2022
Adolescent-specific memory effects: evidence from working memory, immediate and long-term recognition memory performance in 8-30 yr olds

Skalaban LJ, Cohen AO, Conley MI, Lin Q, Schwartz GN, Ruiz-Huidobro NAM, Cannonier T, Martinez SA, Casey BJ. Adolescent-specific memory effects: evidence from working memory, immediate and long-term recognition memory performance in 8-30 yr olds. Learn Mem. 2022 Aug 11;29(8):223-233. doi: 10.1101/lm.053539.121. PMID: 35953104.

Working memory and recognition memory develop across adolescence, but the relationship between them is not fully understood. We investigated associations between n-back task performance and subsequent recognition memory in a community sample (8-30 yr, n = 150) using tasks from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study) to cross-sectionally assess memory in an age range that will be sampled longitudinally. We added a 24-h delay condition to assess long-term recognition. Overall working memory, immediate and long-term recognition performance peaked in adolescence. Age effects in recognition memory varied by items (old targets, old distractors, and new items) and delay (0 and 24 h). For immediate recognition, accuracy was higher for targets and new items than for distractors, with accuracy for targets peaking in adulthood and accuracy for new items peaking during adolescence. For long-term recognition, adolescents’ accuracy was higher for targets than distractors, while adults showed similarly high accuracy for targets and distractors and children showed low accuracy for both. This pattern appeared to be specific to recognition of items from the high working memory load condition. The results suggest that working memory may facilitate long-term recognition of task-relevant over irrelevant items and may benefit the detection of new information during adolescence.

Integrative analysis of genomic and exposomic influences on youth mental health

Choi KW, Wilson M, Ge T, Kandola A, Patel CJ, Lee SH, Smoller JW. Integrative analysis of genomic and exposomic influences on youth mental health. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2022 Aug 10. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13664. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35946823.

Background: Understanding complex influences on mental health problems in young people is needed to inform early prevention strategies. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to influence youth mental health, but a more comprehensive picture of their interplay, including wide-ranging environmental exposures – that is, the exposome – is needed. We perform an integrative analysis of genomic and exposomic data in relation to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a cohort of 4,314 unrelated youth from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.

Methods: Using novel GREML-based approaches, we model the variance in internalizing and externalizing symptoms explained by additive and interactive influences from the genome (G) and modeled exposome (E) consisting of up to 133 variables at the family, peer, school, neighborhood, life event, and broader environmental levels, including genome-by-exposome (G × E) and exposome-by-exposome (E × E) effects.

Results: A best-fitting integrative model with G, E, and G × E components explained 35% and 63% of variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms, respectively. Youth in the top quintile of model-predicted risk accounted for the majority of individuals with clinically elevated symptoms at follow-up (60% for internalizing; 72% for externalizing). Of note, different domains of environmental exposures were most impactful for internalizing (life events) and externalizing (contextual including family, school, and peer-level factors) symptoms. In addition, variance explained by G × E contributions was substantially larger for externalizing (33%) than internalizing (13%) symptoms.

Conclusions: Advanced statistical genetic methods in a longitudinal cohort of youth can be leveraged to address fundamental questions about the role of ‘nature and nurture’ in developmental psychopathology.

Impact of Childhood Trauma Exposure, Genetic Variation in Endocannabinoid Signaling, and Anxiety on Frontolimbic Pathways in Children

Marusak HA, Evanski J, Desai S, Rabinak CA. Impact of Childhood Trauma Exposure, Genetic Variation in Endocannabinoid Signaling, and Anxiety on Frontolimbic Pathways in Children. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Aug 9. doi: 10.1089/can.2022.0144. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35944262.

Introduction: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in modulating brain development, including myelination processes. Recent studies link a common variant (C385A, rs324420) in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene to higher circulating eCB levels, lower anxiety, and altered frontolimbic development. Frontolimbic pathways, which demonstrate a protracted maturational course across childhood and adolescence, are associated with anxiety, and are vulnerable to environmental stressors such as trauma exposure. Here, we examined the impact of trauma exposure, FAAH genotype, and anxiety on frontolimbic white matter microstructure in children. Materials and Methods: We leveraged baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (n=9969; mean±standard deviation age=9.92±0.62 years; 47.1% female). Saliva samples were used for genotyping, and caregivers reported on their child’s anxiety symptoms and trauma exposure. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a nonspecific measure of white matter integrity, was estimated for frontolimbic tracts. Results: Thirty-six percent of youth experienced one or more potentially traumatic events according to DSM-5 Criterion A (64% controls), and 45% were FAAH A-allele carriers (55% noncarriers). Relative to controls, trauma-exposed youth demonstrated higher anxiety and higher FA of the left uncinate. The FAAH A-allele (vs. CC) was associated with lower FA in the left fornix and left parahippocampal cingulum, and there was an indirect effect of FAAH genotype on anxiety through FA of the left fornix. Moreover, genotype moderated the association between FA of the left cingulum and anxiety. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate distinct effects of trauma exposure and the FAAH C385A variant on frontolimbic pathways and subsequent anxiety risk in preadolescent children. This line of work may provide important insights into neurodevelopmental mechanisms leading to anxiety risk, and potential targets for intervention.

Location matters: Regional variation in association of community burden of COVID-19 with caregiver and youth worry

Marshall AT, Hackman DA, Kan E, Abad S, Baker FC, Baskin-Sommers A, Dowling GJ, Gonzalez MR, Guillaume M, Kiss O, McCabe CJ, McCandliss BD, Pelham WE 3rd, Tapert SF, Van Rinsveld A, Sowell ER. Location matters: Regional variation in association of community burden of COVID-19 with caregiver and youth worry. Health Place. 2022 Aug 9;77:102885. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2022.102885. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35963164; PMCID: PMC9359938.

Our study characterized associations between three indicators of COVID-19’s community-level impact in 20 geographically diverse metropolitan regions and how worried youth and their caregivers in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ Study have been about COVID-19. County-level COVID-19 case/death rates and monthly unemployment rates were geocoded to participants’ addresses. Caregivers’ (vs. youths’) COVID-19-related worry was more strongly associated with COVID-19’s community impact, independent of sociodemographics and pre-pandemic anxiety levels, with these associations varying by location. Public-health agencies and healthcare providers should avoid adopting uniform «one-size-fits-all» approaches to addressing COVID-19-related emotional distress and must consider specific communities’ needs, challenges, and strengths.

Atypical Functional Network Properties and Associated Dimensions of Youth Psychopathology During Rest and Task Performance

Reimann GE, Stier AJ, Moore TM, et al. (In Press, 2022). Atypical Functional Network Properties and Associated Dimensions of Youth Psychopathology During Rest and Task Performance. Biological Psychiatry, Published: August 06, 2022, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.07.007

Background
When brain networks deviate from typical development, this is thought to contribute to varying forms of psychopathology. However, research has been limited by the reliance on discrete diagnostic categories that overlook the potential for psychological comorbidity and the dimensional nature of symptoms.

Methods
The present study examined the topology of functional networks in association with four bifactor-defined psychopathology dimensions—general psychopathology, internalizing symptoms, conduct problems, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms—via the Child Behavioral Checklist in a sample of 3,568 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study (ABCD Study®). Local and global graph theory metrics were calculated at rest and during tasks of reward processing, inhibition, and working memory.

Results
Greater ADHD symptoms were associated with reduced modularity across rest and tasks, as well as reduced local efficiency in motor networks at rest. Results survive sensitivity analyses for medication and socioeconomic status. Greater conduct problem symptoms were associated with reduced modularity on working memory and reward processing tasks; however, these results did not persist after sensitivity analyses. General psychopathology and internalizing symptoms showed no significant network associations.

Conclusions
Our findings suggest reduced efficiency in topology in those with greater ADHD symptoms across four critical cognitive states, with conduct problems also showing network deficits, although less consistently. This may suggest modularity deficits are a neurobiological marker of externalizing behavior in youth. Such specificity has not been demonstrated before using graph theory metrics and has the potential to redefine our understanding of network deficits in children with psychopathology symptoms.

Big or Little Data for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research in Psychiatry?

Talati A, van Dijk MT, Weissman MM (In Press, 2022). Big or Little Data for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research in Psychiatry? Biological Psychiatry, Published: August 04, 2022, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.06.007

In recent years, there has been an impetus for larger magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of brain function and disease to obtain more robust findings. A recent article by Marek et al. in Nature concluded that brain-wide association studies—studies “testing associations between individual variability in brain structure and function and cognitive or psychiatric symptoms”are currently underpowered and that casts of thousands are needed to obtain reproducible results. The study received considerable attention in the scientific community and an article in The New York Times Magazine. The implications touched the work of many psychiatric researchers who see MRI as a tool to finally understand brain function and mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Prediction of fluid intelligence from T1-w MRI images: A precise two-step deep learning framework

Li M, Jiang M, Zhang G, Liu Y, Zhou X. Prediction of fluid intelligence from T1-w MRI images: A precise two-step deep learning framework. PLoS One. 2022 Aug 2;17(8):e0268707. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268707. PMID: 35917308.

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge (ABCD-NP-Challenge) is a community-driven competition that challenges competitors to develop algorithms to predict fluid intelligence scores from T1-w MRI images. In this work, a two-step deep learning pipeline is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of fluid intelligence scores. In terms of the first step, the main contributions of this study include the following: (1) the concepts of the residual network (ResNet) and the squeeze-and-excitation network (SENet) are utilized to improve the original 3D U-Net; (2) in the segmentation process, the pixels in symmetrical brain regions are assigned the same label; (3) to remove redundant background information from the segmented regions of interest (ROIs), a minimum bounding cube (MBC) is used to enclose the ROIs. This new segmentation structure can greatly improve the segmentation performance of the ROIs in the brain as compared with the classical convolutional neural network (CNN), which yields a Dice coefficient of 0.8920. In the second stage, MBCs are used to train neural network regression models for enhanced nonlinearity. The fluid intelligence score prediction results of the proposed method are found to be superior to those of current state-of-the-art approaches, and the proposed method achieves a mean square error (MSE) of 82.56 on a test data set, which reflects a very competitive performance.

Using Explainable Artificial Intelligence to Discover Interactions in an Ecological Model for Obesity

Allen B, Lane M, Steeves EA, Raynor H. Using Explainable Artificial Intelligence to Discover Interactions in an Ecological Model for Obesity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Aug 2;19(15):9447. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19159447. PMID: 35954804.

Ecological theories suggest that environmental, social, and individual factors interact to cause obesity. Yet, many analytic techniques, such as multilevel modeling, require manual specification of interacting factors, making them inept in their ability to search for interactions. This paper shows evidence that an explainable artificial intelligence approach, commonly employed in genomics research, can address this problem. The method entails using random intersection trees to decode interactions learned by random forest models. Here, this approach is used to extract interactions between features of a multi-level environment from random forest models of waist-to-height ratios using 11,112 participants from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. This study shows that methods used to discover interactions between genes can also discover interacting features of the environment that impact obesity. This new approach to modeling ecosystems may help shine a spotlight on combinations of environmental features that are important to obesity, as well as other health outcomes.

Prevalence of disordered eating and associations with sex, pubertal maturation, and weight in children in the US

Murray SB, Blashill AJ, Calzo JP. Prevalence of disordered eating and associations with sex, pubertal maturation, and weight in children in the US. JAMA Pediatrics (2022). Published online August 1, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.2490, DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.2490.

Eating disorders often begin in adolescence, affecting more than 28 million people in the US,1 although the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) is even greater.1,2 Data on DEBs among children younger than age 12 years are scant. Ascertaining the prevalence of DEBs in children is critical because rapid maturational and weight-related changes in puberty are independently associated with DEBs,3 and some youth may experience different rates of growth and weight gain vs their peers. We sought to characterize DEB prevalence in US children aged 9 to 10 years and the associations of DEBs with sex, pubertal maturation, and weight.

Longitudinal Assessments of Neurocognitive Performance and Brain Structure Associated With Initiation of Tobacco Use in Children

Dai HD, Doucet GE, Wang Y, Puga T, Samson K, Xiao P, Khan AS. Longitudinal Assessments of Neurocognitive Performance and Brain Structure Associated With Initiation of Tobacco Use in Children, 2016 to 2021. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Aug 1;5(8):e2225991. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.25991. PMID: 35947383.

Importance: The landscape of tobacco use is changing. However, information about the association between early-age tobacco use and cognitive performances is limited, especially for emerging tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes).

Objective: To assess the association between early-age initiation of tobacco use and cognitive performances measured by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox Cognitive Battery and to examine whether initiation is associated with differences in brain morphometry.

Design, setting, and participants: This observational cohort study examined the longitudinal associations of initiation of tobacco use with neurocognition using multivariate linear mixed models. Children aged 9 to 10 years from 21 US sites were enrolled in wave 1 (October 1, 2016, to October 31, 2018 [n = 11 729]) and the 2-year follow-up (August 1, 2018, to January 31, 2021 [n = 10 081]) of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.

Exposures: Ever use (vs none) of any tobacco products at wave 1, including e-cigarettes, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah, pipes, and nicotine replacement.

Main outcomes and measures: Neurocognition measured by the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery and morphometric measures of brain structure and region of interest analysis for the cortex from structural magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Among 11 729 participants at wave 1 (mean [SE] age, 9.9 [0.6] years; 47.9% girls and 52.1% boys; 20.3% Hispanic; 14.9% non-Hispanic Black; and 52.1% non-Hispanic White), 116 children reported ever use of tobacco products. Controlling for confounders, tobacco ever users vs nonusers exhibited lower scores in the Picture Vocabulary Tests at wave 1 (b [SE] = -2.9 [0.6]; P < .001) and 2-year follow-up (b [SE] = -3.0 [0.7]; P < .001). The crystalized cognition composite score was lower among tobacco ever users than nonusers both at wave 1 (b [SE] = -2.4 [0.5]; P < .001) and 2-year follow-up (b [SE] = -2.7 [0.8]; P = .005). In structural magnetic resonance imaging, the whole-brain measures in cortical area and volume were significantly lower among tobacco users than nonusers, including cortical area (b [SE] = -5014.8 [1739.8] mm2; P = .004) at wave 1 and cortical volume at wave 1 (b [SE] = -174 621.0 [5857.7] mm3; P = .003) and follow-up (b [SE] = -21 790.8 [7043.9] mm3; P = .002). Further region of interest analysis revealed smaller cortical area and volume in multiple regions across frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes at both waves.

Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study, initiating tobacco use in late childhood was associated with inferior cognitive performance and reduced brain structure with sustained effects at 2-year follow-up. These findings suggest that youths vulnerable to e-cigarettes and tobacco products should be treated as a priority population in tobacco prevention.

Socioeconomic disadvantage and episodic memory ability in the ABCD sample: Contributions of hippocampal subregion and subfield volumes

Botdorf M, Dunstan J, Sorcher L, Dougherty LR, Riggins T. Socioeconomic disadvantage and episodic memory ability in the ABCD sample: Contributions of hippocampal subregion and subfield volumes. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 57, October 2022, 101138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101138.

Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with volumetric differences in stress-sensitive neural structures, including the hippocampus, and deficits in episodic memory. Rodent studies provide evidence that memory deficits arise via stress-related structural differences in hippocampal subdivisions; however, human studies have only provided limited evidence to support this notion. We used a sample of 10,695 9–13-year-old participants from two timepoints of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to assess whether socioeconomic disadvantage relates to episodic memory performance through hippocampal volumes. We explored associations among socioeconomic disadvantage, measured via the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), concurrent subregion (anterior, posterior) and subfield volumes (CA1, CA3, CA4/DG, subiculum), and episodic memory, assessed via the NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test at baseline and 2-year follow-up (Time 2). Results showed that higher baseline ADI related to smaller concurrent anterior, CA1, CA4/DG, and subiculum volumes and poorer Time 2 memory performance controlling for baseline memory. Moreover, anterior, CA1, and subiculum volumes mediated the longitudinal association between the ADI and memory. Results suggest that greater socioeconomic disadvantage relates to smaller hippocampal subregion and subfield volumes and less age-related improvement in memory. These findings shed light on the neural mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage and cognitive ability in childhood.

Effects of sleep duration on neurocognitive development in early adolescents in the USA: a propensity score matched, longitudinal, observational study

Yang FN, Xie W, Wang Z. Effects of sleep duration on neurocognitive development in early adolescents in the USA: a propensity score matched, longitudinal, observational study. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health (2022), Published:July 29, 2022, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(22)00188-2.

Background
Although the American Academy of Sleep Medicine suggests at least 9 h of sleep per day for 6–12-year-olds, children in recent generations often report sleeping less than this amount. Because early adolescence is a crucial period for neurocognitive development, we aimed to investigate how insufficient sleep affects children’s mental health, cognition, brain function, and brain structure over 2 years.

Methods
In this propensity score matched, longitudinal, observational cohort study, we obtained data from a population-based sample of 9–10-year-olds from 21 US study sites in the ongoing Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Participants were categorised as having sufficient sleep or insufficient sleep on the basis of a cutoff of 9 h sleep per day. Using propensity score matching, we matched these two groups of participants on 11 key covariates, including sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty status. Participants were excluded from our analysis if they did not pass a baseline resting-state functional MRI quality check or had missing data for the covariates involved in propensity score matching. Outcome measures retrieved from the ABCD study were behavioural problems, mental health, cognition, and structural and resting-state functional brain measures, assessed at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. We examined group differences on these outcomes over those 2 years among all eligible participants. We then did mediation analyses of the neural correlates of behavioural changes induced by insufficient sleep.

Findings

Between Sept 1, 2016, and Oct 15, 2018, 11 878 individuals had baseline data collected for the ABCD study, of whom 8323 were eligible and included in this study (4142 participants in the sufficient sleep group and 4181 in the insufficient sleep group). Follow-up data were collected from July 30, 2018, to Jan 15, 2020. We identified 3021 matched sufficient sleep–insufficient sleep pairs at baseline and 749 matched pairs at 2-year follow-up, and observed similar differences between the groups in behaviour and neural measures at both timepoints; the effect sizes of between-group differences in behavioural measures at these two timepoints were significantly correlated with each other (r=0·85, 95% CI 0·73–0·92; p<0·0001). A similar pattern was observed in resting-state functional connectivity (r=0·54, 0·45–0·61; p<0·0001) and in structural measures (eg, in grey matter volume r=0·61, 0·51–0·69; p<0·0001). We found that cortico–basal ganglia functional connections mediate the effects of insufficient sleep on depression, thought problems, and crystallised intelligence, and that structural properties of the anterior temporal lobe mediate the effect of insufficient sleep on crystallised intelligence.

