexing social exclusion/lack of belonging, and deprivation indexing lack of environmental enrichment. Environmental measures were related to cortical thickness, surface area, and subcortical volume regions, controlling for other environmental exposures and accounting for other brain regions. Self-report (|β| = .04-.09) and objective (|β| = .02-.06) environmental domains related to area/thickness in overlapping (e.g., insula, caudal anterior cingulate), and unique regions (e.g., for discrepancy, rostral anterior and isthmus cingulate, implicated in socioemotional functions; for stimulation, precuneus, critical for cue reactivity and integration of environmental cues; and for deprivation, superior frontal, integral to executive functioning). For stimulation and discrepancy exposures, self-report and objective measures showed similarities in correlate regions, while deprivation exposures evidenced distinct correlates for self-report and objective measures. Results represent a necessary step toward broader work aimed at establishing mechanisms and correlates of structural disadvantage, highlighting the relevance of going beyond aggregate models by considering types of environmental factors, and the need to incorporate both subjective and objective measurements in these efforts.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/01/22

Authors

Vargas TG, Damme KSF, Mittal VA

Keywords

chronic stress, development, environment, neural, systemic factors

DOI

10.1002/hbm.25783
Toggle The Prevalence of Preadolescent Eating Disorders in the United States. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Murray SB, Ganson KT, Chu J, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) in young children remains relatively unknown. Here, we aimed to assess the prevalence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge ED (BED), and their subclinical derivatives, among 10- to 11-year-old children in the United States.

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2022/01/22

Authors

Murray SB, Ganson KT, Chu J, Jann K, Nagata JM

Keywords

Anorexia nervosa, Binge, Bulimia nervosa, Child eating disorders, Eating disorder, Eating disorders

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.031
Toggle Stability of polygenic scores across discovery genome-wide association studies. HGG advances Schultz LM, Merikangas AK, Ruparel K, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Polygenic scores (PGS) are commonly evaluated in terms of their predictive accuracy at the population level by the proportion of phenotypic variance they explain. To be useful for precision medicine applications, they also need to be evaluated at the individual level when phenotypes are not necessarily already known. We investigated the stability of PGS in European American (EUR) and African American (AFR)-ancestry individuals from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort and the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study using different discovery genome-wide association study (GWAS) results for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and height. We found that pairs of EUR-ancestry GWAS for the same trait had genetic correlations >0.92. However, PGS calculated from pairs of same-ancestry and different-ancestry GWAS had correlations that ranged from <0.01 to 0.74. PGS stability was greater for height than for PTSD or T2D. A series of height GWAS in the UK Biobank suggested that correlation between PGS is strongly dependent on the extent of sample overlap between the discovery GWAS. Focusing on the upper end of the PGS distribution, different discovery GWAS do not consistently identify the same individuals in the upper quantiles, with the best case being 60% of individuals above the 80th percentile of PGS overlapping from one height GWAS to another. The degree of overlap decreases sharply as higher quantiles, less heritable traits, and different-ancestry GWAS are considered. PGS computed from different discovery GWAS have only modest correlation at the individual level, underscoring the need to proceed cautiously with integrating PGS into precision medicine applications.

Journal

HGG advances

Published

2022/01/21

Authors

Schultz LM, Merikangas AK, Ruparel K, Jacquemont S, Glahn DC, Gur RE, Barzilay R, Almasy L

Keywords

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, African American, PRS-CS, PTSD, Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, UK Biobank, ancestry, height, methods development, type 2 diabetes

DOI

10.1016/j.xhgg.2022.100091
Toggle Psychiatric comorbidity associated with weight status in 9 to 10 year old children. Pediatric obesity Smith KE, Mason TB 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Paediatric overweight and obesity (OW/OB) constitute a serious public health concern. Given that psychological problems may be key contributors to the onset and maintenance of paediatric obesity, the present study examined past and current psychiatric comorbidities across the weight spectrum during middle childhood among a nationally representative sample.