Interpretation

These results provide population-level evidence for the long-lasting effect of insufficient sleep on neurocognitive development in early adolescence. These findings highlight the value of early sleep intervention to improve early adolescents’ long-term developmental outcomes.

Longitudinally stable, brain-based predictive models mediate the relationships between childhood cognition and socio-demographic, psychological and genetic factors

Pat N, Wang Y, Anney R, Riglin L, Thapar A, Stringaris A. Longitudinally stable, brain-based predictive models mediate the relationships between childhood cognition and socio-demographic, psychological and genetic factors. Hum Brain Mapp. 2022 Jul 28. doi: 10.1002/hbm.26027. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35903877.

Cognitive abilities are one of the major transdiagnostic domains in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Following RDoC’s integrative approach, we aimed to develop brain-based predictive models for cognitive abilities that (a) are developmentally stable over years during adolescence and (b) account for the relationships between cognitive abilities and socio-demographic, psychological and genetic factors. For this, we leveraged the unique power of the large-scale, longitudinal data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (n ~ 11 k) and combined MRI data across modalities (task-fMRI from three tasks: resting-state fMRI, structural MRI and DTI) using machine-learning. Our brain-based, predictive models for cognitive abilities were stable across 2 years during young adolescence and generalisable to different sites, partially predicting childhood cognition at around 20% of the variance. Moreover, our use of ‘opportunistic stacking’ allowed the model to handle missing values, reducing the exclusion from around 80% to around 5% of the data. We found fronto-parietal networks during a working-memory task to drive childhood-cognition prediction. The brain-based, predictive models significantly, albeit partially, accounted for variance in childhood cognition due to (1) key socio-demographic and psychological factors (proportion mediated = 18.65% [17.29%-20.12%]) and (2) genetic variation, as reflected by the polygenic score of cognition (proportion mediated = 15.6% [11%-20.7%]). Thus, our brain-based predictive models for cognitive abilities facilitate the development of a robust, transdiagnostic research tool for cognition at the neural level in keeping with the RDoC’s integrative framework.

Contemporary screen time modalities and disruptive behavior disorders in children: a prospective cohort study

Nagata JM, Chu J, Ganson KT, Murray SB, Iyer P, Gabriel KP, Garber AK, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC. Contemporary screen time modalities and disruptive behavior disorders in children: a prospective cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2022 Jul 26. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13673. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35881083.

Background: Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated associations between screen time and disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder); however, prospective associations remain unknown. This study’s objective was to determine the prospective associations of contemporary screen time modalities with conduct and oppositional defiant disorder in a national cohort of 9-11-year-old children.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (N = 11,875). Modified Poisson regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between baseline child-reported screen time (total and by modality) and parent-reported conduct or oppositional defiant disorder based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS-5) at 1-year follow-up, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Participants reported an average of 4 hr of total screen time per day at baseline. Each hour of total screen time per day was prospectively associated with a 7% higher prevalence of conduct disorder (95% CI 1.03-1.11) and a 5% higher prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder (95% CI 1.03-1.08) at 1-year follow-up. Each hour of social media per day was associated with a 62% higher prevalence of conduct disorder (95% CI 1.39-1.87). Each hour of video chat (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.21, 95% CI 1.06-1.37), texting (PR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33), television/movies (PR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.25), and video games (PR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21) per day was associated with a higher prevalence of the oppositional defiant disorder. When examining thresholds, exposure to >4 hr of total screen time per day was associated with a higher prevalence of conduct disorder (69%) and oppositional defiant disorder (46%).

Conclusions: Higher screen time was prospectively associated with a higher prevalence of new-onset disruptive behavior disorders. The strongest association was between social media and conduct disorder, indicating that future research and interventions may focus on social media platforms to prevent conduct disorder.

Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Transgender Children Aged 9 to 10 Years in the US, 2018

Russell DH, Hoq M, Coghill D, Pang KC (2022). Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Transgender Children Aged 9 to 10 Years in the US, 2018. Research Letter, Research Letter, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(7):e2223389. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.23389

Discussion

Previous research using clinical samples of transgender children aged 5 to 11 years reported lower rates of depression and anxiety than we observed in this cohort study. Apart from methodological differences in assessing mental health, a possible reason for this disparity is that transgender children attending specialist gender clinics are likely to have support from their families (a key protective factor for the mental health of transgender young people); in comparison, many transgender children in the general population lack parental support for their gender.

Previous studies using clinical and convenience samples of transgender adolescents had higher rates of depression and anxiety compared with our sample. This is consistent with earlier clinic-based observations that transgender children have lower rates of anxiety and depression compared with transgender adolescents, which may be explained by observations from the general population that depression and anxiety more frequently develop during adolescence.

The small number of transgender participants is a limitation of our study, as is the exclusion of many children who did not understand the question on gender identity. Nevertheless, this is, to our knowledge, the first study to report rates of DSM-5–related problems using a representative population sample of transgender children. Our findings suggest that by 9 to 10 years of age transgender children already show increased susceptibility to mental health problems compared with their cisgender peers, which has important public health implications. Whether this is due to stigma, minority stress, discrimination, or gender dysphoria is unclear, but providing appropriate mental health supports to this vulnerable group is paramount.

Effect of exposure to maternal diabetes during pregnancy on offspring’s brain cortical thickness and neurocognitive functioning

Ahmed S, Cano MA, Sánchez M, Hu N, Ibañez G. Effect of exposure to maternal diabetes during pregnancy on offspring’s brain cortical thickness and neurocognitive functioning. Child Neuropsychology, Published online: 22 Jul 2022.

Little is known about the long-term effects of maternal diabetes during pregnancy (DP), either gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes (type 1 or type 2), on offspring’s brain morphometry and neurocognitive functioning (NCF). This study examined the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal DP on the brain structure and NCF in children between 9 and 10 years of age. This study used cross-sectional neuroimaging and NCF data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development® study. Exposure to maternal DP was assigned from the developmental history questionnaire. Differences in the brain cortical thickness (CTh) and five cognitive abilities (executive function, working and episodic memory, processing speed, and language abilities) were examined in diabetes-exposed and diabetes-unexposed children. Linear mixed effect models and generalized linear models were used to adjust for the effect of confounding variables. A total of 9,967 children (718 diabetes-exposed and 9249 unexposed) were included in the analysis. Diabetes-exposed children had lower whole-brain CTh [mean: exposed vs unexposed = 2.725 mm vs 2.732 mm; difference (95%CI): −0.007 mm (−0.013, −0.001)] compared to unexposed children after adjusting for confounding variables. Diabetes-exposed children had lower CTh in most part of the occipital lobe of both hemispheres, right postcentral gyrus, and left superior parietal cortex. Diabetes-exposed children also had lower scores in processing speed task [mean difference (95%CI): −1.7 (−2.8, −0.6)] and total cognition [mean difference (95%CI): −0.6 (−1.2, −0.02)]. Diabetes-exposed children have reduced CTh and NCF during preadolescence, which might have implications for psychomotor development during later life. Prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Disparities in sleep duration among American children: effects of race and ethnicity, income, age, and sex

Giddens NT, Juneau P, Manza P, Volkow ND (2022). Disparities in sleep duration among American children: effects of race and ethnicity, income, age, and sex. PNAS, July 18, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2120009119

Significance
Sleep deprivation is detrimental to a child’s health. Access to actigraphy measures enabled us to assess racial/ethnic and income group differences in sleep in a large data set from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (4,207 children ages 9 to 13). This method relies on the closed algorithm of the commercial Fitbit device. Our analyses revealed that black children and low-income children slept significantly less than children from other groups. These findings indicate that disparities in sleep time among children are driven in part by socioeconomic factors.

Abstract

Children in the United States sleep less than the recommended amount and sleep deficiencies may be worse among disadvantaged children. Prior studies that compared sleep time in children of different race/ethnic groups mostly relied on questionnaires or were limited to small sample sizes. Our study takes advantage of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study to compare total sleep time using a week of actigraphy data among American children (n = 4,207, 9 to 13 y old) of different racial/ethnic and income groups. We also assessed the effects of neighborhood deprivation, experience of discrimination, parent’s age at child’s birth, body mass index (BMI), and time the child fell asleep on sleep times. Daily total sleep time for the sample was 7.45 h and race/ethnicity, income, sex, age, BMI, were all significant predictors of total sleep time. Black children slept less than White children (∼34 min; Cohen’s d = 0.95), children from lower income families slept less than those from higher incomes (∼16 min; Cohen’s d = 0.44), boys slept less than girls (∼7 min; Cohen’s d = 0.18), and older children slept less than younger ones (∼32 min; Cohen’s d = 0.91); mostly due to later sleep times. Children with higher BMI also had shorter sleep times. Neither area deprivation index, experience of discrimination, or parent’s age at child’s birth significantly contributed to sleep time. Our findings indicate that children in the United States sleep significantly less than the recommended amount for healthy development and identifies significant racial and income disparities. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene in children will help improve health and ameliorate racial disparities in health outcomes.

Genetic Association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Major Depression With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Lee PH, Doyle AE, Li X, Silberstein M, Jung JY, Gollub RL, Nierenberg AA, Liu RT, Kessler RC, Perlis RH, Fava M. Genetic Association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Major Depression With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2022 Aug 1;92(3):236-245. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.11.026. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Background: Suicide is among the leading causes of death in children and adolescents. There are well-known risk factors of suicide, including childhood abuse, family conflicts, social adversity, and psychopathology. While suicide risk is also known to be heritable, few studies have investigated genetic risk in younger individuals.

Methods: Using polygenic risk score analysis, we examined whether genetic susceptibility to major psychiatric disorders is associated with suicidal behaviors among 11,878 children enrolled in the ABCD (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development) Study. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempt data were assessed using the youth report of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for DSM-5. After performing robust quality control of genotype data, unrelated individuals of European descent were included in analyses (n = 4344).

Results: Among 8 psychiatric disorders we examined, depression polygenic risk scores were associated with lifetime suicide attempts both in the baseline (odds ratio = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.10-2.18, p = 1.27 × 10-2) and in the follow-up year (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.08-1.77, p = 1.05 × 10-2), after adjusting for children’s age, sex, socioeconomic backgrounds, family history of suicide, and psychopathology. In contrast, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder polygenic risk scores were associated with lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05-1.26, p = 3.71 × 10-3), suggesting a distinct contribution of the genetic risk underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression on suicidal behaviors of children.

Conclusions: The largest genetic sample of suicide risk data in U.S. children suggests a significant genetic basis of suicide risk related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression. Further research is warranted to examine whether incorporation of genomic risk may facilitate more targeted screening and intervention efforts.

Application of the RDoC Framework to Predict Alcohol Use and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among Early Adolescents in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Aguinaldo LD, Coronado C, Gomes DA, Courtney KE, Jacobus J. Application of the RDoC Framework to Predict Alcohol Use and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among Early Adolescents in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) StudyBrain Sciences. 2022; 12(7):935. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12070935

Alcohol use confers risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (ideation, attempt) in early adolescents. The Research Domain Criteria provides a framework for examination of multidimensional and modifiable risk factors. We examined distinct latent profiles based on patterns of positive valence (reward responsivity) and cognitive systems (neurocognition) from the ABCD Study (age 9–10, N = 10,414) at baseline enrollment. Longitudinal associations were determined between baseline positive valence and cognitive profiles and group classification (alcohol use, suicidal thoughts and behaviors, or their co-occurrence) two-years after initial assessment (ages 11–12). Three unique profiles of positive valence, cognition, alcohol use, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors were identified. Two baseline profiles predicted alcohol use and suicidal thoughts and behaviors, two-years after initial assessment. Low positive valence with high cognition (but low impulsivity) predicted alcohol use (OR = 1.414, p< 0.001), while high positive valence with low cognition (but high impulsivity) predicted suicidal thoughts and behaviors (OR = 1.25, p = 0.038), compared to average positive valence and cognition. Unique profiles of positive valence and cognitive systems among 9–12-year-olds may be predictive of alcohol use and suicidal thoughts and behaviors over a two-year period. Findings underscore the potential for trajectory research on positive valence and cognitive profiles to enhance prevention for early-adolescents.

Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Adolescent Screen Time and Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Raney J, Testa A, Jackson DB, Ganson KT, Nagata J. Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Adolescent Screen Time and Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Acad Pediatr. 2022 Jul 16:S1876-2859(22)00352-7. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35853601; PMCID: PMC9288265.

Objective: To determine the associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), adolescent screen time, and physical activity during the early COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Data (2016-2020) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study were analyzed. Linear regression analyses estimated associations between ACE score and screen time and physical activity in May 2020, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Of the 6,749 adolescent respondents primarily aged 12-13, 81.6% reported a history of one ACE or more. In adjusted models, a higher ACE score was significantly associated with greater hours per day of screen time, with youth with ≥4 ACEs associated with 2.3 more hours of screen time per day compared to youth with 0 ACEs. In addition, the adjusted models found that a higher ACE score was associated with lower physical activity; youth with ≥4 ACEs averaged 0.8 fewer hours per week of physical activity and 0.5 fewer days per week of 60 minutes of physical activity compared to youth with 0 ACEs. Gender and race were also significantly associated with changes in screen time and physical activity.

Conclusions: ACEs are associated with higher adolescent sedentary behaviors, particularly greater screen time, during the early COVID-19 pandemic (May 2020). Clinicians caring for youth exposed to trauma in the post-pandemic environment should explore screen time and physical activity behaviors.

Proportional intracranial volume correction differentially biases behavioral predictions across neuroanatomical features, sexes, and development

Dhamala E, Ooi LQR, Chen J, Kong R, Anderson KM, Chin R, Yeo BTT, Holmes AJ. Proportional intracranial volume correction differentially biases behavioral predictions across neuroanatomical features, sexes, and development. Neuroimage. 2022 Jul 14:119485. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119485. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35843514.

Individual differences in brain anatomy can be used to predict variations in cognitive ability. Most studies to date have focused on broad population-level trends, but the extent to which the observed predictive features are shared across sexes and age groups remains to be established. While it is standard practice to account for intracranial volume (ICV) using proportion correction in both regional and whole-brain morphometric analyses, in the context of brain-behavior predictions the possible differential impact of ICV correction on anatomical features and subgroups within the population has yet to be systematically investigated. In this work, we evaluate the effect of proportional ICV correction on sex-independent and sex-specific predictive models of individual cognitive abilities across multiple anatomical properties (surface area, gray matter volume, and cortical thickness) in healthy young adults (Human Connectome Project; n=1013, 548 females) and typically developing children (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study; n=1823, 979 females). We demonstrate that ICV correction generally reduces predictive accuracies derived from surface area and gray matter volume, while increasing predictive accuracies based on cortical thickness in both adults and children. Furthermore, the extent to which predictive models generalize across sexes and age groups depends on ICV correction: models based on surface area and gray matter volume are more generalizable without ICV correction, while models based on cortical thickness are more generalizable with ICV correction. Finally, the observed neuroanatomical features predictive of cognitive abilities are unique across age groups regardless of ICV correction, but whether they are shared or unique across sexes (within age groups) depends on ICV correction. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences in ICV, and show that proportional ICV correction does not remove the effects of cranial volume from anatomical measurements and can introduce ICV bias where previously there was none. ICV correction choices affect not just the strength of the relationships captured, but also the conclusions drawn regarding the neuroanatomical features that underlie those relationships.

COVID information and masking behaviors in U.S. adolescents: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Liu J, Patel KP Tai JC, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K. (2022). COVID information and masking behaviors in U.S. adolescents: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Preventive Medicine Reports. Volume 28, August 2022, 101900. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2022.101900

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to health misinformation and are at risk for suboptimal adherence to protective health behaviors in the COVID-19 pandemic. Guided by factors consistent with the theories of planned behavior and rumor transmission, this study sought to analyze the impact of multiple information sources, including social media, television media, internet and parental counseling, on masking behaviors in adolescents. Responses from the December 2020 COVID-19 survey, representing 4,106 U.S. adolescents ages 12–14 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) were analyzed. The majority of parents (61.1%) reported counseling their children on the importance of wearing masks all the time in the past week. A minority of adolescents reported more than one hour of daily exposure to COVID-19 related information on social media (9.1%), the internet (4.3%) and television (10.2%). In unadjusted and adjusted models, greater frequency of parental counseling and exposure to COVID-19 television or social media were associated with ‘always masking’ behaviors. Our findings provide support for the importance of parent counseling and suggest that socialmedia and television may overall support rather than dissuade protective COVID-19 health behaviors in adolescents.

Nucleus Accumbens Response to Reward among Children with a Family History of Alcohol Use Problems: Convergent Findings from the ABCD Study® and Michigan Longitudinal Study

Martz ME, Hardee JE, Cope LM, McCurry KL, Soules M, Zucker RA, Heitzeg MM. Nucleus Accumbens Response to Reward among Children with a Family History of Alcohol Use Problems: Convergent Findings from the ABCD Study® and Michigan Longitudinal Study. Brain Sciences. 2022; 12(7):913. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12070913

Having a family history of alcohol use problems (FH+) conveys risk for alcohol use in offspring. Reward-related brain functioning may play a role in this vulnerability. The present study investigated brain function in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) associated with the anticipation of reward in youth with two biological parents with alcohol use problems (FH+2), one biological parent with alcohol use problems (FH+1), and no biological parents with alcohol use problems (FH-). Participants were from the large, national Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (mean age: 9.93; 48% female; FH+2 n = 223, FH+1 n = 1447, FH- n = 9690) and the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS), consisting of community-recruited families with high rates of alcohol use disorder (mean age: 10.54; 39.3% female; FH+2 n = 40, FH+1 n = 51, FH- n = 40). Reward anticipation was measured by the monetary incentive delay task. Regression models were used to assess associations between FH status and the anticipation of large rewards in right and left NAcc regions of interest. In both studies, FH+2 youth showed blunted anticipatory reward responding in the right NAcc compared to FH+1 youth. In the MLS, FH+2 youth also had blunted anticipatory reward responding in the right NAcc compared to the FH- group. Convergent results across two separate samples provide insights into a unique vulnerability of FH+2 youth and suggest that binary FH+ versus FH- categorizations may obscure important differences within FH+ youth.

Social Epidemiology of Early Adolescent Cyberbullying in the United States

Nagata JM, Trompeter N, Singh G, Ganson KT, Testa A, Jackson DB, Assari S, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC. Social Epidemiology of Early Adolescent Cyberbullying in the United States. Acad Pediatr. 2022 Jul 12:S1876-2859(22)00347-3. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.003. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35840085.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population-based sample of 11-12-year-old early adolescents.

Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (Year 2; N=9,429). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic factors (sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, country of birth, household income, parental education) and adolescent-reported cyberbullying victimization and perpetration.

Results: In the overall sample, lifetime prevalence of cyberbullying victimization was 9.6%, with 65.8% occurring in the past 12 months, while lifetime prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration was 1.1%, with 59.8% occurring the past 12 months. Boys reported higher odds of cyberbullying perpetration (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.92) but lower odds of cyberbullying victimization (AOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.94) than girls. Sexual minorities reported 2.83 higher odds of cyberbullying victimization (95% CI 1.69-4.75) than non-sexual minorities. Lower household income was associated with 1.64 (95% CI 1.34-2.00) higher odds of cyberbullying victimization than higher household income, however household income was not associated with cyberbullying perpetration. Total screen time, particularly on the internet and social media, was associated with both cyberbullying victimization and perpetration.

Conclusions: Nearly one in ten early adolescents reported cyberbullying victimization. Pediatricians, parents, teachers, and online platforms can provide education to support victims and prevent perpetration for early adolescents at the highest risk of cyberbullying.

Brain structural covariation linked to screen media activity and externalizing behaviors in children

Zhao Y, Paulus M, Bagot KS, Constable RT, Yaggi HK, Redeker NS, Potenza MN. Brain structural covariation linked to screen media activity and externalizing behaviors in children. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. Online publication date 30 Jun 2022, https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2022.00044

Background and Aims
Screen media activity (SMA) may impact neurodevelopment in youth. Cross-sectionally, SMA has been linked to brain structural patterns including cortical thinning in children. However, it remains unclear whether specific brain structural co-variation patterns are related to SMA and other clinically relevant measures such as psychopathology, cognition and sleep in children.

Methods
Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) participants with useable baseline structural imaging (N = 10,691; 5,107 girls) were analyzed. We first used the Joint and Individual Variation Explained (JIVE) approach to identify cortical and subcortical covariation pattern(s) among a set of 221 brain features (i.e., surface area, thickness, or cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes). Then, the identified structural covariation pattern was used as a predictor in linear mixed-effect models to investigate its associations with SMA, psychopathology, and cognitive and sleep measures.

Results
A thalamus-prefrontal cortex (PFC)-brainstem structural co-variation pattern (circuit) was identified. The pattern suggests brainstem and bilateral thalamus proper GM volumes covary more strongly with GM volume and/or surface area in bilateral superior frontal gyral, rostral middle frontal, inferior parietal, and inferior temporal regions. This covariation pattern highly resembled one previously linked to alcohol use initiation prior to adulthood and was consistent in girls and boys. Subsequent regression analyses showed that this co-variation pattern associated with SMA (β = 0.107, P = 0.002) and externalizing psychopathology (β = 0.117, P = 0.002), respectively.

Discussion and Conclusions
Findings linking SMA-related structural covariation to externalizing psychopathology in youth resonate with prior studies of alcohol-use initiation and suggest a potential neurodevelopmental mechanism underlying addiction vulnerability.

Individual-, peer-, and parent-level substance use-related factors among 9- and 10-year-olds from the ABCD Study: Prevalence rates and sociodemographic differences

Martz ME, Heitzeg MM, Lisdahl KM, Cloak CC, Feldstein Ewing SW, Gonzalez R, Haist F, LeBlanc KH, Madden PA, Megan Ross J, Sher KJ, Tapert SF, Thompson WK, Wade NE. Individual-, peer-, and parent-level substance use-related factors among 9- and 10-year-olds from the ABCD Study: Prevalence rates and sociodemographic differences. Drug and Alcohol Dependence Reports
Volume 3, June 2022, 100037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dadr.2022.100037

Background
Although a relatively large body of research has identified multiple factors associated with adolescent substance use, less is known about earlier substance-related factors during preadolescence, including curiosity to use substances. The present study examined individual-, peer-, and parent-level domains pertaining to substance use and how these domains vary by sociodemographic subgroups and substance type.

Methods
Participants were 11,864 9- and 10-year-olds from the baseline sample of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Youth-reported measures were curiosity to use substances and perceived peer substance use. Parent-reported measures were availability of and rules about substances. Generalized logistic mixed models (GLMM) were used to compare these measures across alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana and across sociodemographic subgroupings (sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and family history of alcohol problems). GLMM was then used to examine predictors of curiosity to use by substance type.

Results
The most striking descriptive differences were found between race/ethnicity and income categories (e.g., positive associations between greater income and greater availability of alcohol). In multivariable analyses, greater curiosity to use alcohol was associated with being male, higher household income, perceived peer alcohol use, and easy alcohol availability; greater curiosity to use nicotine was associated with being male, perceived peer cigarette use, easy availability of cigarettes, and no parental rules about cigarette use.

Conclusions
This study identified substance use-related individual-, peer-, and parent-level factors among a diverse, national sample. Findings highlight the importance of considering sociodemographic and substance-specific variability and may help identify risk and protective factors preceding adolescent substance use.

Social epidemiology of early adolescent problematic screen use in the United States

Nagata JM, Singh G, Sajjad OM, Ganson KT, Testa A, Jackson DB, Assari S, Murray SB, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC. Social epidemiology of early adolescent problematic screen use in the United States. Pediatr Res. 2022 Jun 29. doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02176-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35768491.

Objective: To determine sociodemographic correlates of problematic screen use (social media, video games, mobile phones) among a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population-based sample of 10-14-year-old early adolescents.

Study design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (Year 2, 2018-2020; N = 8753). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity, primary language, household income, parental education) and adolescent-reported problematic video game (Video Game Addiction Questionnaire), social media (Social Media Addiction Questionnaire), and mobile phone use (Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire).

Results: Boys reported higher problematic video game use while girls reported higher problematic social media and mobile phone use. Native American, black, and Latinx adolescents reported higher scores across all problematic screen measures compared to non-Latinx white adolescents. Having unmarried/unpartnered parents was associated with higher problematic social media use. Although higher household income was generally protective against problematic video game use, these associations were weaker for black than white adolescents (p for interaction <0.05).

Conclusions: Given the sociodemographic differences in problematic screen use, digital literacy education strategies can focus on at-risk populations, encourage targeted counseling by pediatricians, and adapt family media use plans for diverse backgrounds.

Impact: While sociodemographic differences in screen time are documented, we examined sociodemographic differences in problematic screen use in a large, diverse sample of early adolescents in the US. Boys reported higher problematic video game use while girls reported higher problematic social media and mobile phone use. Native American, black, and Latinx adolescents reported higher scores across all problematic screen measures compared to non-Latinx white adolescents. Although higher household income was generally protective against problematic video game use, these associations were weaker for black than white adolescents. Beyond time spent on screens, pediatricians, parents, and educators should be aware of sociodemographic differences in problematic screen use.

Family Well-Being During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Risks of Financial Insecurity and Coping

Gonzalez MR, Brown SA, Pelham WE 3rd, Bodison SC, McCabe C, Baker FC, Baskin-Sommers A, Dick AS, Dowling GJ, Gebreselassie S, Guillaume M, Marshall AT, Sheth C, Sowell ER, Van Rinsveld A, Tapert SF. Family Well-Being During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Risks of Financial Insecurity and Coping. J Res Adolesc. 2022 Jun 24. doi: 10.1111/jora.12776. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35748113.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, families have experienced unprecedented financial and social disruptions. We studied the impact of preexisting psychosocial factors and pandemic-related financial and social disruptions in relation to family well-being among N = 4091 adolescents and parents during early summer 2020, participating in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study. Poorer family well-being was linked to prepandemic psychosocial and financial adversity and was associated with pandemic-related material hardship and social disruptions to routines. Parental alcohol use increased risk for worsening of family relationships, while a greater endorsement of coping strategies was mainly associated with overall better family well-being. Financial and mental health support may be critical for family well-being during and after a widespread crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Associations between Religion, Impulsivity, and Externalizing Behaviors in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Fahey KM, Nakai SC, Edwards JA, Dermody SS. The Associations between Religion, Impulsivity, and Externalizing Behaviors in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Published online: 20 Jun 2022, https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2078590

In studies of adolescents and adults, religiosity has been identified as a protective factor for impulsivity-related behaviors and externalizing problems. No known studies to date have examined the relationship between religiosity and such outcomes in children. Thus, the current study examined in children whether (1) religion is associated with decreased impulsivity and externalizing symptoms, and if (2) religiosity is a protective factor in the association between impulsivity and externalizing symptoms. Data were from Wave 1 of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (children aged 9–10, N = 11,875). Two self-report measures and the Cash Choice Task assessed impulsivity; the Child Behavior Checklist assessed externalizing symptoms; and child religiosity was assessed in parent interviews. Structural equation models examined religiosity (affiliation, service attendance, importance) as a moderator between impulsivity and externalizing symptoms. Greater religious attendance was significantly associated with decreased impulsivity. Christian affiliation was associated with increased impulsivity as compared to other religions. Contrary to our hypotheses, religiosity did not moderate associations between impulsivity and externalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that impulsivity and externalizing behaviors are related to some domains of religiosity in children; however, the magnitude of the effect sizes was small, suggesting religiosity is not a particularly salient predictor of externalizing problems in children. Given these findings differ from those seen in studies of adolescents and adults, future studies should consider longitudinal designs to better understand how these relationships form across the lifespan.

Association between adverse childhood experiences and diet, exercise, and sleep in pre-adolescents

Lewis-de Los Angeles WW. Association between adverse childhood experiences and diet, exercise, and sleep in pre-adolescents. Acad Pediatr. 2022 Jun 18:S1876-2859(22)00300-X. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.06.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35728730.

Objective: To understand the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and diet, sleep, and exercise in pre-adolescents.

Methods: Baseline and one year follow-up data from the adolescent brain and cognitive development (ABCD) study were analyzed (age 10-11, n = 11,875). ACEs were measured by parent report at baseline. Three levels of ACEs were created: none, exposure to one ACE, and exposure to two or more ACEs. Health-promoting behaviors were assessed at 1-year. Diet quality was measured from parent report; sleep problems were measured by parent report, with higher scores indicating worse sleep; and amount of exercise was measured by youth report. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between ACEs and each health-promoting behavior, adjusting for family income and sex.

Results: Compared to children with no adversity, ACEs were associated with worse diet – one ACE (β=-0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.12), p=0.002) and two or more ACEs (β=-0.56 (-0.78 to -0.34), p<0.001). Similarly, ACEs were associated with poor sleep – one ACE (β=1.51 (1.00 to 2.03), p<0.001) and two or more ACEs (β=2.96 (2.38 to 3.53), p<0.001). Finally, amount of exercise was not different in children with ACEs – two or more ACEs (β=-0.24, 95% CI: -0.51 to 0.04, p = 0.08).

Conclusions: ACEs in pre-adolescents show a dose-response relationship with unhealthy diet and sleep disruption. These findings suggest potential behaviors to target to mitigate the negative impact of childhood adversity on adult health.

Associations of polygenic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with general and specific dimensions of childhood psychological problems and facets of impulsivity

Lahey BB, Tong L, Pierce B, Hedeker D, Berman MG, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Moore TM, Applegate B, Tiemeier H, Kaczkurkin AN. Associations of polygenic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with general and specific dimensions of childhood psychological problems and facets of impulsivity. J Psychiatr Res. 2022 Jun 14;152:187-193. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.06.019. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35752070.

A polygenic risk score (PRS) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be associated with ADHD in multiple studies, but also with many other dimensions of problems. Little is known, however, about the processes underlying these transdiagnostic associations. Using data from the baseline and 1-year follow-up assessments of 9- to 10-year-old children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development™ (ABCD©) Study, associations were assessed between an ADHD PRS and both general and specific factors of psychological problems defined in bifactor modeling. Additionally, prospective mediated paths were tested from the ADHD PRS to dimensions of problems in the follow-up assessment through baseline measures of executive functioning (EF) and two facets of impulsivity: lower perseverance and greater impulsiveness in the presence of surgent positive emotions. Previous findings of modest but significant direct associations of the ADHD PRS with the general factor of psychological problems were replicated in both assessments in 4,483 children of European ancestry. In addition, significant statistical mediation was found from the ADHD PRS to the general factor, specific ADHD, and conduct problems in the follow-up assessment through each of the two facets of impulsivity. In contrast, EF did not statistically mediate associations between the ADHD PRS and psychological problems. These results suggest that polygenic risk transdiagnostically influences both psychological problems and facets of impulsivity, perhaps partly through indirect pathways via facets of impulsivity.

Explainable machine learning approach to predict and explain the relationship between task-based fMRI and individual differences in cognition

Pat N, Wang Y, Bartonicek A, Candia J, Stringaris A. Explainable machine learning approach to predict and explain the relationship between task-based fMRI and individual differences in cognition. Cereb Cortex. 2022 Jun 13:bhac235. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhac235. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35697648.

Despite decades of costly research, we still cannot accurately predict individual differences in cognition from task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Moreover, aiming for methods with higher prediction is not sufficient. To understand brain-cognition relationships, we need to explain how these methods draw brain information to make the prediction. Here we applied an explainable machine-learning (ML) framework to predict cognition from task-based fMRI during the n-back working-memory task, using data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (n = 3,989). We compared 9 predictive algorithms in their ability to predict 12 cognitive abilities. We found better out-of-sample prediction from ML algorithms over the mass-univariate and ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression. Among ML algorithms, Elastic Net, a linear and additive algorithm, performed either similar to or better than nonlinear and interactive algorithms. We explained how these algorithms drew information, using SHapley Additive explanation, eNetXplorer, Accumulated Local Effects, and Friedman’s H-statistic. These explainers demonstrated benefits of ML over the OLS multiple regression. For example, ML provided some consistency in variable importance with a previous study and consistency with the mass-univariate approach in the directionality of brain-cognition relationships at different regions. Accordingly, our explainable-ML framework predicted cognition from task-based fMRI with boosted prediction and explainability over standard methodologies.

Estimating the association between exposome and psychosis as well as general psychopathology: results from the ABCD Study

Pries L-K, Moore TM, Visoki E, Sotelo I, Barzilay R, Guloksuz S (2022). Estimating the association between exposome and psychosis as well as general psychopathology: results from the ABCD Study. Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science, Volume 2, Issue 3, July 2022, Pages 283-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.05.005

Background
The exposome comprises all non-genetic factors an individual is exposed to across their lifespan. Research suggests that exposomic vulnerability for schizophrenia is not only associated with psychosis but also general psychopathology to a degree. Here, we investigated to what degree exposome factors are associated with psychosis and general psychopathology.

Methods
Data were retrieved from the 1-year follow-up assessment of a large US adolescent sample (N=11,235), the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Iterative factor analyses of environmental exposures (n=798) allowed calculation of six exposome factors: household adversity, neighborhood environment, day-to-day experiences, state-level environment, family values, pregnancy/birth complications. Bifactor modeling of clinical symptoms (n=93) allowed calculation of a general psychopathology factor (p-factor) and six subdomains including a psychosis subdomain. We applied linear regression analyses to estimate the association of exposome factors with the p-factor and psychosis subdomain, respectively.

Results
Individual analyses showed that five exposome factors were significantly associated with the p-factor after multiple-comparison correction. In the mutually adjusted model, all exposome factors were significantly associated with the p-factor. Psychosis was particularly associated with three exposome factors, with the mutually adjusted model yielding following results: household adversity (B=0.04; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.07), day-to-day experiences (B=0.10, 95%CI 0.08 to 0.12), and pregnancy/birth complications (B=0.03; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.05).

Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate that multifaceted environmental background is associated with mental disorders. Psychosis was particularly associated with pre-, perinatal-, and childhood (household and school) adversities, although these exposome domains were also associated with psychopathology. The exposome approach can help understand neurodevelopmental psychopathology.

Associations between organized sport participation and mental health difficulties: Data from over 11,000 US children and adolescents

Hoffmann MD, Barnes JD, Tremblay MS, Guerrero MD. Associations between organized sport participation and mental health difficulties: Data from over 11,000 US children and adolescents. PLoS One. 2022 Jun 1;17(6):e0268583. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268583. PMID: 35648742.

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between participation in organized sport and a broad array of mental health difficulties among US children and adolescents. The data (cross-sectional) were from Data Release 3.0 (one-year follow-up visits on the full cohort) of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study-a broadly representative sample of 11,235 US children and adolescents aged 9 to 13 years. Parents/guardians provided self-reports of their child’s mental health difficulties using the Child Behavior Checklist. To assess participation in organized sport, children and adolescents were categorized into one of four groups: 1) participation in team sport, 2) participation in individual sport, 3) participation in team and individual sport, and 4) non-sport participation. Participation in team sport compared to non-sport participation was associated with 10% lower anxious/depressed scores, 19% lower withdrawn/depressed scores, 17% lower social problems scores, 17% lower thought problems scores, and 12% lower attention problems scores. Participation in team sport compared to non-sport participation was also associated with 20% lower rule-breaking behavior scores for females (compared to males). Conversely, participation in individual sport compared to non-sport participation was associated with 16% higher anxious/depressed scores, 14% higher withdrawn/depressed scores, 12% higher social problems scores, and 14% higher attention problems scores. Participation in both team and individual sport compared to non-sport participation was associated with 17% lower rule-breaking behavior scores for females (compared to males). Results indicate that team sport participation was associated with fewer mental health difficulties, whereas individual sport participation was associated with greater mental health difficulties. The findings complement previous research suggesting that team sport participation may be a vehicle to support child and adolescent mental health. Additional research is needed to determine to what extent, and under what circumstances, participation in individual sport may be problematic for younger cohorts.

Association of Cyberbullying Experiences and Perpetration With Suicidality in Early Adolescence

Arnon S, Brunstein Klomek A, Visoki E, Moore TM, Argabright ST, DiDomenico GE, Benton TD, Barzilay R. Association of Cyberbullying Experiences and Perpetration With Suicidality in Early Adolescence. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2218746. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.18746. PMID: 35759263.

Importance: Adolescent suicidality (ie, suicidal ideation or attempts) is a major public health concern. Cyberbullying experiences and perpetration have become increasingly prevalent and are associated with mental health burden, but their roles as independent suicidality risk factors remain unclear. Data are needed to clarify their contribution to teen suicidality to inform suicide prevention efforts.