Journal

Pediatric obesity

Published

2022/01/19

Authors

Smith KE, Mason TB

Keywords

children, comorbidity, mental health, obesity, overweight, weight

DOI

10.1111/ijpo.12883
Toggle Functional connectome mediates the association between sleep disturbance and mental health in preadolescence: A longitudinal mediation study. Human brain mapping Yang FN, Liu TT, Wang Z 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Sleep disturbance is known to be associated with various mental disorders and often precedes the onset of mental disorders in youth. Given the increasingly acknowledged bidirectional influence between sleep disturbance and mental disorders, we aim to identify a shared neural mechanism that underlies sleep disturbance and mental disorders in preadolescents. We analyzed a dataset of 9,350 9-10 year-old children, among whom 8,845 had 1-year follow-up data, from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Linear mixed-effects models, mediation analysis, and longitudinal mediation analysis were used to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance, mental disorders, and resting-state network connectivity. Out of 186 unique connectivities, the effect of total sleep disturbance (TSP, from Sleep Disturbance Scale) and mental problems (MP, from Child Behavior Checklist) converged in the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN). Within- and between-network connectivities (DMN-DAN, DMN-DMN, DAN-DAN) mediated the relationship between baseline TSD and MP at 1-year follow-up and the relationship between baseline MP and TSD at 1-year follow-up. The pathway model in which sleep disturbance and mental problems affect each other through two anticorrelated brain networks (DMN and DAN) suggests a common neural mechanism between them. Longitudinally, a less segregated DMN and DAN is associated with negative outcomes on mental well-being and sleep disturbance a year later. These findings have important implications for the design of prevention and neurofeedback intervention for mental disorders and sleep problems.

Journal

Human brain mapping

Published

2022/01/18

Authors

Yang FN, Liu TT, Wang Z

Keywords

adolescent psychiatry, cognition, functional neuroimaging, longitudinal mediation analysis, mental health, sleep

DOI

10.1002/hbm.25772
Toggle Decoupling Sleep and Brain Size in Childhood: An Investigation of Genetic Covariation in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry global open science Hernandez LM, Kim M, Hernandez C, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Childhood sleep problems are common and among the most frequent and impairing comorbidities of childhood psychiatric disorders. In adults, sleep disturbances are heritable and show strong genetic associations with brain morphology; however, little is known about the genetic architecture of childhood sleep and potential etiological links between sleep, brain development, and pediatric-onset psychiatric symptoms.

Journal

Biological psychiatry global open science

Published

2022/01/17

Authors

Hernandez LM, Kim M, Hernandez C, Thompson W, Fan CC, Galván A, Dapretto M, Bookheimer SY, Fuligni A, Gandal MJ

Keywords

ADHD, Brain, Childhood, Genetics, Heritability, Insomnia

DOI

10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.12.011
Toggle Corrigendum to "Microstructural development from 9 to 14 years: Evidence from the ABCD Study" [Dev. Cognit. Neurosci. 53 (2022) 101044]. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/01/14

Authors

Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, Hagler DJ, Sugrue L, Nedelec P, Fan CC, Thompson WK, Jernigan TL, Dale AM

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101063
Toggle General Psychopathology, Cognition, and the Cerebral Cortex in 10-Year-Old Children: Insights From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Frontiers in human neuroscience Patel Y, Parker N, Salum GA, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

General psychopathology and cognition are likely to have a bidirectional influence on each other. Yet, the relationship between brain structure, psychopathology, and cognition remains unclear. This brief report investigates the association between structural properties of the cerebral cortex [surface area, cortical thickness, intracortical myelination indexed by the T1w/T2w ratio, and neurite density assessed by restriction spectrum imaging (RSI)] with general psychopathology and cognition in a sample of children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Higher levels of psychopathology and lower levels of cognitive ability were associated with a smaller cortical surface area. Inter-regionally-across the cerebral cortex-the strength of association between an area and psychopathology is strongly correlated with the strength of association between an area and cognition. Taken together, structural deviations particularly observed in the cortical surface area influence both psychopathology and cognition.

Journal

Frontiers in human neuroscience

Published

2022/01/13

Authors

Patel Y, Parker N, Salum GA, Pausova Z, Paus T

Keywords

MRI, brain development, cerebral cortex, cohort, growth

DOI

10.3389/fnhum.2021.781554
Toggle Associations between cognition and polygenic liability to substance involvement in middle childhood: Results from the ABCD study. Drug and alcohol dependence Paul SE, Hatoum AS, Barch DM, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Cognition is robustly associated with substance involvement. This relationship is attributable to multiple factors, including genetics, though such contributions show inconsistent patterns in the literature. For instance, genome-wide association studies point to potential positive relationships between educational achievement and common substance use but negative relationships with heavy and/or problematic substance use.

Journal

Drug and alcohol dependence

Published

2022/01/10

Authors

Paul SE, Hatoum AS, Barch DM, Thompson WK, Agrawal A, Bogdan R, Johnson EC

Keywords

Cognitive ability, Polygenic risk, Substance use, Substance use disorder

DOI

10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109277
Toggle Brain morphometry points to emerging patterns of psychosis, depression, and anxiety vulnerability over a 2-year period in childhood. Psychological medicine Vargas TG, Mittal VA 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Gray matter morphometry studies have lent seminal insights into the etiology of mental illness. Existing research has primarily focused on adults and then, typically on a single disorder. Examining brain characteristics in late childhood, when the brain is preparing to undergo significant adolescent reorganization and various forms of serious psychopathology are just first emerging, may allow for a unique and highly important perspective of overlapping and unique pathogenesis.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2022/01/07