Objective: To examine whether cyberbullying experiences and perpetration are distinct stressors divergent from other forms of peer aggression experiences in their association with suicidality in early adolescence.

Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional analysis used data collected between July 2018 and January 2021 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a large, diverse sample of US children aged 10 to 13 years.

Exposures: Youth reports of cyberbullying experiences or perpetration.

Main outcomes and measures: The main outcome was youth-reported suicidality (past or present, as reported in the ABCD 2-year follow-up assessment). Covariates included demographics, established environmental risk and protective factors for youth suicidality, psychopathology, and experiences or perpetration of offline peer aggression.

Results: A total of 10 414 ABCD participants were included in this study. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 12.0 (0.7) years and 4962 (47.6%) were female; 796 (7.6%) endorsed suicidality. A total of 930 (8.9%) reported experiencing cyberbullying and 96 (0.9%) reported perpetrating cyberbullying. Of the perpetrators, 66 (69.0%) also endorsed experiencing cyberbullying. Controlling for demographics, experiencing cyberbullying was associated with suicidality (odds ratio [OR], 4.2 [95% CI, 3.5-5.1]; P < .001), whereas perpetrating cyberbullying was not (OR, 1.3 [95% CI, 0.8-2.3]; P = .30). Experiencing cyberbullying remained associated with suicidality when accounting for negative life events, family conflict, parental monitoring, school environment, and racial and ethnic discrimination (OR, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.0-3.0]; P < .001) and when further covarying for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology (OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4-2.4]; P < .001). Both being a target and being a perpetrator of offline peer aggression were associated with suicidality (OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.1-2.0] for both), controlling for all covariates described earlier. Cyberbullying experiences remained associated with suicidality (OR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.3-2.2]; P < .001, controlling for all covariates) when included with offline peer aggression experiences and perpetration.

Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study, experiencing-but not perpetrating-cyberbullying was associated with suicidality in early adolescence. This association was significant over and above other suicidality risk factors, including offline peer aggression experiences or perpetration. These findings can inform adolescent suicide prevention strategies, and they suggest that clinicians and educational staff working with this population should routinely evaluate for adolescents’ experience with cyberbullying.

 

The Mediating Role of Family Acceptance and Conflict on Suicidality among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth

Klein DA, Ahmed AE, Murphy MA, Pearlman AT, Johnson N, Gray JC, Schvey NA. The Mediating Role of Family Acceptance and Conflict on Suicidality among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth. Arch Suicide Res. 2022 May 24:1-8. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2022.2075815. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35608364.

Introduction: Prior research suggests sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are profoundly impacted by levels of parental support. This study assessed mediating effects of generalized family acceptance and conflict on lifetime suicidal behaviors among a large diverse sample comprising both SGM and non-SGM youth in early adolescence, when intervention to optimize family dynamics may be critical.

Materials: Using data from the first-year follow-up of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study based in the United States, mediation was tested using a binary logistic regression model fitted with a generalized structural equation. Models included SGM status as the independent variable, family acceptance or family conflict sum score as the mediator, and the presence of lifetime suicidal behaviors as the dependent variable. Models adjusted for age, birth-assigned sex (as reported by the parent/guardian), and race/ethnicity.

Results: Of 11,235 youths, lifetime suicidal behaviors were reported by 1.5% (n = 164). Youths with SGM identities reported 40% less parental acceptance and 47% greater family conflict, compared to non-SGM peers. Both parental acceptance and family conflict partially mediated associations between SGM identification and odds of lifetime suicidal behavior (ps = .001).

Conclusions: Identification of modifiable risk factors for suicidality in this vulnerable population, including parental acceptance and family conflict, is critical to improving health outcomes. Clinicians should work with SGM youth and their families starting in childhood to optimize family dynamics and bolster acceptance to potentially reduce adverse health outcomes.

HIGHLIGHTS Youths with SGM identity reported 40% less parental acceptance than non-SGM peers. Parental acceptance was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicidal behaviors. Family factors partially mediated associations between SGM status and suicidal behaviors.

Anxiety, depression, and substance experimentation in childhood

Klein RJ, Gyorda JA, Jacobson NC. Anxiety, depression, and substance experimentation in childhood. PLoS One. 2022 May 24;17(5):e0265239. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265239. PMID: 35609016.

Previous research has demonstrated that adults with comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are significantly more likely to show pathological use of drugs or alcohol. Few studies, however, have examined associations of this type in children. A better understanding of the relationships between affective disorders and substance experimentation in childhood could help clarify the complex ways in which pathological substance use symptoms develop early in life. The present study included 11,785 children (Mage = 9.9) participating in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Depressive and anxiety disorder diagnoses were evaluated as concurrent predictors of experimentation with alcohol and tobacco. A series of linear regressions revealed that children with either depressive or anxiety disorders were significantly more likely to experiment with alcohol or tobacco. However, children with both depressive and anxiety diagnoses were not more likely to experiment than children without a diagnosis. These results suggest that anxiety or depressive diagnoses in childhood may be associated with a greater likelihood of substance experimentation, but severe psychological distress may suppress these effects.

Relationship Between Neighborhood Poverty and Externalizing Symptoms in Children: Mediation and Moderation by Environmental Factors and Brain Structure

Maxwell MY, Taylor RL, Barch DM. Relationship Between Neighborhood Poverty and Externalizing Symptoms in Children: Mediation and Moderation by Environmental Factors and Brain Structure. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2022 May 21. doi: 10.1007/s10578-022-01369-w. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35596841.

Children living in poverty exhibit worse mental health outcomes, and various environmental and neurological risk factors may contribute to or mitigate this relationship. However, previous research has not examined the interplay of neighborhood SES, mental health, and relevant mechanisms. We examined the extent to which neighborhood poverty uniquely contributes to children’s internalizing/externalizing disorder symptoms, as well as identified whether brain measures, toxin levels, and neighborhood threat mediated this relationship and whether socioemotional support moderated it. Data were collected from 8623 9-10 year olds as part of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Using a secondary data analysis, we found that neighborhood poverty was positively associated with externalizing symptoms and mediated by reduced intracranial volume and parents/children reporting feeling less safe. Parental support (i.e., Parental Monitoring Survey) attenuated this link, but only for children lower in poverty. Consideration of these risk factors for psychopathology could improve the outcome of holistic interventions.

A practical guide for researchers and reviewers using the ABCD Study and other large longitudinal datasets

Saragosa-Harris NM, Chaku N, MacSweeney N, Guazzelli Williamson V, Scheuplein M, Feola B, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Demir-Lira E, McNeilly EA, Huffman LG, Whitmore L, Michalska KJ, Damme KS, Rakesh D, Mills KL. A practical guide for researchers and reviewers using the ABCD Study and other large longitudinal datasets. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2022 May 20;55:101115. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101115. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35636343; PMCID: PMC9156875.

As the largest longitudinal study of adolescent brain development and behavior to date, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® has provided immense opportunities for researchers across disciplines since its first data release in 2018. The size and scope of the study also present a number of hurdles, which range from becoming familiar with the study design and data structure to employing rigorous and reproducible analyses. The current paper is intended as a guide for researchers and reviewers working with ABCD data, highlighting the features of the data (and the strengths and limitations therein) as well as relevant analytical and methodological considerations. Additionally, we explore justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts as they pertain to the ABCD Study and other large-scale datasets. In doing so, we hope to increase both accessibility of the ABCD Study and transparency within the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience.

Multi-tract multi-symptom relationships in pediatric concussion

Guido I Guberman, Sonja Stojanovski, Eman Nishat, Alain Ptito, Danilo Bzdok, Anne L Wheeler, Maxime Descoteaux (2022). Multi-tract multi-symptom relationships in pediatric concussion. eLife 11:e70450, https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.70450

Background: The heterogeneity of white matter damage and symptoms in concussion has been identified as a major obstacle to therapeutic innovation. In contrast, most diffusion MRI (dMRI) studies on concussion have traditionally relied on group-comparison approaches that average out heterogeneity. To leverage, rather than average out, concussion heterogeneity, we combined dMRI and multivariate statistics to characterize multi-tract multi-symptom relationships.

Methods: Using cross-sectional data from 306 previously-concussed children aged 9-10 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, we built connectomes weighted by classical and emerging diffusion measures. These measures were combined into two informative indices, the first representing microstructural complexity, the second representing axonal density. We deployed pattern-learning algorithms to jointly decompose these connectivity features and 19 symptom measures.

Results: Early multi-tract multi-symptom pairs explained the most covariance and represented broad symptom categories, such as a general problems pair, or a pair representing all cognitive symptoms, and implicated more distributed networks of white matter tracts. Further pairs represented more specific symptom combinations, such as a pair representing attention problems exclusively, and were associated with more localized white matter abnormalities. Symptom representation was not systematically related to tract representation across pairs. Sleep problems were implicated across most pairs, but were related to different connections across these pairs. Expression of multi-tract features was not driven by sociodemographic and injury-related variables, as well as by clinical subgroups defined by the presence of ADHD. Analyses performed on a replication dataset showed consistent results.

Conclusions: Using a double-multivariate approach, we identified clinically-informative, cross-demographic multi-tract multi-symptom relationships. These results suggest that rather than clear one-to-one symptom-connectivity disturbances, concussions may be characterized by subtypes of symptom/connectivity relationships. The symptom/connectivity relationships identified in multi-tract multi-symptom pairs were not apparent in single-tract/single-symptom analyses. Future studies aiming to better understand connectivity/symptom relationships should take into account multi-tract multi-symptom heterogeneity.

Limits to the generalizability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of youth: An examination of ABCD Study® baseline data

Cosgrove, K.T., McDermott, T.J., White, E.J. et al. Limits to the generalizability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of youth: An examination of ABCD Study® baseline data. Brain Imaging and Behavior (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-022-00665-2

This study examined how resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data quality and availability relate to clinical and sociodemographic variables within the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. A sample of participants with an adequate sample of quality baseline rs-fMRI data containing low average motion (framewise displacement ≤ 0.15; low-noise; n = 4,356) was compared to a sample of participants without an adequate sample of quality data and/or containing high average motion (higher-noise; n = 7,437) using Chi-squared analyses and t-tests. A linear mixed model examined relationships between clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and average head motion in the sample with low-noise data. Relative to the sample with higher-noise data, the low-noise sample included more females, youth identified by parents as non-Hispanic white, and youth with married parents, higher parent education, and greater household incomes (ORs = 1.32–1.42). Youth in the low-noise sample were also older and had higher neurocognitive skills, lower BMIs, and fewer externalizing and neurodevelopmental problems (ds = 0.12–0.30). Within the low-noise sample, several clinical and demographic characteristics related to motion. Thus, participants with low-noise rs-fMRI data may be less representative of the general population and motion may remain a confound in this sample. Future rs-fMRI studies of youth should consider these limitations in the design and analysis stages in order to optimize the representativeness and clinical relevance of analyses and results.

The impact of digital media on children’s intelligence while controlling for genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic background

Sauce, B., Liebherr, M., Judd, N. et al. The impact of digital media on children’s intelligence while controlling for genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic background. Sci Rep 12, 7720 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11341-2

Digital media defines modern childhood, but its cognitive effects are unclear and hotly debated. We believe that studies with genetic data could clarify causal claims and correct for the typically unaccounted role of genetic predispositions. Here, we estimated the impact of different types of screen time (watching, socializing, or gaming) on children’s intelligence while controlling for the confounding effects of genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic status. We analyzed 9855 children from the USA who were part of the ABCD dataset with measures of intelligence at baseline (ages 9–10) and after two years. At baseline, time watching (r = − 0.12) and socializing (r = − 0.10) were negatively correlated with intelligence, while gaming did not correlate. After two years, gaming positively impacted intelligence (standardized β =  + 0.17), but socializing had no effect. This is consistent with cognitive benefits documented in experimental studies on video gaming. Unexpectedly, watching videos also benefited intelligence (standardized β =  + 0.12), contrary to prior research on the effect of watching TV. Although, in a posthoc analysis, this was not significant if parental education (instead of SES) was controlled for. Broadly, our results are in line with research on the malleability of cognitive abilities from environmental factors, such as cognitive training and the Flynn effect.

Prediction of the trajectories of depressive symptoms among children in the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study using machine learning approach

Xiang Q, Chen K, Peng L, Luo J, Jiang J, Chen Y, Lan L, Song H, Zhou X. Prediction of the trajectories of depressive symptoms among children in the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study using machine learning approach. J Affect Disord. 2022 May 8:S0165-0327(22)00523-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.020. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35545159.

Background: Depression often first emerges during adolescence and evidence shows that the long-term patterns of depressive symptoms over time are heterogeneous. It is meaningful to predict the trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescents to find early intervention targets.

Methods: Based on the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, we included 4962 participants aged 9-10 who were followed-up for 2 years. Trajectories of depressive symptoms were identified by Latent Class Growth Analyses (LCGA). Four types of machine learning models were built to predict the identified trajectories and to obtain variables with predictive value based on the best performance model.

Results: Of all participants, 536 (10.80%) were classified as increasing, 269 (5.42%) as persistently high, 433 (8.73%) as decreasing, and 3724 (75.05%) as persistently low by LCGA. Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) model got the highest discriminant performance. Sleep quality, parental emotional state and family financial adversities were the most important predictors and three resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity data were also helpful to distinguish trajectories.

Limitation: We only have depressive symptom scores at three time points. Some valuable predictors are not specific to depression. External validation is an important next step. These predictors should not be interpreted as etiology and some variables were reported by parents/caregivers.

Conclusion: Using GBM combined with baseline characteristics, the trajectories of depressive symptoms with two years among adolescents aged 9-10 years can be well predicted, which might further facilitate the identification of adolescents at high risk of depressive symptoms and development of effective early interventions.

Parent-Child Concordance and Discordance in Family Violence Reporting: A Descriptive Analysis from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study®

Hogan JN, Garcia AM, Tomko RL, Squeglia LM, Flanagan JC. Parent-Child Concordance and Discordance in Family Violence Reporting: A Descriptive Analysis from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study®. J Interpers Violence. 2022 May 7:8862605221081928. doi: 10.1177/08862605221081928. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35531607.

Childhood trauma exposure, including witnessing or experiencing family violence, is associated with a variety of poor outcomes such as increased likelihood of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors across the lifespan. Early treatment may help to buffer these effects, but parents and youth display only moderate levels of agreement in reporting family violence, making it more difficult to identify children who have been exposed. Additionally, most studies on family violence reporting have focused primarily on small samples in specific high-risk populations, and little is known about the generalizability of these findings. Thus, the present study assessed concordance in family violence reporting and its correlates using the population-based, demographically diverse sample from the U.S. Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD®) study. Participants were 10,532 children between 9 and 10 years old, and their parent or guardian, from 21 sites across the United States. Overall, 30% (N = 3119) of the sample reported family violence and most of those reports (N = 2629) had discordant violence reporting, meaning child- and parent-report did not correspond with each other. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of participants belonging in one of the following groups: no violence reported, concordant violence reported, and discordant violence reported. Results indicated that Black or Non-Hispanic children, male children, and children with greater externalizing problems were more likely to report family violence, and parents with lower levels of education and income were more likely to report family violence. These findings likely reflect differences in distribution of risk factors among racial and ethnic minoritized individuals including increased parenting stress and decreased access to mental health treatment. Among those reporting violence, Hispanic children and children with less externalizing problems were more likely to be in the discordant group. Findings suggest that both parent and child reports are needed to assess violence and screen for appropriate services.

T1w/T2w Ratio and Cognition in 9-to-11-Year-Old Children

Langansee L, Rumetshofer T, Behjat H, Novén , Li P, Mårtensson J. T1w/T2w Ratio and Cognition in 9-to-11-Year-Old Children. Brain Sci. 2022, 12(5), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12050599

Childhood is a period of extensive cortical and neural development. Among other things, axons in the brain gradually become more myelinated, promoting the propagation of electrical signals between different parts of the brain, which in turn may facilitate skill development. Myelin is difficult to assess in vivo, and measurement techniques are only just beginning to make their way into standard imaging protocols in human cognitive neuroscience. An approach that has been proposed as an indirect measure of cortical myelin is the T1w/T2w ratio, a contrast that is based on the intensities of two standard structural magnetic resonance images. Although not initially intended as such, researchers have recently started to use the T1w/T2w contrast for between-subject comparisons of cortical data with various behavioral and cognitive indices. As a complement to these earlier findings, we computed individual cortical T1w/T2w maps using data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (N = 960; 449 females; aged 8.9 to 11.0 years) and related the T1w/T2w maps to indices of cognitive ability; in contrast to previous work, we did not find significant relationships between T1w/T2w values and cognitive performance after correcting for multiple testing. These findings reinforce existent skepticism about the applicability of T1w/T2w ratio for inter-individual comparisons.

Multivariate genome-wide association study on tissue-sensitive diffusion metrics highlights pathways that shape the human brain

Fan CC, Loughnan R, Makowski C, Pecheva D, Chen CH, Hagler DJ Jr, Thompson WK, Parker N, van der Meer D, Frei O, Andreassen OA, Dale AM. Multivariate genome-wide association study on tissue-sensitive diffusion metrics highlights pathways that shape the human brain. Nat Commun. 2022 May 3;13(1):2423. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-30110-3. PMID: 35505052.

The molecular determinants of tissue composition of the human brain remain largely unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on this topic have had limited success due to methodological constraints. Here, we apply advanced whole-brain analyses on multi-shell diffusion imaging data and multivariate GWAS to two large scale imaging genetic datasets (UK Biobank and the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study) to identify and validate genetic association signals. We discover 503 unique genetic loci that have impact on multiple regions of human brain. Among them, more than 79% are validated in either of two large-scale independent imaging datasets. Key molecular pathways involved in axonal growth, astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation, and synaptogenesis during development are found to significantly impact the measured variations in tissue-specific imaging features. Our results shed new light on the biological determinants of brain tissue composition and their potential overlap with the genetic basis of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Nucleus Accumbens Fractional Anisotropy and Children’s Body Mass Index: Moderating Role of Race and Family Income

Assari S. (2022). Nucleus Accumbens Fractional Anisotropy and Children’s Body Mass Index: Moderating Role of Race and Family Income. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research, Volume 9, Issue 2 – Serial Number 31, May 2022, Pages 54-60.

Background and aims: The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) functional and morphometric features may influence children’s body mass index (BMI). Recent evidence, however, suggests that the function and structure of the NAcc may have different predictive abilities for the BMI for the sub-groups of children from different racial and socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Using the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development data, this study investigated racial and SES differences in the association between NAcc microstructure (i.e., fractional anisotropy) and childhood BMI.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 9497 children aged 9 and 10. Data were collected from 21 sites across 15 states in the United States. Then, the mixed-effects regression model was applied for data analysis. The predictor variable of interest was NAcc fractional anisotropy measured using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). The main outcome of interest was children’s BMI values, which were treated as a continuous variable. Covariates included gender, age, and family structure. Race (White, Black, Asian, and Other/mixed) and family income ( < USD 50,000, USD 50,000-100,000, and USD100,000+) were the effect modifiers (moderators).

Results: Higher average NAcc fractional anisotropy in dMRI was predictive of lower levels of the BMI, and net of covariates. However, this inverse association between the average intensity of the normalized T2-weighted image and the BMI was stronger in children from Hispanic, low income, and low-educated backgrounds compared to non-Hispanic, high-income, and high-educated backgrounds.

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that although NAcc fractional anisotropy is linked to children’s BMI, this link is not invariant across racial and SES groups. The issue of whether or not obesogenic environments alter the implications of NAcc for childhood BMI needs further investigation. For diverse groups, NAcc microstructures may have different magnitudes of associations with childhood BMI.

Longer screen time utilization is associated with the polygenic risk for Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with mediation by brain white matter microstructure

Yang A, Rolls ET, Dong G, Du J, Li Y, Feng J, Cheng W, Zhao XM. Longer screen time utilization is associated with the polygenic risk for Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with mediation by brain white matter microstructure. EBioMedicine. 2022 May 1;80:104039. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104039. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35509143.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported to be associated with longer screen time utilization (STU) at the behavioral level. However, whether there are shared neural links between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU is not clear and has not been explored in a single large-scale dataset.

Methods: Leveraging the genetics, neuroimaging and behavioral data of 11,000+ children aged 9-11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development cohort, this study investigates the associations between the polygenic risk and trait for ADHD, STU, and white matter microstructure through cross-sectionally and longitudinal analyses.

Findings: Children with higher polygenic risk scores for ADHD tend to have longer STU and more severe ADHD symptoms. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values in several white matter tracts are negatively correlated with both the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU, including the inferior frontal-striatal tract, inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus and corpus callosum. Most of these tracts are linked to visual-related functions. Longitudinal analyses indicate a directional effect of white matter microstructure on the ADHD scale, and a bi-directional effect between the ADHD scale and STU. Furthermore, reduction of FA in several white matter tracts mediates the association between the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU.

Interpretation: These findings shed new light on the shared neural overlaps between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU, and provide evidence that the polygenic risk for ADHD is related, via white matter microstructure and the ADHD trait, to STU.

Association of Social Determinants of Health and Vaccinations With Child Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US

Xiao Y, Yip P S-F, Pathak J, Mann J. Association of Social Determinants of Health and Vaccinations With Child Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online April 27, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.0818

Importance
The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected mental health in socioeconomically disadvantaged children in the US. However, little is known about the relationship of preexisting and time-varying social determinants of health (SDoH) at individual and structural levels, vaccination eligibility/rates, and the racial and ethnic differences to trajectories of child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective
To estimate the association of trajectories of child mental health to multilevel SDoH and vaccination eligibility/rates.

Design, Setting, and Participants
This prospective longitudinal cohort study, conducted from May 16, 2020, to March 2, 2021, integrated structural-level, pandemic-related data with the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort data (release 4.0). The ABCD study recruited 11 878 children (baseline) and conducted 6 COVID-19 rapid response surveys across 21 US sites (in 17 states) from May 16, 2020, to March 2, 2021.

Exposures
Preexisting individual (eg, household income) and structural (area deprivation) SDoH and time-varying individual (eg, food insecurity, unemployment) and structural (eg, social distancing, vaccination eligibility/rates) SDoH.

Main Outcomes and Measures
Perceived Stress Scale, the National Institutes of Health–Toolbox emotion measures, and COVID-19–related worry.

Results
The longitudinal sample included 8493 children (mean [SD] age, 9.93 [0.63] years; 5011 girls [47.89%]; 245 Asian [2.34%], 1213 Black [11.59%], 2029 Hispanic [19.39%], 5851 White [55.93%], and 1124 children of other/multiracial ethnicity [10.74%]). Trajectories of stress, sadness, and COVID-19–related worry decreased after adult vaccination rollout. Compared with younger children, boys, White children, or those living with married parents, those who reported greater perceived stress included older children aged 12 to 15 years (β = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.12-0.41; P < .001); girls (β = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.89; P < .001); Hispanic children (β = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.01-0.47; P = .04); children living with separated parents (β = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.03-0.96; P = .04); children experiencing disrupted medical health care access (β = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.01-0.36; P = .04); children living in economically deprived neighborhoods (β = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.05-0.51; P = .02); children living in areas with more full-time working-class adults who were unable to social distance (β = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.13-2.67; P = .04); and children living in states with fewer fully vaccinated adults (β = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.16-1.02; P = .007). COVID-19 pandemic–related worry was higher among Asian children (β = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08-0.37; P = .003), Black children (β = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.22-0.43; P < .001), children of other/multiracial ethnicity (β = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.25; P < .001), and children with disrupted medical health care (β = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09-0.21) and disrupted mental health treatment (β = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.16). Inability to afford food was associated with increased sadness (β = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.06-2.93; P = .04). States with later vaccination eligibility dates for all adults were associated with greater COVID-19–related worry (β = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.01-0.31; P = .03) and decreased positive affect (β = −1.78; 95% CI, −3.39 to −0.18; P = .03) among children.

Conclusions and Relevance
Results of this study suggest a disproportionately adverse association of the COVID-19 pandemic with child mental health among racial and ethnic minority groups, which may be improved by addressing modifiable individual (food insecurity, unemployment, health services, parental supervision) and structural (area deprivation, job protection, vaccination) SDoH.

The sexual brain, genes, and cognition: A machine-predicted brain sex score explains individual differences in cognitive intelligence and genetic influence in young children

Kim K, Joo YY, Ahn G, Wang HH, Moon SY, Kim H, Ahn WY, Cha J. The sexual brain, genes, and cognition: A machine-predicted brain sex score explains individual differences in cognitive intelligence and genetic influence in young children. Hum Brain Mapp. 2022 Apr 26. doi: 10.1002/hbm.25888. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35471639.

Sex impacts the development of the brain and cognition differently across individuals. However, the literature on brain sex dimorphism in humans is mixed. We aim to investigate the biological underpinnings of the individual variability of sexual dimorphism in the brain and its impact on cognitive performance. To this end, we tested whether the individual difference in brain sex would be linked to that in cognitive performance that is influenced by genetic factors in prepubertal children (N = 9,658, ages 9-10 years old; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study). To capture the interindividual variability of the brain, we estimated the probability of being male or female based on the brain morphometry and connectivity features using machine learning (herein called a brain sex score). The models accurately classified the biological sex with a test ROC-AUC of 93.32%. As a result, a greater brain sex score correlated significantly with greater intelligence and higher cognitive genome-wide polygenic scores (GPSs). Structural equation models revealed that the GPS-intelligence association was significantly modulated by the brain sex score, such that a brain with a higher maleness score (or a lower femaleness score) mediated a positive GPS effect on intelligence (indirect effects = .006-.009; p = .002-.022; sex-stratified analysis). The finding of the sex modulatory effect on the gene-brain-cognition relationship presents a likely biological pathway to the individual and sex differences in the brain and cognitive performance in preadolescence.

Shared and unique brain network features predict cognitive, personality, and mental health scores in the ABCD study

Chen J, Tam A, Kebets V, Orban C, Ooi LQR, Asplund CL, Marek S, Dosenbach NUF, Eickhoff SB, Bzdok D, Holmes AJ, Yeo BTT. Shared and unique brain network features predict cognitive, personality, and mental health scores in the ABCD study. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 25;13(1):2217. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-29766-8. PMID: 35468875.

How individual differences in brain network organization track behavioral variability is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. Recent work suggests that resting-state and task-state functional connectivity can predict specific traits at the individual level. However, most studies focus on single behavioral traits, thus not capturing broader relationships across behaviors. In a large sample of 1858 typically developing children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, we show that predictive network features are distinct across the domains of cognitive performance, personality scores and mental health assessments. On the other hand, traits within each behavioral domain are predicted by similar network features. Predictive network features and models generalize to other behavioral measures within the same behavioral domain. Although tasks are known to modulate the functional connectome, predictive network features are similar between resting and task states. Overall, our findings reveal shared brain network features that account for individual variation within broad domains of behavior in childhood.

Effects of the physical and social environment on youth cognitive performance

Meredith WJ, Cardenas-Iniguez C, Berman MG, Rosenberg MD. Effects of the physical and social environment on youth cognitive performance. Dev Psychobiol. 2022 May;64(4):e22258. doi: 10.1002/dev.22258. PMID: 35452534.

Individual differences in children’s cognitive abilities impact life and health outcomes. What factors influence these individual differences during development? Here, we test whether children’s environments predict cognitive performance, independent of well-characterized socioeconomic effects. We analyzed data from 9002 9- to 10-year olds from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, an ongoing longitudinal study with community samples across the United States. Using youth- and caregiver-report questionnaires and national database registries (e.g., neighborhood crime, walkability), we defined principal components summarizing children’s home, school, neighborhood, and cultural environments. In two independent samples (ns = 3475, 5527), environmental components explained unique variance in children’s general cognitive ability, executive functioning, and learning/memory abilities. Furthermore, increased neighborhood enrichment was associated with an attenuated relationship between sociodemographics and general cognitive abilities. Thus, the environment accounts for unique variance in cognitive performance in children and should be considered alongside sociodemographic factors to better understand brain functioning and behavior across development.

Internalizing Symptoms & Adverse Childhood Experiences Associated with Functional Connectivity in A Middle Childhood Sample

Albertina EA, Barch DM, Karcher NR. Internalizing Symptoms & Adverse Childhood Experiences Associated with Functional Connectivity in A Middle Childhood Sample. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2022 Apr 25:S2451-9022(22)00094-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.04.001. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35483606

Introduction: Research has found overlapping associations in adults of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to both internalizing disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) as well as a history of traumatic events. The present study aimed to extend this previous research to a younger sample by examining RSFC associations with both internalizing symptoms and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in middle childhood.

Method: We used generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between a priori within- and between-network RSFC with child-reported internalizing symptoms and ACEs using the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development dataset (N= 10,168, Mage(years)= 9.95, SDage(years)= 0.627).

Results: We found that internalizing symptoms and ACEs were associated with both multiple overlapping and unique RSFC network patterns. Both ACEs and internalizing symptoms were associated with a reduced anticorrelation between the default mode network and the dorsal attention network. However, internalizing symptoms were uniquely associated with lower within-network default mode network connectivity while ACEs were uniquely associated with both lower between-network connectivity of the auditory network and cingulo-opercular network, and higher within-network frontoparietal network connectivity.

Conclusions: The present study points to overlap in the RSFC associations with internalizing symptoms and ACEs, as well as important areas of specificity in RSFC associations. Many of the RSFC associations found have been previously implicated in attentional control functions, including modulation of attention to sensory stimuli. This may have critical importance in understanding internalizing symptoms and outcomes of ACEs.

Individual-, peer-, and parent-level substance use-related factors among 9- and 10-year-olds from the ABCD Study: Prevalence rates and sociodemographic differences

Martz ME, Heitzeg MM, Lisdahl KM, Cloak CC, Feldstein Ewing SW, Gonzalez R, Haist F, LeBlanc KH, Madden PA, Ross JM, Sher KJ, Tapert SF, Thompson WK, Wade NE. Individual-, peer-, and parent-level substance use-related factors among 9- and 10-year-olds from the ABCD Study: Prevalence rates and sociodemographic differences. Drug and Alcohol Dependence Reports. Volume 3, June 2022, 100037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dadr.2022.100037

Background
Although a relatively large body of research has identified multiple factors associated with adolescent substance use, less is known about earlier substance-related factors during preadolescence, including curiosity to use substances. The present study examined individual-, peer-, and parent-level domains pertaining to substance use and how these domains vary by sociodemographic subgroups and substance type.

Methods
Participants were 11,864 9- and 10-year-olds from the baseline sample of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Youth-reported measures were curiosity to use substances and perceived peer substance use. Parent-reported measures were availability of and rules about substances. Generalized logistic mixed models (GLMM) were used to compare these measures across alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana and across sociodemographic subgroupings (sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and family history of alcohol problems). GLMM was then used to examine predictors of curiosity to use by substance type.

Results
The most striking descriptive differences were found between race/ethnicity and income categories (e.g., positive associations between greater income and greater availability of alcohol). In multivariable analyses, greater curiosity to use alcohol was associated with being male, higher household income, perceived peer alcohol use, and easy alcohol availability; greater curiosity to use nicotine was associated with being male, perceived peer cigarette use, easy availability of cigarettes, and no parental rules about cigarette use.

Conclusions
This study identified substance use-related individual-, peer-, and parent-level factors among a diverse, national sample. Findings highlight the importance of considering sociodemographic and substance-specific variability and may help identify risk and protective factors preceding adolescent substance use.

An open-access accelerated adult equivalent of the ABCD Study neuroimaging dataset (a-ABCD)

Rapuano KM, Conley MI, Juliano AC, Conan GM, Maza MT, Woodman K, Martinez SA, Earl E, Perrone A, Feczko E, Fair DA, Watts R, Casey BJ, Rosenberg MD. An open-access accelerated adult equivalent of the ABCD Study neuroimaging dataset (a-ABCD). Neuroimage. 2022 Apr 15:119215. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119215. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35436615.

As public access to longitudinal developmental datasets like the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development StudySM (ABCD Study®) increases, so too does the need for resources to benchmark time-dependent effects. Scan-to-scan changes observed with repeated imaging may reflect development but may also reflect practice effects, day-to-day variability in psychological states, and/or measurement noise. Resources that allow disentangling these time-dependent effects will be useful in quantifying actual developmental change. We present an accelerated adult equivalent of the ABCD Study dataset (a-ABCD) using an identical imaging protocol to acquire magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural, diffusion-weighted, resting-state and task-based data from eight adults scanned five times over five weeks. We report on the task-based imaging data (n = 7). In-scanner stop-signal (SST), monetary incentive delay (MID), and emotional n-back (EN-back) task behavioral performance did not change across sessions. Post-scan recognition memory for emotional n-back stimuli, however, did improve as participants became more familiar with the stimuli. Functional MRI analyses revealed that patterns of task-based activation reflecting inhibitory control in the SST, reward success in the MID task, and working memory in the EN-back task were more similar within individuals across repeated scan sessions than between individuals. Within-subject, activity was more consistent across sessions during the EN-back task than in the SST and MID task, demonstrating differences in fMRI data reliability as a function of task. The a-ABCD dataset provides a unique testbed for characterizing the reliability of brain function, structure, and behavior across imaging modalities in adulthood and benchmarking neurodevelopmental change observed in the open-access ABCD Study.

Computational modeling of the N-Back task in the ABCD study: associations of drift diffusion model parameters to polygenic scores of mental disorders and cardiometabolic diseases

Pedersen ML, Alnæs D, van der Meer D, Fernandez-Cabello S, Berthet P, Dahl A, Kjelkenes R, Schwarz E, Thompson WK, Barch DM, Andreassen OA, Westlye LT. Computational modeling of the N-Back task in the ABCD study: associations of drift diffusion model parameters to polygenic scores of mental disorders and cardiometabolic diseases. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2022 Apr 12:S2451-9022(22)00078-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.03.012. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35427796.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is common in mental disorders and represents a potential risk factor in childhood. The nature and extent of associations between childhood cognitive function and polygenic risk for mental disorders is unclear. We applied computational modeling to gain insight into mechanistic processes underlying decision making and working memory in childhood and their associations with PRS for mental disorders and comorbid cardiometabolic diseases.

Methods: We used the drift diffusion model to infer latent computational processes underlying decision-making and working memory during the N-back task in 3707 children aged 9-10 from the ABCD Study. SNP-based heritability was estimated for cognitive phenotypes, including computational parameters, aggregated N-back task performance and neurocognitive assessments. PRS was calculated for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease (CAD), major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes.

Results: Heritability estimates of cognitive phenotypes ranged from 12 to 38%. Bayesian mixed models revealed that slower accumulation of evidence was associated with higher PRS for CAD and schizophrenia. Longer non-decision time was associated with higher PRS for AD and lower PRS for CAD. Narrower decision threshold was associated with higher PRS for CAD. Load-dependent effects on non-decision time and decision threshold were associated with PRS for AD and CAD, respectively. Aggregated neurocognitive test scores were not associated with PRS for any of the mental or cardiometabolic phenotypes.

Conclusions: We identified distinct associations between computational cognitive processes to genetic risk for mental illness and cardiometabolic disease, which could represent childhood cognitive risk factors.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Restricted Phenotypes Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Polygenic Risk Sensitivity in the ABCD Baseline Cohort

Cordova MM, Antovich DM, Ryabinin P, Neighbor C, Mooney MA, Dieckmann NF, Miranda-Dominguez O, Nagel BJ, Fair DA, Nigg JT. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Restricted Phenotypes Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Polygenic Risk Sensitivity in the ABCD Baseline Cohort. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2022 Apr 12:S0890-8567(22)00190-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2022.03.030. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35427730.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and major comorbidities of ADHD using different operational definitions in a newly available national dataset and to test the utility of operational definitions against genetic and cognitive correlates.

Method: The US Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study enrolled 11,878 children aged 9-10 years at baseline. ADHD prevalence, comorbidity, and association with polygenic risk score and laboratory-assessed executive functions were calculated at 4 thresholds of ADHD phenotype restrictiveness. Bias from missingness, sampling, and nesting were addressed statistically.

Results: Prevalence of current ADHD for 9- to 10-year old children was 3.53% (95% CI 3.14%-3.92%) when Computerized Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-COMP) score and parent and teacher ratings were required to converge. Of ADHD cases so defined, 70% had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. After control for overlapping comorbidity and ruling out for psychosis or low IQ, 30.9% (95% CI 25.7%-36.7%) had a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, 27.4% (95% CI 22.3%-33.1%) had an anxiety or fear disorder, and 2.1% (95% CI 1.2%-3.8%) had a mood disorder. Children in the top decile of polygenic load incurred a 63% increased chance of having ADHD vs the bottom half of polygenic load (p < .01)-an effect detected only with a stringent phenotype definition. Dimensional latent variables for irritability, externalizing, and ADHD yielded convergent results for cognitive correlates.