Authors

Vargas TG, Mittal VA

Keywords

Anxiety, MRI, depression, neural, neuroimaging, psychosis, schizophrenia

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721005304
Toggle Measurement of gender and sexuality in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Potter AS, Dube SL, Barrios LC, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is a longitudinal study of adolescent brain development and health that includes over 11,800 youth in the United States. The ABCD study includes broad developmental domains, and gender and sexuality are two of these with noted changes across late childhood and early adolescence. The Gender Identity and Sexual Health (GISH) workgroup recommends measures of gender and sexuality for the ABCD study, prioritizing those that are developmentally sensitive, capture individual differences in the experience of gender and sexuality, and minimize participant burden. This manuscript describes the gender and sexuality measures used in ABCD and provides guidance for researchers using these data. Data showing the utility of these measures and longitudinal trends are presented. Including assessment of gender and sexuality in ABCD allows for characterization of developmental trajectories of gender and sexuality, and the broad scope of ABCD data collection allows examination of identity development in an intersectional manner.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2022/01/04

Authors

Potter AS, Dube SL, Barrios LC, Bookheimer S, Espinoza A, Feldstein Ewing SW, Freedman EG, Hoffman EA, Ivanova M, Jefferys H, McGlade EC, Tapert SF, Johns MM

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development, Gender, Sexuality

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101057
Toggle Adolescent Verbal Memory as a Psychosis Endophenotype: A Genome-Wide Association Study in an Ancestrally Diverse Sample. Genes Wang B, Giannakopoulou O, Austin-Zimmerman I, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

Verbal memory impairment is one of the most prominent cognitive deficits in psychosis. However, few studies have investigated the genetic basis of verbal memory in a neurodevelopmental context, and most genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a GWAS on verbal memory in a maximum of 11,017 participants aged 8.9 to 11.1 years in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, recruited from a diverse population in the United States. Verbal memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which included three measures of verbal memory: immediate recall, short-delay recall, and long-delay recall. We adopted a mixed-model approach to perform a joint GWAS of all participants, adjusting for ancestral background and familial relatedness. The inclusion of participants from all ancestries increased the power of the GWAS. Two novel genome-wide significant associations were found for short-delay and long-delay recall verbal memory. In particular, one locus (rs9896243) associated with long-delay recall was mapped to the NSF (N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor, Vesicle Fusing ATPase) gene, indicating the role of membrane fusion in adolescent verbal memory. Based on the GWAS in the European subset, we estimated the SNP-heritability to be 15% to 29% for the three verbal memory traits. We found that verbal memory was genetically correlated with schizophrenia, providing further evidence supporting verbal memory as an endophenotype for psychosis.

Journal

Genes

Published

2022/01/03

Authors

Wang B, Giannakopoulou O, Austin-Zimmerman I, Irizar H, Harju-Seppänen J, Zartaloudi E, Bhat A, McQuillin A, Kuchenbäcker K, Bramon E

Keywords

endophenotype, genome-wide association study, neurodevelopment, psychosis, schizophrenia, verbal memory

DOI

10.3390/genes13010106
Toggle Screen Time Use Among US Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. JAMA pediatrics Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Cattle CJ, et al. 2022
PubMed Record

Abstract

This cross-sectional study reviews findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study on digital media use by US youths during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal

JAMA pediatrics

Published

2022/01/01

Authors

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Cattle CJ, Ganson KT, Iyer P, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC

Keywords

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.4334
Toggle Reducing the Effects of Motion Artifacts in fMRI: A Structured Matrix Completion Approach. IEEE transactions on medical imaging Balachandrasekaran A, Cohen AL, Afacan O, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used to study the functional organization of normal and pathological brains. However, the fMRI signal may be contaminated by subject motion artifacts that are only partially mitigated by motion correction strategies. These artifacts lead to distance-dependent biases in the inferred signal correlations. To mitigate these spurious effects, motion-corrupted volumes are censored from fMRI time series. Censoring can result in discontinuities in the fMRI signal, which may lead to substantial alterations in functional connectivity analysis. We propose a new approach to recover the missing entries from censoring based on structured low rank matrix completion. We formulated the artifact-reduction problem as the recovery of a super-resolved matrix from unprocessed fMRI measurements. We enforced a low rank prior on a large structured matrix, formed from the samples of the time series, to recover the missing entries. The recovered time series, in addition to being motion compensated, are also slice-time corrected at a fine temporal resolution. To achieve a fast and memory-efficient solution for our proposed optimization problem, we employed a variable splitting strategy. We validated the algorithm with simulations, data acquired under different motion conditions, and datasets from the ABCD study. Functional connectivity analysis showed that the proposed reconstruction resulted in connectivity matrices with lower errors in pair-wise correlation than non-censored and censored time series based on a standard processing pipeline. In addition, seed-based correlation analyses showed improved delineation of the default mode network. These demonstrate that the method can effectively reduce the adverse effects of motion in fMRI analysis.