Conclusion: This fresh estimate of national prevalence of ADHD in the United States suggests that the DSM-5 definition requiring multiple informants yields a prevalence of about 3.5%. Results may inform further ADHD studies in the ABCD sample.

Neurodevelopmental Profiles in Adolescence: Leveraging Data From the Landmark Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Mewton L, Squeglia L. Neurodevelopmental Profiles in Adolescence: Leveraging Data From the Landmark Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2022 Apr;7(4):343-345. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.01.005. PMID: 35396019.

Common variants contribute to intrinsic human brain functional networks

Zhao, B., Li, T., Smith, S.M. et al. Common variants contribute to intrinsic human brain functional networks. Nat Genet (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-022-01039-6

The human brain forms functional networks of correlated activity, which have been linked with both cognitive and clinical outcomes. However, the genetic variants affecting brain function are largely unknown. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance images from 47,276 individuals to discover and validate common genetic variants influencing intrinsic brain activity. We identified 45 new genetic regions associated with brain functional signatures (P < 2.8 × 10−11), including associations to the central executive, default mode, and salience networks involved in the triple-network model of psychopathology. A number of brain activity-associated loci colocalized with brain disorders (e.g., the APOE ε4 locus with Alzheimer’s disease). Variation in brain function was genetically correlated with brain disorders, such as major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Together, our study provides a step forward in understanding the genetic architecture of brain functional networks and their genetic links to brain-related complex traits and disorders.

Identification and Validation of Distinct Latent Neurodevelopmental Profiles in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study

Lichenstein SD, Roos C, Kohler R, Kiluk B, Carroll KM, Worhunsky PD, Witkiewitz K, Yip SW. Identification and Validation of Distinct Latent Neurodevelopmental Profiles in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2022, Pages 352-361, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.02.013

Background
Regardless of the precise mechanism, all neurodevelopmental models of risk assume that, at the population level, there exist subgroups of individuals that share similar patterns of neural function and development—and that these subgroups somehow relate to psychiatric risk. However, the existence of multiple neurodevelopmental subgroups at the population level has not been assessed previously.

Methods
In the current study, cross-validated latent profile analysis was used to test for the presence of empirically derived, brain-based developmental subgroups using functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 6758 individuals (49.4% female; mean age = 9.94 years) in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study wave 1 release. Data were randomly split into training and testing samples.

Results
Analyses in the training sample (n = 3379) identified a seven-profile solution (entropy = 0.880) that was replicated in the held-out testing data (n = 3379, entropy = 0.890). Identified subgroups included a moderate group (66.8%), high reward (4.3%) and low reward (4.0%) groups, high inhibition (9.8%) and low inhibition (6.7%) groups, and high emotion regulation (4.0%) and low emotion regulation (4.3%) groups. Relative to the moderate group, other subgroups were characterized by more males (χ2 = 24.10, p = .0005), higher proportions of individuals from lower-income households (χ2 = 122.17, p < .0001), poorer cognitive performance (ps < .0001), more screen time (F = 6.80, p < .0001), heightened impulsivity (ps < .006), and higher rates of neurodevelopmental disorders (χ2 = 26.20, p = .0002).

Conclusions
These data demonstrate the existence of multiple, distinct neurodevelopmental subgroups at the population level. They indicate that these empirically derived, brain-based developmental profiles relate to differences in clinical features, even at a young age, and prior to the peak period of risk for the development of psychopathology.

Association between racial/ethnic discrimination and pubertal development in early adolescence

Argabright ST, Moore TM, Visoki E, DiDomenico GE, Taylor JH, Barzilay R. Association between racial/ethnic discrimination and pubertal development in early adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Volume 140, June 2022, 105727, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2022.105727

Racial health disparities in the United States are a major concern, with Black or African Americans experiencing more morbidity and mortality at earlier ages compared to White Americans. More data is needed on the biological underpinnings of this phenomenon. One potential explanation for racial health disparities is that of accelerated aging, which is associated with increased stress exposure. Black Americans face disproportionate levels of environmental stress, specifically racial/ethnic discrimination. Here we investigated associations between self-reported experiences of discrimination and pubertal development (PD) in a diverse sample of young American adolescents (N=11,235, mean age 10.9 years, 20.5% Black participants) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Compared to their non-Black counterparts, Black youth experienced more racial/ethnic discrimination in the past year (10.4% vs 3.1%) and had a greater likelihood of being in late/post-pubertal status (3.6% vs 1.5% in boys, 21.3% vs 11.4% in girls). In both sexes, multivariable regression models run in the full sample revealed a cross-sectional association of experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination with pubertal development (boys: standardized beta [β]=0.123, P<.001; girls: β=0.110, P<.001) covarying for demographics, BMI, and dietary habits. Associations remained significant when controlling for multiple other environmental confounders including other forms of (non-racial/ethnic) discrimination and other environmental adversities including poverty and negative life events, and when using parent-reported assessment of pubertal development. Furthermore, racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with elevated estradiol levels in girls (β=0.057, P=.002). Findings suggest an association between experiences of discrimination and pubertal development that is independent of multiple environmental stressors. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal mechanism.

Brain charts for the human lifespan

Bethlehem, R.A.I., Seidlitz, J., White, S.R. et al. Brain charts for the human lifespan. Nature (2022). Published: 06 April 2022. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04554-y

Over the past few decades, neuroimaging has become a ubiquitous tool in basic research and clinical studies of the human brain. However, no reference standards currently exist to quantify individual differences in neuroimaging metrics over time, in contrast to growth charts for anthropometric traits such as height and weight1. Here we assemble an interactive open resource to benchmark brain morphology derived from any current or future sample of MRI data (http://www.brainchart.io/). With the goal of basing these reference charts on the largest and most inclusive dataset available, acknowledging limitations due to known biases of MRI studies relative to the diversity of the global population, we aggregated 123,984 MRI scans, across more than 100 primary studies, from 101,457 human participants between 115 days post-conception to 100 years of age. MRI metrics were quantified by centile scores, relative to non-linear trajectories2 of brain structural changes, and rates of change, over the lifespan. Brain charts identified previously unreported neurodevelopmental milestones3, showed high stability of individuals across longitudinal assessments, and demonstrated robustness to technical and methodological differences between primary studies. Centile scores showed increased heritability compared with non-centiled MRI phenotypes, and provided a standardized measure of atypical brain structure that revealed patterns of neuroanatomical variation across neurological and psychiatric disorders. In summary, brain charts are an essential step towards robust quantification of individual variation benchmarked to normative trajectories in multiple, commonly used neuroimaging phenotypes.

Prenatal cannabis exposure predicts attention problems, without changes on fMRI in adolescents

Cioffredi LA, Anderson H, Loso H, East J, Nguyen P, Garavan H, Potter A. Prenatal cannabis exposure predicts attention problems, without changes on fMRI in adolescents. Neurotoxicol Teratol. Volume 91, May–June 2022, 107089, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2022.107089

Objectives: We hypothesized that prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) would be associated with increased attention problems and altered neurocognition in young adolescents.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD study®), a cohort of approximately 12,000 children. Presence or absence of PCE after knowledge of pregnancy was measured by caregiver report. All participants with PCE (N = 224) were included and compared to two control groups; those matched on tobacco and alcohol exposure and those without prenatal tobacco or alcohol exposures. Outcomes were measured with the ABCD baseline assessment when participants were 9-10 years old and included attention, internalizing, externalizing and total problems scales on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Teacher reports were used when available. Mixed effects modeling assessed the association between PCE and outcomes controlling for parental psychopathology, prematurity and socioeconomic status. For participants with available data, patterns of brain activity during three fMRI tasks (the Stop Signal Task measuring response inhibition, the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task measuring reward processing and the EN-Back task measuring working memory) were analyzed using Permutation Analyses of the Linear Model.

Results: Compared to both control groups, participants with PCE had significantly higher attention problems, externalizing, and total problem scores. PCE did not impact cognitive performance or patterns of brain activation during fMRI tasks.

Conclusions: There are long-term associations between PCE and early adolescent attention and behavioral problems. These are not reflected in cognitive performance or task fMRI measures, a finding that is consistent with reports that fewer than half of children with ADHD have any specific cognitive deficit (Nigg et al., 2005; Willcutt et al., 2005). The young age of the sample may also relate to this finding and future investigation of neurodevelopmental trajectories of youth with PCE is warranted.

Evaluation of Brain Alterations and Behavior in Children With Low Levels of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

Long X, Lebel C. Evaluation of Brain Alterations and Behavior in Children With Low Levels of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Apr 1;5(4):e225972. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.5972. PMID: 35380644.

Importance: High levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are associated with widespread behavioral and cognitive problems as well as structural alterations of the brain. However, it remains unclear whether low levels of PAE affect brain structure and function, and prior studies generally have not had well-matched control populations (eg, for sociodemographic variables).

Objective: To compare structural brain alterations and behavioral changes in children with lower levels of PAE with those of well-matched controls with no PAE.

Design, setting, and participants: In this cross-sectional study, participants were selected from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Children with PAE were compared with controls matched for age, sex, family income, maternal educational level, and caregiver status. Neither group had prenatal exposure to other adverse substances (eg, tobacco, cannabis, illicit drugs). Data were collected from September 1, 2016, to November 15, 2018, and analyzed from October 14, 2020, to February 14, 2022.

Exposures: Diffusion tensor imaging, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) administration.

Main outcomes and measures: Fractional anisotropy (FA); mean, axial, and radial diffusivity from diffusion tensor imaging; brain functional signal variations from functional MRI; and several scores, including internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, from the CBCL. Spearman correlation coefficients between diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI measures and the CBCL scores were calculated.

Results: A total of 270 children were included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 9.86 [0.46] years; 141 female [52.2%] and 129 male [47.8%]), consisting of 135 children with PAE (mean [SD] age, 9.85 [0.65] years; 73 female [54.1%] and 62 male [45.9%]) (mean exposure, 1 drink/wk) and 135 unexposed controls (mean [SD] age, 9.87 [0.04] years; 68 female [50.4%] and 67 male [49.6%]). Children with PAE had lower mean (SD) FA in white matter of the left postcentral (0.35 [0.05] vs 0.36 [0.04]; mean difference, -0.02 [95% CI, -0.03 to -0.01]), left inferior parietal (0.31 [0.07] vs 0.33 [0.06]; mean difference, -0.03 [95% CI, -0.04 to -0.01]), left planum temporale (0.26 [0.04] vs 0.28 [0.03]; mean difference, -0.02 [95% CI, -0.03 to -0.01]), left inferior occipital (0.30 [0.07] vs 0.32 [0.05]; mean difference, -0.03 [95% CI, -0.04 to -0.01]), and right middle occipital (0.30 [0.04] vs 0.31 [0.04]; mean difference, -0.01 [95% CI, -0.02 to -0.01]) areas compared with controls, and higher FA in the gray matter of the putamen (0.22 [0.03] vs 0.21 [0.02]; mean difference, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.005-0.02]). Externalizing behavior scores were higher (worse) in children with PAE than in controls (mean [SD], 45.2 [9.0] vs 42.8 [9.0]; mean difference, 2.39 [95% CI, 0.30-4.47]). Several of these regions had significant group-behavior interactions, such that the higher FA was associated with less problematic behaviors in controls (ρ range, -0.24 to -0.08) but no associations were present in the PAE group (ρ range, 0.02-0.16).

Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study, children with low levels of PAE had lower FA and more behavioral problems compared with a well-matched control group. These results suggest that PAE, even in small amounts, has a measurable effect on brain structure in children.

Regional gray matter abnormalities in pre-adolescent binge eating disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

Murray SB, Duval CJ, Balkchyan AA, Cabeen RP, Nagata JM, Toga AW, Siegel SJ, Jann K. Regional gray matter abnormalities in pre-adolescent binge eating disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry Research. Volume 310, April 2022, 114473, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114473

Background
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a pernicious psychiatric disorder which is linked with an array of multisystemic organ morbidity, broad psychiatric morbidity, and obesity. Despite behavioral markers often developing in early childhood, the neurobiological markers of early-onset BED remain understudied, and developmental pathophysiology remains poorly understood.

Methods
71 preadolescent children (aged 9–10-years) with BED and 74 age, BMI and developmentally matched control children were extracted from the 3.0 baseline (Year 0) release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We investigated group differences in gray matter density (GMD) via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We additionally performed region of interest analyses, assessing the association between GMD in nodes of the reward (orbitofrontal cortex; OFC) and inhibitory control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; dlPFC) networks, and parent-reported behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies.

Results
Diffuse elevations in cortical GMD were noted in those with BED, which spanned prefrontal, parietal, and temporal regions. No areas of reduced GMD were noted in those with BED. No alterations in subcortical GMD were noted. Brain-behavioral associations suggest a distinct and negative relationship between GMD in the OFC and dlPFC, respectively, and self-reported markers of hedonic behavioral approach tendencies.

Conclusions
Early-onset BED may be characterized by diffuse morphological abnormalities in gray matter density, suggesting alterations in cortical architecture which may reflect decreased synaptic pruning and arborization, or decreased myelinated fibers and therefore inter-regional afferents.

Neurobiological, familial and genetic risk factors for dimensional psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study

Wainberg M, Jacobs GR, Voineskos AN, Tripathy SJ. Neurobiological, familial and genetic risk factors for dimensional psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Mol Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 31. doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01522-w. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35361904.

Background: Adolescence is a key period for brain development and the emergence of psychopathology. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was created to study the biopsychosocial factors underlying healthy and pathological brain development during this period, and comprises the world’s largest youth cohort with neuroimaging, family history and genetic data.

Methods: We examined 9856 unrelated 9-to-10-year-old participants in the ABCD study drawn from 21 sites across the United States, of which 7662 had multimodal magnetic resonance imaging scans passing quality control, and 4447 were non-Hispanic white and used for polygenic risk score analyses. Using data available at baseline, we associated eight ‘syndrome scale scores’ from the Child Behavior Checklist-summarizing anxious/depressed symptoms, withdrawn/depressed symptoms, somatic complaints, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior-with resting-state functional and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging measures; eight indicators of family history of psychopathology; and polygenic risk scores for major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anorexia nervosa. As a sensitivity analysis, we excluded participants with clinically significant (>97th percentile) or borderline (93rd-97th percentile) scores for each dimension.

Results: Most Child Behavior Checklist dimensions were associated with reduced functional connectivity within one or more of four large-scale brain networks-default mode, cingulo-parietal, dorsal attention, and retrosplenial-temporal. Several dimensions were also associated with increased functional connectivity between the default mode, dorsal attention, ventral attention and cingulo-opercular networks. Conversely, almost no global or regional brain structural measures were associated with any of the dimensions. Every family history indicator was associated with every dimension. Major depression polygenic risk was associated with six of the eight dimensions, whereas ADHD polygenic risk was exclusively associated with attention problems and externalizing behavior (rule-breaking and aggressive behavior). Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa polygenic risk were not associated with any of the dimensions. Many associations remained statistically significant even after excluding participants with clinically significant or borderline psychopathology, suggesting that the same risk factors that contribute to clinically significant psychopathology also contribute to continuous variation within the clinically normal range.

Conclusions: This study codifies neurobiological, familial and genetic risk factors for dimensional psychopathology across a population-scale cohort of community-dwelling preadolescents. Future efforts are needed to understand how these multiple modalities of risk intersect to influence trajectories of psychopathology into late adolescence and adulthood.

Automated Multiclass Artifact Detection in Diffusion MRI Volumes via 3D Residual Squeeze-and-Excitation Convolutional Neural Networks

Ettehadi N, Kashyap P, Zhang X, Wang Y, Semanek D, Desai K, Guo J, Posner J, Laine AF. Automated Multiclass Artifact Detection in Diffusion MRI Volumes via 3D Residual Squeeze-and-Excitation Convolutional Neural Networks. Front Hum Neurosci. 2022 Mar 30;16:877326. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.877326. PMID: 35431841; PMCID: PMC9005752.

Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is widely used to investigate neuronal and structural development of brain. dMRI data is often contaminated with various types of artifacts. Hence, artifact type identification in dMRI volumes is an essential pre-processing step prior to carrying out any further analysis. Manual artifact identification amongst a large pool of dMRI data is a highly labor-intensive task. Previous attempts at automating this process are often limited to a binary classification («poor» vs. «good» quality) of the dMRI volumes or focus on detecting a single type of artifact (e.g., motion, Eddy currents, etc.). In this work, we propose a deep learning-based automated multiclass artifact classifier for dMRI volumes. Our proposed framework operates in 2 steps. In the first step, the model predicts labels associated with 3D mutually exclusive collectively exhaustive (MECE) sub-volumes or «slabs» extracted from whole dMRI volumes. In the second step, through a voting process, the model outputs the artifact class present in the whole volume under investigation. We used two different datasets for training and evaluating our model. Specifically, we utilized 2,494 poor-quality dMRI volumes from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) and 4,226 from the Healthy Brain Network (HBN) dataset. Our results demonstrate accurate multiclass volume-level main artifact type prediction with 96.61 and 97.52% average accuracies on the ABCD and HBN test sets, respectively. Finally, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in dMRI pre-processing pipelines, we conducted a proof-of-concept dMRI analysis exploring the relationship between whole-brain fractional anisotropy (FA) and participant age, to test whether the use of our model improves the brain-age association.

Understanding Associations Between Race/Ethnicity, Experiences of Discrimination, and Psychotic-like Experiences in Middle Childhood

Karcher NR, Klaunig MJ, Elsayed NM, Taylor RL, Jay SY, Schiffman J. Understanding Associations Between Race/Ethnicity, Experiences of Discrimination, and Psychotic-like Experiences in Middle Childhood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 29:S0890-8567(22)00180-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2022.03.025. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35378237.

Objective: The present study aimed to examine factors that may account for race/ethnicity differences in psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in a middle childhood sample, including evidence for experiences of discrimination as a psychosocial mediator of these differences.

Method: Within a sample of 10,839 9 to 10-year-olds from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ study, we compared PLEs across racial/ethnic groups. We also examined whether experiences of discrimination indirectly linked racial/ethnic identity and PLEs, and whether social support moderated this indirect association.

Results: Results indicated differences between racial/ethnic groups in the endorsement of PLEs, such that Black and Hispanic participants endorsed higher levels of PLEs as compared to Asian, Multiracial/Multiethnic, and White individuals. We found these differences were accounted for in part by experiences of discrimination, an indirect effect that was in turn attenuated by increased social support.

Conclusion: This is the first study to suggest that the experience of discrimination may indirectly link the association between racial/ethnic differences and endorsement of PLEs using the PQ-BC, and additionally that social support may act as a moderator of this mediation. Results provide evidence that social inequities such as racial discrimination may contribute to increases in psychotic-like experiences. These findings shed further light on a possible mechanism linking structural racism and mental health inequities for people in minoritized groups.

Substance use onset in high-risk 9-13 year-olds in the ABCD study

Wade NE, Tapert SF, Lisdahl KM, Huestis MA, Haist F. Substance use onset in high-risk 9-13 year-olds in the ABCD study. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2022 May-Jun;91:107090. doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2022.107090. Epub 2022 Mar 24. PMID: 35341934.

Aim: A key aim of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ (ABCD) Study is to document substance use onset, patterns, and sequelae across adolescent development. However, substance use misreporting can obscure accurate drug use characterization. Hair toxicology provides objective historical substance use data but is rarely used in studies of youth. Here, we compare objective hair toxicology results with self-reported substance use in high-risk youth.

Methods: A literature-based substance use risk algorithm prioritized 696 ABCD Study® hair samples from 677 participants for analysis at baseline, and 1 and 2-year follow-ups (spanning ages 9-13). Chi-square and t-tests assessed differences between participants’ demographics, positive and negative hair tests, risk-for-use algorithm scores, and self-reported substance use.

Results: Hair testing confirmed that 17% of at-risk 9-13 year-olds hair samples had evidence of past 3-month use of one (n = 97), two (n = 14), three (n = 2), or four (n = 2) drug classes. After considering prescribed medication and self-reported substance use, 10% had a positive test indicating substance use that was not reported. Participants with any positive hair result reported less sipping of alcohol (p < 0.001) and scored higher on the risk-for-use algorithm (p < 0.001) than those with negative toxicology results.

Conclusions: 10% of hair samples from at-risk 9-13 year-olds tested positive for at least one unreported substance, suggesting underreporting in high-risk youth when participating in a research study. As hair testing prioritized youth with risk characteristics, the overall extent of underreporting will be calculated in future studies. Nonetheless, hair toxicology was key to characterizing substance use in high-risk youth.

Multi-level predictors of depression symptoms in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study

Ho TC, Shah R, Mishra J, May AC, Tapert SF. Multi-level predictors of depression symptoms in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 21. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13608. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35307818.

Background: While identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is critical for early prevention and intervention, most studies have sought to understand the role of isolated factors rather than across a broad set of factors. Here, we sought to examine multi-level factors that maximize the prediction of depression symptoms in US children participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study.

Methods: A total of 7,995 participants from ABCD (version 3.0 release) provided complete data at baseline and 1-year follow-up data. Depression symptoms were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Predictive features included child demographic, environmental, and structural and resting-state fMRI variables, parental depression history and demographic characteristics. We used linear (elastic net regression, EN) and non-linear (gradient-boosted trees, GBT) predictive models to identify which set of features maximized prediction of depression symptoms at baseline and, separately, at 1-year follow-up.

Results: Both linear and non-linear models achieved comparable results for predicting baseline (EN: MAE = 3.757; R2 = 0.156; GBT: MAE = 3.761; R2 = 0.147) and 1-year follow-up (EN: MAE = 4.255; R2 = 0.103; GBT: MAE = 4.262; R2 = 0.089) depression. Parental history of depression, greater family conflict, and shorter child sleep duration were among the top predictors of concurrent and future child depression symptoms across both models. Although resting-state fMRI features were relatively weaker predictors, functional connectivity of the caudate was consistently the strongest neural feature associated with depression symptoms at both timepoints.

Conclusions: Consistent with prior research, parental mental health, family environment, and child sleep quality are important risk factors for youth depression. Functional connectivity of the caudate is a relatively weaker predictor of depression symptoms but may represent a biomarker for depression risk.

Aberrant functional connectivity between reward and inhibitory control networks in pre-adolescent binge eating disorder

Murray SB, Alba C, Duval CJ, Nagata JM, Cabeen RP, Lee DJ, Toga AW, Siegel SJ, Jann K. Aberrant functional connectivity between reward and inhibitory control networks in pre-adolescent binge eating disorder. Psychol Med. 2022 Mar 18:1-10. doi: 10.1017/S0033291722000514. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35301976.

Background: Behavioral features of binge eating disorder (BED) suggest abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control. Studies of adult populations suggest functional abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control networks. Despite behavioral markers often developing in children, the neurobiology of pediatric BED remains unstudied.

Methods: 58 pre-adolescent children (aged 9-10-years) with BED (mBMI = 25.05; s.d. = 5.40) and 66 age, BMI and developmentally matched control children (mBMI = 25.78; s.d. = 0.33) were extracted from the 3.0 baseline (Year 0) release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We investigated group differences in resting-state functional MRI functional connectivity (FC) within and between reward and inhibitory control networks. A seed-based approach was employed to assess nodes in the reward [orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), nucleus accumbens, amygdala] and inhibitory control [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] networks via hypothesis-driven seed-to-seed analyses, and secondary seed-to-voxel analyses.

Results: Findings revealed reduced FC between the dlPFC and amygdala, and between the ACC and OFC in pre-adolescent children with BED, relative to controls. These findings indicating aberrant connectivity between nodes of inhibitory control and reward networks were corroborated by the whole-brain FC analyses.

Conclusions: Early-onset BED may be characterized by diffuse abnormalities in the functional synergy between reward and cognitive control networks, without perturbations within reward and inhibitory control networks, respectively. The decreased capacity to regulate a reward-driven pursuit of hedonic foods, which is characteristic of BED, may in part, rest on this dysconnectivity between reward and inhibitory control networks.

Cross-ethnicity/race generalization failure of behavioral prediction from resting-state functional connectivity

Li J, Bzdok D, Chen J, Tam A, Qi Rong OOI L, Holmes AJ, GE T, Patil KR, Jabbi M, Eickhoff SB, Thomas Yeo BT, and Genon S. Cross-ethnicity/race generalization failure of behavioral prediction from resting-state functional connectivity. Science Advances, Mar 2022, Vol 8, Issue 11, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj1812

Algorithmic biases that favor majority populations pose a key challenge to the application of machine learning for precision medicine. Here, we assessed such bias in prediction models of behavioral phenotypes from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined the prediction bias using two independent datasets (preadolescent versus adult) of mixed ethnic/racial composition. When predictive models were trained on data dominated by white Americans (WA), out-of-sample prediction errors were generally higher for African Americans (AA) than for WA. This bias toward WA corresponds to more WA-like brain-behavior association patterns learned by the models. When models were trained on AA only, compared to training only on WA or an equal number of AA and WA participants, AA prediction accuracy improved but stayed below that for WA. Overall, the results point to the need for caution and further research regarding the application of current brain-behavior prediction models in minority populations.

Reproducible brain-wide association studies require thousands of individuals

Marek S, Tervo-Clemmens B, Calabro FJ, Montez DF, Kay BP, Hatoum AS, Donohue MR, Foran W, Miller RL, Hendrickson TJ, Malone SM, Kandala S, Feczko E, Miranda-Dominguez O, Graham AM, Earl EA, Perrone AJ, Cordova M, Doyle O, Moore LA, Conan GM, Uriarte J, Snider K, Lynch BJ, Wilgenbusch JC, Pengo T, Tam A, Chen J, Newbold DJ, Zheng A, Seider NA, Van AN, Metoki A, Chauvin RJ, Laumann TO, Greene DJ, Petersen SE, Garavan H, Thompson WK, Nichols TE, Yeo BTT, Barch DM, Luna B, Fair DA, Dosenbach NUF. Reproducible brain-wide association studies require thousands of individuals. Nature. March 16, 2022. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04492-9

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has transformed our understanding of the human brain through well-replicated mapping of abilities to specific structures (for example, lesion studies) and functions1,2,3 (for example, task functional MRI (fMRI)). Mental health research and care have yet to realize similar advances from MRI. A primary challenge has been replicating associations between inter-individual differences in brain structure or function and complex cognitive or mental health phenotypes (brain-wide association studies (BWAS)). Such BWAS have typically relied on sample sizes appropriate for classical brain mapping4 (the median neuroimaging study sample size is about 25), but potentially too small for capturing reproducible brain–behavioural phenotype associations5,6. Here we used three of the largest neuroimaging datasets currently available—with a total sample size of around 50,000 individuals—to quantify BWAS effect sizes and reproducibility as a function of sample size. BWAS associations were smaller than previously thought, resulting in statistically underpowered studies, inflated effect sizes and replication failures at typical sample sizes. As sample sizes grew into the thousands, replication rates began to improve and effect size inflation decreased. More robust BWAS effects were detected for functional MRI (versus structural), cognitive tests (versus mental health questionnaires) and multivariate methods (versus univariate). Smaller than expected brain–phenotype associations and variability across population subsamples can explain widespread BWAS replication failures. In contrast to non-BWAS approaches with larger effects (for example, lesions, interventions and within-person), BWAS reproducibility requires samples with thousands of individuals.

10. Screen Time and Moderate-to-Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity Among Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Dooley EE, Iyer P, Ganson KT, Bibbins-Domingo K, Baker FC, Gabriel KP. 10. Screen Time and Moderate-to-Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity Among Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Volume 70, Issue 4, Supplement, S6, APRIL 01, 2022. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.01.014

Purpose
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent stay-at-home mandates, remote learning, and social distancing requirements led to changes in nearly all facets of adolescents’ lives; however, the pandemic’s effect on adolescent screen time and physical activity has not been characterized using national data from the U.S. The aim of this study was to evaluate adolescents’ screen use and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) during the COVID-19 pandemic by sociodemographic characteristics, and to determine mental health and resiliency factors associated with screen use and MVPA.

Methods
Data from the Year 1 (2017-2019) and May 2020 COVID-19 survey of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a national prospective cohort study in the U.S., were analyzed. Average hours per day spent on six forms of screen time were summed to calculate a total daily screen time measure, excluding hours spent on school-related work. MVPA was quantified as the product of reported duration and frequency (hours per week; h∙wk-1), which was further summarized as the proportion meeting age-appropriate 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (i.e., 60 minutes per day). Mental health and resiliency measures were also collected. Regression models examined associations between mental health or resiliency measures and screen time or MVPA during the pandemic.

Results
The sample consisted of 5,153 adolescents predominantly ages 12-13 years, with 50.6% female and 39.5% racial/ethnic minorities. During the pandemic, adolescents reported an average of 7.70 hours of screen use per day, mostly spent on watching/streaming videos, movies, or television shows (2.42 hours), multi-player gaming (1.44 hours), and single-player gaming (1.17 hours). Median MVPA was 2 hours per week (IQR 0, 6) during the pandemic. Overall, the percentage of the cohort meeting MVPA guidelines decreased from 16.1% (pre-pandemic) to 8.9% during the pandemic. Racial/ethnic minorities and adolescents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds reported higher daily screen use and were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidelines during the pandemic. In adjusted regression models, poorer mental health and greater perceived stress were associated with higher total screen use. Poorer emotional well-being, COVID-related worry, and stress were associated with lower MVPA. More social support and coping behaviors were associated with lower total screen use and higher MVPA during the pandemic.

Conclusions
In this large, national sample of adolescents, we found that average total daily recreational screen use was 7.7 hours per day, representing a doubling of pre-pandemic estimates from the same cohort (3.8 hours). The proportion of those meeting MVPA Guidelines was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic, with significant disparities by race and class. Disparities across racial/ethnic and income groups in adolescents may be due to structural and systemic factors (e.g., built or neighborhood environment, access to resources) – all of which have been amplified in the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions to promote social support and coping behaviors may reduce screen use and improve MVPA levels among adolescents during and post-pandemic.

Explaining the Association Between Urbanicity and Psychotic-Like Experiences in Pre-Adolescence: The Indirect Effect of Urban Exposures

Saxena A, Dodell-Feder D. Explaining the Association Between Urbanicity and Psychotic-Like Experiences in Pre-Adolescence: The Indirect Effect of Urban Exposures. Front. Psychiatry, 11 March 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.831089

Urban living is a growing worldwide phenomenon with more than two-thirds of people expected to live in cities by 2050. Although there are many benefits to living in an urban environment, urbanicity has also been associated with deleterious health outcomes, including increased risk for psychotic outcomes particularly when the urban exposure occurs in pre-adolescence. However, the mechanisms underlying this association is unclear. Here, we utilize one-year follow-up data from a large (N=7,979), nationwide study of pre-adolescence in the United States to clarify why urbanicity (i.e., census-tract population density) might impact psychotic-like experiences (PLE) by looking at the indirect effect of eight candidate urbanicity-related physical (e.g., pollution) and social (e.g., poverty) exposures. Consistent with other work, we found that of the evaluated exposures related to urbanicity, several were also related to increased number of PLE: PM2.5, proximity to roads, census-level homes at-risk for exposure to lead paint, census-level poverty, and census-level income-disparity. These same urban-related exposures were also related to the persistence of PLE after 1 year, but not new onset of PLE. Mediation analysis revealed that a substantial proportion the urbanicity-PLE association (number and persistence) could be explained by PM2.5 (23–44%), families in poverty (68–93%), and income disparity (67–80%). Together, these findings suggest that specific urban-related exposures contribute to the existence and maintenance, but not onset of PLE, which might help to explain why those in urban environments are disproportionately at-risk for psychosis and point toward areas for public health intervention.

Characterizing the Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition and Error Processing in Children With Symptoms of Irritability and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the ABCD Study®

Lee KS, Xiao J, Luo J, Leibenluft E, Liew Z, Tseng WL. Characterizing the Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition and Error Processing in Children With Symptoms of Irritability and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the ABCD Study®. Front Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 4;13:803891. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.803891. PMID: 35308882; PMCID: PMC8931695.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity, is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with executive dysfunctions, including response inhibition and error processing. Research has documented a common co-occurrence between ADHD and pediatric irritability. The latter is more characterized by affective symptoms, specifically frequent temper outbursts and low frustration tolerance relative to typically developing peers. Shared and non-shared neural correlates of youths with varied profiles of ADHD and irritability symptoms during childhood remain largely unknown. This study first classified a large sample of youths in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study at baseline into distinct phenotypic groups based on ADHD and irritability symptoms (N = 11,748), and then examined shared and non-shared neural correlates of response inhibition and error processing during the Stop Signal Task in a subset of sample with quality neuroimaging data (N = 5,948). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed four phenotypic groups, i.e., high ADHD with co-occurring irritability symptoms (n = 787, 6.7%), moderate ADHD with low irritability symptoms (n = 901, 7.7%), high irritability with no ADHD symptoms (n = 279, 2.4%), and typically developing peers with low ADHD and low irritability symptoms (n = 9,781, 83.3%). Latent variable modeling revealed group differences in the neural coactivation network supporting response inhibition in the fronto-parietal regions, but limited differences in error processing across frontal and posterior regions. These neural differences were marked by decreased coactivation in the irritability only group relative to youths with ADHD and co-occurring irritability symptoms and typically developing peers during response inhibition. Together, this study provided initial evidence for differential neural mechanisms of response inhibition associated with ADHD, irritability, and their co-occurrence. Precision medicine attending to individual differences in ADHD and irritability symptoms and the underlying mechanisms are warranted when treating affected children and families.

Understanding patterns of heterogeneity in executive functioning during adolescence: Evidence from population-level data

Chaku N, Barry K, Fowle J, Hoyt LT. Understanding patterns of heterogeneity in executive functioning during adolescence: Evidence from population-level data. Dev Sci. 2022 Mar 3. doi: 10.1111/desc.13256. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35238432.

Executive functioning (EF) is fundamental to positive development. Yet, little is known about how to best identify and characterize constellations of EF skills that may inform disparate associations between EF and behavior during adolescence. In the current study, cross-validated latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to derive profiles of EF based on measures of inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility using data from 11,672 youth (52.2% male, mean age = 9.91 years) in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Four meaningful EF profiles emerged from the data representing Average EF, High EF, Low Inhibitory Control, and Low EF. Boys, youth from low-income households, and early developing youth were more likely to be in profiles distinguished by lower EF. Profile membership also predicted differences in externalizing, internalizing, and other problem behaviors assessed one year later. Findings indicate that youth may have distinct constellations of EF skills with unique impact on behaviors, underscoring the need for person-centered approaches that focus on patterns of individual characteristics Latent profile analysis was used to describe profiles of executive functioning (EF) in a population-level sample of early adolescents Heterogenous constellations of EF were captured by four profiles, distinguished primarily by differences in performance level, but also discordance across tasks. Biological sex, socioeconomic status, and pubertal timing predicted most likely profile membership Profile membership predicted externalizing, internalizing, and problem behaviors assessed a year later.

Performance scaling for structural MRI surface parcellations: a machine learning analysis in the ABCD Study

Hahn S, Owens MM, Yuan D, Juliano AC, Potter A, Garavan H, Allgaier N. Performance scaling for structural MRI surface parcellations: a machine learning analysis in the ABCD Study. Cereb Cortex. 2022 Mar 3:bhac060. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhac060. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35238352.

The use of predefined parcellations on surface-based representations of the brain as a method for data reduction is common across neuroimaging studies. In particular, prediction-based studies typically employ parcellation-driven summaries of brain measures as input to predictive algorithms, but the choice of parcellation and its influence on performance is often ignored. Here we employed preprocessed structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study® to examine the relationship between 220 parcellations and out-of-sample predictive performance across 45 phenotypic measures in a large sample of 9- to 10-year-old children (N = 9,432). Choice of machine learning (ML) pipeline and use of alternative multiple parcellation-based strategies were also assessed. Relative parcellation performance was dependent on the spatial resolution of the parcellation, with larger number of parcels (up to ~4,000) outperforming coarser parcellations, according to a power-law scaling of between 1/4 and 1/3. Performance was further influenced by the type of parcellation, ML pipeline, and general strategy, with existing literature-based parcellations, a support vector-based pipeline, and ensembling across multiple parcellations, respectively, as the highest performing. These findings highlight the choice of parcellation as an important influence on downstream predictive performance, showing in some cases that switching to a higher resolution parcellation can yield a relatively large boost to performance.