Journal

IEEE transactions on medical imaging

Published

2021/12/30

Authors

Balachandrasekaran A, Cohen AL, Afacan O, Warfield SK, Gholipour A

Keywords

DOI

10.1109/TMI.2021.3107829
Toggle Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity among adolescents in the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Preventive medicine reports Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Dooley EE, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate adolescents’ moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) during the COVID-19 pandemic with regards to sociodemographic characteristics and determine mental health and resiliency factors associated with MVPA among a diverse national sample of adolescents ages 10-14 years. Data were collected during the pandemic in May 2020 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD, N = 5,153), a national prospective cohort study in the U.S. MVPA was quantified as the product of reported duration and frequency (hours per week), which was further summarized as the proportion meeting age-appropriate 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. A similar estimate was generated using MVPA data collected prior to the pandemic. Mental health and resiliency measures were collected during the pandemic. Regression models examined associations between mental health or resiliency measures and MVPA during the pandemic. Median MVPA was 2 h per week (IQR 0, 6). Overall, the percentage of the cohort meeting MVPA guidelines decreased from 16.1% (pre-pandemic) to 8.9% (during the pandemic). Racial/ethnic minority adolescents and adolescents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidelines during the pandemic. Poorer mental health, COVID-related worry, and stress were associated with lower MVPA, while more social support and coping behaviors were associated with higher MVPA during the pandemic. In this large, national sample of adolescents, the proportion of those meeting MVPA Guidelines was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic, with significant disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Interventions to promote social support and coping behaviors may improve MVPA levels among adolescents during the pandemic.

Journal

Preventive medicine reports

Published

2021/12/27

Authors

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Dooley EE, Iyer P, Ganson KT, Pettee Gabriel K

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Adolescents, COVID-19, Coronavirus, Exercise, HHS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, Physical activity, RRR, Rapid Response Research

DOI

10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101685
Toggle Genetic Association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Major Depression With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biological psychiatry Lee PH, Doyle AE, Li X, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Suicide is among the leading causes of death in children and adolescents. There are well-known risk factors of suicide, including childhood abuse, family conflicts, social adversity, and psychopathology. While suicide risk is also known to be heritable, few studies have investigated genetic risk in younger individuals.

Journal

Biological psychiatry

Published

2021/12/22

Authors

Lee PH, Doyle AE, Li X, Silberstein M, Jung JY, Gollub RL, Nierenberg AA, Liu RT, Kessler RC, Perlis RH, Fava M

Keywords

ADHD, Adolescents, Children, Depression, Polygenic risk score, Suicide

DOI

10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.11.026
Toggle The Emotional Word-Emotional Face Stroop task in the ABCD study: Psychometric validation and associations with measures of cognition and psychopathology. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Smolker HR, Wang K, Luciana M, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Characterizing the interactions among attention, cognitive control, and emotion during adolescence may provide important insights into why this critical developmental period coincides with a dramatic increase in risk for psychopathology. However, it has proven challenging to develop a single neurobehavioral task that simultaneously engages and differentially measures these diverse domains. In the current study, we describe properties of performance on the Emotional Word-Emotional Face Stroop (EWEFS) task in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a task that allows researchers to concurrently measure processing speed/attentional vigilance (i.e., performance on congruent trials), inhibitory control (i.e., Stroop interference effect), and emotional information processing (i.e., difference in performance on trials with happy as compared to angry distracting faces). We first demonstrate that the task manipulations worked as designed and that Stroop performance is associated with multiple cognitive constructs derived from different measures at a prior time point. We then show that Stroop metrics tapping these three domains are preferentially associated with aspects of externalizing psychopathology and inattention. These results highlight the potential of the EWEFS task to help elucidate the longitudinal dynamics of attention, inhibitory control, and emotion across adolescent development, dynamics which may be altered by level of psychopathology.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/12/21

Authors

Smolker HR, Wang K, Luciana M, Bjork JM, Gonzalez R, Barch DM, McGlade EC, Kaiser RH, Friedman NP, Hewitt JK, Banich MT

Keywords

ABCD, Adolescence, Emotion, Inhibitory control, Psychopathology, Stroop

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101054
Toggle Functional brain network community structure in childhood: Unfinished territories and fuzzy boundaries. NeuroImage Tooley UA, Bassett DS, Mackey AP 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Adult cortex is organized into distributed functional communities. Yet, little is known about community architecture of children’s brains. Here, we uncovered the community structure of cortex in childhood using fMRI data from 670 children aged 9-11 years (48% female, replication sample n=544, 56% female) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. We first applied a data-driven community detection approach to cluster cortical regions into communities, then employed a generative model-based approach called the weighted stochastic block model to further probe community interactions. Children showed similar community structure to adults, as defined by Yeo and colleagues in 2011, in early-developing sensory and motor communities, but differences emerged in transmodal areas. Children have more cortical territory in the limbic community, which is involved in emotion processing, than adults. Regions in association cortex interact more flexibly across communities, creating uncertainty for the model-based assignment algorithm, and perhaps reflecting cortical boundaries that are not yet solidified. Uncertainty was highest for cingulo-opercular areas involved in flexible deployment of cognitive control. Activation and deactivation patterns during a working memory task showed that both the data-driven approach and a set of adult communities statistically capture functional organization in middle childhood. Collectively, our findings suggest that community boundaries are not solidified by middle childhood.

Journal

NeuroImage

Published

2021/12/21

Authors

Tooley UA, Bassett DS, Mackey AP

Keywords

Community structure, Development, Graph theory, Network neuroscience, Networks

DOI

10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118843
Toggle Impact of COVID-19 on Youth With ADHD: Predictors and Moderators of Response to Pandemic Restrictions on Daily Life. Journal of attention disorders Rosenthal E, Franklin-Gillette S, Jung HJ, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

We examined COVID-19 symptoms and infection rates, disruptions to functioning, and moderators of pandemic response for 620 youth with ADHD and 614 individually matched controls (70% male;  = 12.4) participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. There were no group differences in COVID-19 infection rate; however, youth with ADHD were more likely to exhibit COVID-19 symptoms ( = 0.25), greater sleep problems ( = -0.52), fear and negative emotions to infection risk ( = -0.56), trouble with remote learning ( = -0.54), rule-breaking behavior related to COVID-19 restrictions ( = -0.23), family conflict ( = -0.13), and were less prepared for the next school year ( = 0.38). Youth with ADHD were less responsive to protective environmental variables (e.g., parental monitoring, school engagement) during the pandemic and may need more specialized support with return to in-person schooling and daily activities.

Journal

Journal of attention disorders

Published

2021/12/17

Authors

Rosenthal E, Franklin-Gillette S, Jung HJ, Nelson A, Evans SW, Power TJ, Yerys BE, Dever BV, Reckner E, DuPaul GJ

Keywords

ADD/ADHD, COVID-19, functional impairment

DOI

10.1177/10870547211063641
Toggle Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Adolescent Recreational Screen Time Reporting During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. Academic pediatrics Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

To describe the relationship between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent recreational screen time and to determine sociodemographic predictors of recreational screen time reporting differences during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

Journal

Academic pediatrics

Published

2021/12/16

Authors

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, Ganson KT, Chu J, Conroy AA

Keywords

adolescents, coronavirus disease 2019, media use, parents, screen time

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2021.12.008
Toggle One-year predictions of delayed reward discounting in the adolescent brain cognitive development study. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology Owens MM, Hahn S, Allgaier N, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Delayed reward discounting (DRD) refers to the extent to which an individual devalues a reward based on a temporal delay and is known to be elevated in individuals with substance use disorders and many mental illnesses. DRD has been linked previously with both features of brain structure and function, as well as various behavioral, psychological, and life-history factors. However, there has been little work on the neurobiological and behavioral antecedents of DRD in childhood. This is an important question, as understanding the antecedents of DRD can provide signs of mechanisms in the development of psychopathology. The present study used baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study ( = 4,042) to build machine learning models to predict DRD at the first follow-up visit, 1 year later. In separate machine learning models, we tested elastic net regression, random forest regression, light gradient boosting regression, and support vector regression. In five-fold cross-validation on the training set, models using an array of questionnaire/task variables were able to predict DRD, with these findings generalizing to a held-out (i.e., “lockbox”) test set of 20% of the sample. Key predictive variables were neuropsychological test performance at baseline, socioeconomic status, screen media activity, psychopathology, parenting, and personality. However, models using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain variables did not reliably predict DRD in either the cross-validation or held-out test set. These results suggest a combination of questionnaire/task variables as antecedents of excessive DRD in late childhood, which may presage the development of problematic substance use in adolescence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

Journal

Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology

Published

2021/12/16

Authors

Owens MM, Hahn S, Allgaier N, MacKillop J, Albaugh M, Yuan D, Juliano A, Potter A, Garavan H

Keywords

DOI

10.1037/pha0000532
Toggle Prevalence, predictors, and treatment of eating disorders in children: a national study. Psychological medicine Sanzari CM, Levin RY, Liu RT 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Although the prevalence rates of preadolescent eating disorders (EDs) are on the rise, considerably less is known about the correlates and treatment of EDs in this age group. Clarifying the epidemiology of EDs in preadolescent children is a necessary first step to understand the nature and scope of this problem in this age group.

Journal

Psychological medicine

Published

2021/12/15

Authors

Sanzari CM, Levin RY, Liu RT

Keywords

ABCD study, Epidemiology, eating disorders, preadolescence

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721004992
Toggle Associations of circulating C-reactive proteins, APOE ε4, and brain markers for Alzheimer's disease in healthy samples across the lifespan. Brain, behavior, and immunity Wang Y, Grydeland H, Roe JM, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele (APOE ε4) and higher circulating level of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been extensively investigated as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Paradoxically, APOE ε4 has been associated with lower levels of blood CRP in middle-aged and older populations. However, few studies have investigated this intriguing relation and its impact on neurological markers for AD in younger ages, nor across the whole lifespan. Here, we examine associations of blood CRP levels, APOE ε4, and biomarkers for AD in a cognitively healthy lifespan cohort (N up to 749; 20-81 years of age) and replicate the findings in UK Biobank (N = 304 322; 37-72 years of age), the developmental ABCD study (N = 10 283; 9-11 years of age), and a middle-aged sample (N = 339; 40-65 years of age). Hippocampal volume, brain amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque levels, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ and tau species, and neurofilament protein light protein (NFL) were used as AD biomarkers in subsamples. In addition, we examined the genetic contribution to the variation of CRP levels over different CRP ranges using polygenic scores for CRP (PGS-CRP). Our results show APOE ε4 consistently associates with low blood CRP levels across all age groups (p < 0.05). Strikingly, both ε4 and PGS-CRP associated mainly with blood CRP levels within the low range (<5mg/L). We then show both APOE ε4 and high CRP levels associate with smaller hippocampus volumes across the lifespan (p < 0.025). APOE ε4 was associated with high Aβ plaque levels in the brain (FDR-corrected p = 8.69×10), low levels of CSF Aβ42 (FDR-corrected p = 6.9×10), and lower ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 (FDR-corrected p = 5.08×10). Blood CRP levels were weakly correlated with higher ratio of CSF Aβ42 to Aβ40 (p = 0.03, FDR-corrected p = 0.4). APOE ε4 did not correlate with blood concentrations of another 9 inflammatory cytokines, and none of these cytokines correlated with AD biomarkers. CONCLUSION: The inverse correlation between APOEε 4 and blood CRP levels existed before any pathological AD biomarker was observed, and only in the low CRP level range. Thus, we suggest to investigate whether APOEε 4 can confer risk by being associated with a lower inflammatory response to daily exposures, possibly leading to greater accumulation of low-grade inflammatory stress throughout life. A lifespan perspective is needed to understand this relationship concerning risk of developing AD.

Journal

Brain, behavior, and immunity

Published

2021/12/14

Authors

Wang Y, Grydeland H, Roe JM, Pan M, Magnussen F, Amlien IK, Watne LO, Idland AV, Bertram L, Gundersen TE, Pascual-Leone A, Cabello-Toscano M, Tormos JM, Bartres-Faz D, Drevon CA, Fjell AM, Walhovd KW

Keywords

APOE, Alzheimer’s disease, CRP, Hippocampal volume, Inflammation

DOI

10.1016/j.bbi.2021.12.008
Toggle Transforming the Future of Adolescent Health: Opportunities From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Hoffman EA, LeBlanc K, Weiss SRB, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Journal

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Published

2021/12/13

Authors

Hoffman EA, LeBlanc K, Weiss SRB, Dowling GJ

Keywords

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.008
Toggle Brain network coupling associated with cognitive performance varies as a function of a child's environment in the ABCD study. Nature communications Ellwood-Lowe ME, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Bunge SA 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Prior research indicates that lower resting-state functional coupling between two brain networks, lateral frontoparietal network (LFPN) and default mode network (DMN), relates to cognitive test performance, for children and adults. However, most of the research that led to this conclusion has been conducted with non-representative samples of individuals from higher-income backgrounds, and so further studies including participants from a broader range of socioeconomic backgrounds are required. Here, in a pre-registered study, we analyzed resting-state fMRI from 6839 children ages 9-10 years from the ABCD dataset. For children from households defined as being above poverty (family of 4 with income > $25,000, or family of 5+ with income > $35,000), we replicated prior findings; that is, we found that better performance on cognitive tests correlated with weaker LFPN-DMN coupling. For children from households defined as being in poverty, the direction of association was reversed, on average: better performance was instead directionally related to stronger LFPN-DMN connectivity, though there was considerable variability. Among children in households below poverty, the direction of this association was predicted in part by features of their environments, such as school type and parent-reported neighborhood safety. These results highlight the importance of including representative samples in studies of child cognitive development.

Journal

Nature communications

Published

2021/12/10

Authors

Ellwood-Lowe ME, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Bunge SA

Keywords

DOI

10.1038/s41467-021-27336-y
Toggle Measurement matters: An individual differences examination of family socioeconomic factors, latent dimensions of children's experiences, and resting state functional brain connectivity in the ABCD sample. Developmental cognitive neuroscience DeJoseph ML, Herzberg MP, Sifre RD, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

The variation in experiences between high and low-socioeconomic status contexts are posited to play a crucial role in shaping the developing brain and may explain differences in child outcomes. Yet, examinations of SES and brain development have largely been limited to distal proxies of these experiences (e.g., income comparisons). The current study sought to disentangle the effects of multiple socioeconomic indices and dimensions of more proximal experiences on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in a sample of 7834 youth (aged 9-10 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We applied moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) to establish measurement invariance among three latent environmental dimensions of experience (material/economic deprivation, caregiver social support, and psychosocial threat). Results revealed measurement biases as a function of child age, sex, racial group, family income, and parental education, which were statistically adjusted in the final MNLFA scores. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that socioeconomic indices and psychosocial threat differentially predicted variation in frontolimbic networks, and threat statistically moderated the association between income and connectivity between the dorsal and ventral attention networks. Findings illuminate the importance of reducing measurement biases to gain a more socioculturally-valid understanding of the complex and nuanced links between socioeconomic context, children’s experiences, and neurodevelopment.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/12/08

Authors

DeJoseph ML, Herzberg MP, Sifre RD, Berry D, Thomas KM

Keywords

Adversity, Childhood, MNLFA, Resting state functional connectivity, Socioeconomic status

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101043
Toggle Predicting multilingual effects on executive function and individual connectomes in children: An ABCD study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Kwon YH, Yoo K, Nguyen H, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

While there is a substantial amount of work studying multilingualism’s effect on cognitive functions, little is known about how the multilingual experience modulates the brain as a whole. In this study, we analyzed data of over 1,000 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to examine whether monolinguals and multilinguals differ in executive function, functional brain connectivity, and brain-behavior associations. We observed significantly better performance from multilingual children than monolinguals in working-memory tasks. In one finding, we were able to classify multilinguals from monolinguals using only their whole-brain functional connectome at rest and during an emotional n-back task. Compared to monolinguals, the multilingual group had different functional connectivity mainly in the occipital lobe and subcortical areas during the emotional n-back task and in the occipital lobe and prefrontal cortex at rest. In contrast, we did not find any differences in behavioral performance and functional connectivity when performing a stop-signal task. As a second finding, we investigated the degree to which behavior is reflected in the brain by implementing a connectome-based behavior prediction approach. The multilingual group showed a significant correlation between observed and connectome-predicted individual working-memory performance scores, while the monolingual group did not show any correlations. Overall, our observations suggest that multilingualism enhances executive function and reliably modulates the corresponding brain functional connectome, distinguishing multilinguals from monolinguals even at the developmental stage.

Journal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Published

2021/12/07

Authors

Kwon YH, Yoo K, Nguyen H, Jeong Y, Chun MM

Keywords

children, fMRI, functional connectivity, multilingualism, working memory

DOI

10.1073/pnas.2110811118
Toggle Internalizing-externalizing comorbidity and regional brain volumes in the ABCD study. Development and psychopathology Schettini E, Wilson S, Beauchaine TP 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Despite nonoverlapping diagnostic criteria, internalizing and externalizing disorders show substantial comorbidity. This comorbidity is attributable, at least in part, to transdiagnostic neuroaffective mechanisms. Both unipolar depression and externalizing disorders are characterized by structural and functional compromises in the striatum and its projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and other frontal regions. Smaller volumes and dampened reward responding in these regions are associated with anhedonia and irritability – mood states that cut across the internalizing and externalizing spectra. In contrast, smaller amygdala volumes and dampened amygdala function differentiate externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. Little is known, however, about associations between internalizing-externalizing comorbidity and brain volumes in these regions, or whether such patterns differ by sex. Using a transdiagnostic, research domain criteria (RDoC)-informed approach, we evaluate associations between heterotypic (Internalizing × Externalizing) symptom interactions and striatal, amygdalar, and ACC volumes among participants in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study ( = 6,971, mean age 9.9 years, 51.6% female). Heterotypic symptoms were associated with ACC volumes for both sexes, over and above the main effects of internalizing and externalizing alone. However, heterotypic comorbidity was associated with larger ACC volumes for girls, but with smaller ACC volumes for boys. These findings suggest a need for further studies and transdiagnostic assessment by sex.

Journal

Development and psychopathology

Published

2021/12/07

Authors

Schettini E, Wilson S, Beauchaine TP

Keywords

RDoC, amygdala, anterior cingulate, heterotypic comorbidity, striatum

DOI

10.1017/s0954579421000560
Toggle Reward Processing in Children With Psychotic-Like Experiences. Schizophrenia bulletin open Harju-Seppänen J, Irizar H, Bramon E, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Alterations to striatal reward pathways have been identified in individuals with psychosis. They are hypothesized to be a key mechanism that generate psychotic symptoms through the production of aberrant attribution of motivational salience and are proposed to result from accumulated childhood adversity and genetic risk, making the striatal system hyper-responsive to stress. However, few studies have examined whether children with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) also exhibit these alterations, limiting our understanding of how differences in reward processing relate to hallucinations and delusional ideation in childhood. Consequently, we examined whether PLEs and PLE-related distress were associated with reward-related activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The sample consisted of children ( = 6718) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study aged 9-10 years who had participated in the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task in functional MRI. We used robust mixed-effects linear regression models to investigate the relationship between PLEs and NAcc activation during the reward anticipation and reward outcome stages of the MID task. Analyses were adjusted for gender, household income, ethnicity, depressive symptoms, movement in the scanner, pubertal development, scanner ID, subject and family ID. There was no reliable association between PLEs and alterations to anticipation- or outcome-related striatal reward processing. We discuss the implications for developmental models of psychosis and suggest a developmental delay model of how PLEs may arise at this stage of development.

Journal

Schizophrenia bulletin open

Published

2021/12/04

Authors

Harju-Seppänen J, Irizar H, Bramon E, Blakemore SJ, Mason L, Bell V

Keywords

childhood, fMRI, psychotic-like experiences

DOI

10.1093/schizbullopen/sgab054
Toggle Associations Between Traumatic Stress, Brain Volumes and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Children: Data from the ABCD Study. Behavior genetics Bustamante D, Amstadter AB, Pritikin JN, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

Reduced volumes in brain regions of interest (ROIs), primarily from adult samples, are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We extended this work to children using data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® (N = 11,848; M = 9.92). Structural equation modeling and an elastic-net (EN) machine-learning approach were used to identify potential effects of traumatic events (TEs) on PTSD symptoms (PTSDsx) directly, and indirectly via the volumes 300 subcortical and cortical ROIs. We then estimated the genetic and environmental variation in the phenotypes. TEs were directly associated with PTSDsx (r = 0.92) in children, but their indirect effects (r < 0.0004)-via the volumes of EN-identified subcortical and cortical ROIs-were negligible at this age. Additive genetic factors explained a modest proportion of the variance in TEs (23.4%) and PTSDsx (21.3%), and accounted for most of the variance of EN-identified volumes of four of the five subcortical (52.4-61.8%) three of the nine cortical ROIs (46.4-53.3%) and cerebral white matter in the left hemisphere (57.4%). Environmental factors explained most of the variance in TEs (C = 61.6%, E = 15.1%), PTSDsx (residual-C = 18.4%, residual-E = 21.8%), right lateral ventricle (C = 15.2%, E = 43.1%) and six of the nine EN-identified cortical ROIs (C = 4.0-13.6%, E = 56.7-74.8%). There is negligible evidence that the volumes of brain ROIs are associated with the indirect effects of TEs on PTSDsx at this age. Overall, environmental factors accounted for more of the variation in TEs and PTSDsx. Whereas additive genetic factors accounted for most of the variability in the volumes of a minority of cortical and in most of subcortical ROIs.

Journal

Behavior genetics

Published

2021/12/03

Authors

Bustamante D, Amstadter AB, Pritikin JN, Brick TR, Neale MC

Keywords

Brain, Children, Environment, Genetic, MRI, PTSD, Regularization

DOI

10.1007/s10519-021-10092-6
Toggle Microstructural development from 9 to 14 years: Evidence from the ABCD Study. Developmental cognitive neuroscience Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, et al. 2021
PubMed Record

Abstract

During late childhood behavioral changes, such as increased risk-taking and emotional reactivity, have been associated with the maturation of cortico-cortico and cortico-subcortical circuits. Understanding microstructural changes in both white matter and subcortical regions may aid our understanding of how individual differences in these behaviors emerge. Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a framework for modelling diffusion-weighted imaging that decomposes the diffusion signal from a voxel into hindered, restricted, and free compartments. This yields greater specificity than conventional methods of characterizing diffusion. Using RSI, we quantified voxelwise restricted diffusion across the brain and measured age associations in a large sample (n = 8086) from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study aged 9-14 years. Older participants showed a higher restricted signal fraction across the brain, with the largest associations in subcortical regions, particularly the basal ganglia and ventral diencephalon. Importantly, age associations varied with respect to the cytoarchitecture within white matter fiber tracts and subcortical structures, for example age associations differed across thalamic nuclei. This suggests that age-related changes may map onto specific cell populations or circuits and highlights the utility of voxelwise compared to ROI-wise analyses. Future analyses will aim to understand the relevance of this microstructural developmental for behavioral outcomes.

Journal

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Published

2021/12/03

Authors

Palmer CE, Pecheva D, Iversen JR, Hagler DJ, Sugrue L, Nedelec P, Fan CC, Thompson WK, Jernigan TL, Dale AM

Keywords

Adolescence, Development, Diffusion, Microstructure, Neuroimaging, Subcortical

DOI

10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101044