Longitudinal Evidence of a Vicious Cycle Between Nucleus Accumbens Microstructure and Childhood Weight Gai

Rapuano KM, Berrian N, Baskin-Sommers A, Décarie-Spain L, Sharma S, Fulton S, Casey BJ, Watts R. Longitudinal Evidence of a Vicious Cycle Between Nucleus Accumbens Microstructure and Childhood Weight Gain. J Adolesc Health. 2022 Mar 2:S1054-139X(22)00002-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.01.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35248457.

Purpose: Pediatric obesity is a growing public health concern. Previous work has observed diet to impact nucleus accumbens (NAcc) inflammation in rodents, measured by the reactive proliferation of glial cells. Recent work in humans has demonstrated a relationship between NAcc cell density-a proxy for neuroinflammation-and weight gain in youth; however, the directionality of this relationship in the developing brain and association with diet remains unknown.

Methods: Waist circumference (WC) and NAcc cell density were collected in a large cohort of children (n > 2,000) participating in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (release 3.0) at baseline (9-10 y) and at a Year 2 follow-up (11-12 y). Latent change score modeling (LCSM) was used to disentangle contributions of baseline measures to two-year changes in WC percentile and NAcc cellularity. In addition, the role of NAcc cellularity in mediating the relationship between diet and WC percentile was assessed using dietary intake data collected at Year 2.

Results: LCSM indicates that baseline WC percentile influences change in NAcc cellularity and that baseline NAcc cell density influences change in WC percentile. NAcc cellularity was significantly associated with WC percentile at Year 2 and mediated the relationship between dietary fat consumption and WC percentile.

Conclusions: These results implicate a vicious cycle whereby NAcc cell density biases longitudinal changes in WC percentile and vice versa. Moreover, NAcc cell density may mediate the relationship between diet and weight gain in youth. These findings suggest that diet-induced inflammation of reward circuitry may lead to behavioral changes that further contribute to weight gain.

The role of perceived threats on mental health, social, and neurocognitive youth outcomes: A multicontextual, person-centered approach

Conley MI, Hernandez J, Salvati JM, Gee DG, Baskin-Sommers A. The role of perceived threats on mental health, social, and neurocognitive youth outcomes: A multicontextual, person-centered approach. Dev Psychopathol. 2022 Mar 2:1-22. doi: 10.1017/S095457942100184X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35232507.

Perceived threat in youth’s environments can elevate risk for mental health, social, and neurocognitive difficulties throughout the lifespan. However, few studies examine variability in youth’s perceptions of threat across multiple contexts or evaluate outcomes across multiple domains, ultimately limiting our understanding of specific risks associated with perceived threats in different contexts. This study examined associations between perceived threat in youth’s neighborhood, school, and family contexts at ages 9-10 and mental health, social, and neurocognitive outcomes at ages 11-12 within a large US cohort (N = 5525) enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study (ABCD Study®). Latent profile analysis revealed four distinct profiles: Low Threat in all contexts, Elevated Family Threat, Elevated Neighborhood Threat, and Elevated Threat in all contexts. Mixed-effect models and post hoc pairwise comparisons showed that youth in Elevated Threat profile had poorer mental health and social outcomes 2 years later. Youth in the Elevated Family Threat profile uniquely showed increased disruptive behavior symptoms, whereas youth in the Elevated Neighborhood Threat profile predominantly displayed increased sleep problems and worse neurocognitive outcomes 2 years later. Together, findings highlight the importance of considering perceptions of threat across multiple contexts to achieve a more nuanced developmental picture.

The pandemic’s toll on young adolescents: Prevention and intervention targets to preserve their mental health

O Kiss, et al. The Pandemic’s Toll on Young Adolescents: Prevention and Intervention Targets to Preserve Their Mental Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, Volume 70, Issue 3, March 2022, Pages 387-395. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.023.  Related press release.

Reliability and Stability Challenges in ABCD Task fMRI Data

Kennedy JT, Harms MP, Korucuoglu O, Astafiev SV, Barch DM, Thompson WK, Bjork JM, Anokhin AP. Reliability and Stability Challenges in ABCD Task fMRI Data. Neuroimage. 2022 Mar 1:119046. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119046. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35245674.

Trait stability of measures is an essential requirement for individual differences research. Functional MRI has been increasingly used in studies that rely on the assumption of trait stability, such as attempts to relate task related brain activation to individual differences in behavior and psychopathology. However, recent research using adult samples has questioned the trait stability of task-fMRI measures, as assessed by test-retest correlations. To date, little is known about trait stability of task fMRI in children. Here, we examined within-session reliability and long-term stability of individual differences in task-fMRI measures using fMRI measures of brain activation provided by the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study Release v4.0 as an individual’s average regional activity, using its tasks focused on reward processing, response inhibition, and working memory. We also evaluated the effects of factors potentially affecting reliability and stability. Reliability and stability (quantified as the ratio of non-scanner related stable variance to all variances) was poor in virtually all brain regions, with an average value of .088 and .072 for short term (within-session) reliability and long-term (between-session) stability, respectively, in regions of interest (ROIs) historically-recruited by the tasks. Only one reliability or stability value in ROIs exceeded the ‘poor’ cut-off of .4, and in fact rarely exceeded .2 (only 4.9%). Motion had a pronounced effect on estimated reliability/stability, with the lowest motion quartile of participants having a mean reliability/stability 2.5 times higher (albeit still ‘poor’) than the highest motion quartile. Poor reliability and stability of task-fMRI, particularly in children, diminishes potential utility of fMRI data due to a drastic reduction of effect sizes and, consequently, statistical power for the detection of brain-behavior associations. This essential issue urgently needs to be addressed through optimization of task design, scanning parameters, data acquisition protocols, preprocessing pipelines, and data denoising methods.

Bayesian interaction selection model for multi-modal neuroimaging data analysis

Zhao Y, Wu B, Kang J. Bayesian interaction selection model for multi-modal neuroimaging data analysis. Biometrics. 2022 Feb 27. doi: 10.1111/biom.13648. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35220581.

Multi-modality or multi-construct data arise increasingly in functional neuroimaging studies to characterize brain activity under different cognitive states. Relying on those high-resolution imaging collections, it is of great interest to identify predictive imaging markers and inter-modality interactions with respect to behavior outcomes. Currently, most of the existing variable selection models do not consider predictive effects from interactions, and the desired higher-order terms can only be included in the predictive mechanism following a two-step procedure, suffering from potential mis-specification. In this paper, we propose a unified Bayesian prior model to simultaneously identify main effect features and inter-modality interactions within the same inference platform in the presence of high dimensional data. To accommodate the brain topological information and correlation between modalities, our prior is designed by compiling the intermediate selection status of sequential partitions in light of the data structure and brain anatomical architecture, so that we can improve posterior inference and enhance biological plausibility. Through extensive simulations, we show the superiority of our approach in main and interaction effects selection, and prediction under multi-modality data. Applying the method to the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, we characterize the brain functional underpinnings with respect to general cognitive ability under different memory load conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Prenatal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure, Depression, and Brain Morphology in Middle Childhood: Results From the ABCD Study

Moreau AL, Voss M, Hansen I, Paul SE, Barch DM, Rogers CE, Bogdan R. (2022, In Press). Prenatal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure, Depression, and Brain Morphology in Middle Childhood: Results From the ABCD Study. Biological Psychiatry, Published: February 26, 2022, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.02.005

Background
Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure has been inconsistently linked to depression, and little is known about neural correlates. We examined whether prenatal SSRI exposure is associated with depressive symptoms and brain structure during middle childhood.

Methods
Prenatal SSRI exposure (retrospective caregiver report), depressive symptoms (caregiver-reported Child Behavior Checklist), and brain structure (magnetic resonance imaging–derived subcortical volume; cortical thickness and surface area) were assessed in children (analytic ns = 5420–7528; 235 with prenatal SSRI exposure; 9–10 years of age) who completed the baseline Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study session. Linear mixed-effects models nested data. Covariates included familial, pregnancy, and child variables. Matrix spectral decomposition adjusted for multiple testing.

Results
Prenatal SSRI exposure was not independently associated with depression after accounting for recent maternal depressive symptoms. Prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with greater left superior parietal surface area (b = 145.3 mm2, p = .00038) and lateral occipital cortical thickness (b = 0.0272 mm, p = .0000079); neither was associated with child depressive symptoms. Child depression was associated with smaller global brain structure.

Conclusions
Our findings, combined with adverse outcomes of exposure to maternal depression and the utility of SSRIs for treating depression, suggest that risk for depression during middle childhood should not discourage SSRI use during pregnancy. Associations between prenatal SSRI exposure and brain structure were small in magnitude and not associated with depression. It will be important for future work to examine associations between prenatal SSRI exposure and depression through young adulthood, when risk for depression increases.

Hyperbolic discounting rates and risk for problematic alcohol use in youth enrolled in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study

Kohler RJ, Lichenstein SD, Yip SW. Hyperbolic discounting rates and risk for problematic alcohol use in youth enrolled in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Addiction Biology, First published: 23 February 2022 https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.13160

Adolescence is the peak period for the emergence of substance use, which can lead to long-term psychosocial, occupational and interpersonal complications. Ongoing large-scale, longitudinal, consortium initiatives, such as the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate key risk factors for problematic substance use in a well-powered sample and to examine how changes in risk factors relate to symptoms across time. Delay discounting has been proposed as a putative risk marker for early substance-use initiation and other forms of psychopathology. However, the extent to which other factors (e.g., socio-economic status and cognitive ability) influence discounting behaviour in young adolescents is not well established. The present study leverages data from the ABCD study (n = 11 045) to assess associations between core demographic and familial variables and delay discounting in youth—operationalized using hyperbolic discounting rates (k)—before the onset of significant psychopathology. Model estimates revealed significant effects of individual difference factors (e.g., sex and socio-economic status) and alcohol risk status (based on family history) on delay discounting. No significant differences were observed in the primary sample when comparing the presence of parent drug problems or prenatal drug exposures. These effects will require replication in later waves of ABCD. Nonetheless, these results provide support for delay discounting as a potential risk marker for problematic alcohol use and demonstrate a relationship between key demographic variables and adolescent discounting behaviour. Further, these results provide an empirical baseline from which developmental trajectories of delay discounting and substance use may be tracked throughout future waves of ABCD.

Altered resting fMRI spectral power in data-driven brain networks during development: A longitudinal study

Agcaoglu O, Wilson TW, Wang YP, Stephen JM, Fu Z, Calhoun VD. Altered resting fMRI spectral power in data-driven brain networks during development: A longitudinal study. J Neurosci Methods. 2022 Feb 23;372:109537. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2022.109537. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35217109.

Background: Longitudinal studies provide a more precise measure of brain development over time, as they focus on within subject variability, as opposed to cross-sectional studies. This is especially important in children, where rapid brain development occurs, and inter-subject variability can be large. Tracking healthy brain development and identifying markers of typical development are also critically important to diagnose mental disorders at early ages.

New method: We track longitudinal changes in spectral power of time-courses using a unique non-binning approach assessed with group independent component analysis, in a large multi time-point resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset (N = 124) containing healthy children from 8.2 to 17.6 years old (m=12.6) called the Developmental Chronnecto-Genomics study. We examined how eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting states play a role in age-related spectral differences, as several studies have reported differences in these conditions.

Results: Typical brain development shows increased spectral power in low frequencies and decreased spectral power in high frequencies in as children grow and develop, for both the EO and EC conditions. In addition, we observed significant differences in power spectra between EO and EC and between sexes, mainly suggesting higher spectral power in females at middle and high frequencies. A replication analysis using the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development data (N = 3371, mean age 9.9 years old) further supported this result, also showing general increases in low frequencies and decreases in higher frequencies, though some network level differences are present comparing to the main dataset.

Comparison with existing method: Our results indicate that spectral power changes significantly with typical development and our non-binning approach shows these changes with more detailed frequency resolution comparing to binning approaches. This is important as many studies reported an association of higher frequency power with brain disorders.

Conclusion: Our findings of decreased spectral power in the high frequencies with development may be a general marker of typical development., though this needs further investigation.

Exploring neural correlates of behavioral and academic resilience among children in poverty

Ellwood-Lowe ME, Irving CN, Bunge SA. Exploring neural correlates of behavioral and academic resilience among children in poverty. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2022 Feb 22;54:101090. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2022.101090. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35248821.

Children in poverty must contend with systems that do not meet their needs. We explored what, at a neural level, helps explain children’s resilience in these contexts. Lower coupling between lateral frontoparietal network (LFPN) and default mode network (DMN)-linked, respectively, to externally- and internally-directed thought-has previously been associated with better cognitive performance. However, we recently found the opposite pattern for children in poverty. Here, we probed ecologically-valid assessments of performance. In a pre-registered study, we investigated trajectories of network coupling over ages 9-13 and their relation to school grades and attention problems. We analyzed longitudinal data from ABCD Study (N = 8366 children at baseline; 1303 below poverty). The link between cognitive performance and grades was weaker for children in poverty, highlighting the importance of ecologically-valid measures. As predicted, higher LFPN-DMN connectivity was linked to worse grades and attentional problems for children living above poverty, while children below poverty showed opposite tendencies. This interaction between LFPN-DMN connectivity and poverty related to children’s grades two years later; however, it was attenuated when controlling for baseline grades and was not related to attention longitudinally. Together, these findings suggest network connectivity is differentially related to performance in real-world settings for children above and below poverty.

Clouding up cognition?: Secondhand cannabis and tobacco exposure related to cognitive functioning in youth

Wade NE, McCabe CJ, Wallace AL, Gonzalez MR, Hoh E, Infante M.A, Hernandez Mejia M, Haist F (In Press, 2022). Clouding up cognition?: Secondhand cannabis and tobacco exposure related to cognitive functioning in youth. Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science. Available online 22 February 2022, In Press, Journal Pre-proof, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.01.010

Background
Increasing legalization of cannabis, in addition to longstanding rates of tobacco use, raise concerns for possible cognitive decrements from secondhand smoke or environmental exposure, though little research exists. We investigate the relation between cognition and secondhand and environmental cannabis and tobacco exposure in youth.

Methods
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study Year 2 Follow-Up (n=5,580; 48% Female) cognitive performance and secondhand or environmental cannabis or tobacco exposure data was used. Principal components analysis identified a global cognition factor. Linear mixed effects models assessed global cognition and individual cognitive task performance by cannabis and/or tobacco environmental exposure. Sociodemographics and other potential confounds were examined. P-values were adjusted using the false-discovery rate method.

Results
Global cognition was not related to any exposure group after testing corrections and considering confounds. Beyond covariates and family/site-level factors, secondhand tobacco was related to poorer visual memory (p=.02), and environmental tobacco was associated with poorer visuospatial (p=.02) and language skills (p=.008). Secondhand cannabis was related to cognition, but not after controlling for potential confounders (p>.05). Environmental cannabis was related to better oral reading (p=.01). Including covariates attenuated effect sizes.

Conclusions
Secondhand tobacco exposure was associated with poorer visual memory, while environmental tobacco exposure was related to poorer language and visuospatial skills. Secondhand cannabis was not related to cognition after controlling for sociodemographic factors, but environmental cannabis exposure was related to better reading. As this is the first known study of its kind and thus preliminary, secondhand cannabis should continue to be investigated to confirm results.

Classifying Conduct Disorder using a biopsychosocial model and machine learning method

Chan L, Simmons C, Tillem S, Conley M, Brazil IA, Baskin-Sommers A. Classifying Conduct Disorder using a biopsychosocial model and machine learning method. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2022 Feb 22:S2451-9022(22)00043-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2022.02.004. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35217219.

Background: Conduct Disorder (CD) is a common syndrome with far-reaching effects. Risk factors for the development of CD span social, psychological, and biological domains. Researchers note that predictive models of CD are limited if the focus is on a single risk factor or, even, a single domain. Machine learning methods are optimized for the extraction of trends across multi-domain data but have yet to be implemented in predicting the development of CD.

Methods: Social (e.g., family, income), psychological (e.g., psychiatric, neuropsychological), and biological (e.g., resting-state graph metrics) risk factors were measured using data from the baseline visit of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study when youth were 9-10-years-old (n = 2,368). Applying a feed-forward neural network machine learning method, risk factors were used to predict CD diagnoses two years later.

Results: A model with factors that included social, psychological, and biological domains outperformed models representing factors within any single domain, predicting the presence of a CD diagnosis with 91.18% accuracy. Within each domain, certain factors stood out in terms of their relationship to CD (social: lower parental monitoring, more aggression in the household, lower income; psychological: greater ADHD and ODD symptoms, worse crystallized cognition and card sorting performance; biological: disruptions in the topology of subcortical and frontoparietal networks).

Conclusions: The development of an accurate, sensitive, and specific predictive model of CD has the potential to aid in prevention and intervention efforts. Key risk factors for CD appear best characterized as reflecting unpredictable, impulsive, deprived, and emotional external and internal contexts.

Association of Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores for Multiple Psychiatric and Common Traits in Preadolescent Youths at Risk of Suicide

Yoonie Joo Y, Moon S-Y, Wang H-H, Kim H, Lee E-J, Hun Kim, J, Posner J, Ahn W-Y, Choi I, Kim J-W, Cha J. Association of Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores for Multiple Psychiatric and Common Traits in Preadolescent Youths at Risk of Suicide. JAMA Netw Open. February 21, 2022;5(2):e2148585. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.48585

Importance
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youths worldwide, but no available means exist to identify the risk of suicide in this population.

Objective
To assess whether genome-wide polygenic scores for psychiatric and common traits are associated with the risk of suicide among preadolescent children and to investigate whether and to what extent the interaction between early life stress (a major environmental risk factor) and polygenic factors is associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among youths.

Design, Setting, and Participants
This cohort study analyzed the genotype-phenotype data of 11 869 preadolescent children aged 9 to 10 years from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Data were collected from September 1, 2016, to October 21, 2018, and analyzed from August 1, 2020, to January 3, 2021. Using machine learning approaches, genome-wide polygenic scores of 24 complex traits were estimated to investigate their phenome-wide associations and utility for assessing risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (suicidal ideation [active, passive, and overall] and suicide attempt).

Main Outcomes and Measures
Genome-wide polygenic scores were used to measure 24 traits, including psychiatric disorders, cognitive capacity, and personality and psychological characteristics. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to measure early life stress, and the Family Environment Scale was used to assess family environment. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were derived from the computerized version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia.

Results
Among 11 869 preadolescent children in the US, complete data for phenotypic outcomes, genotypes, and covariates were available for 7140 participants in the multiethnic cohort (mean [SD] age, 9.9 [0.6] years; 3588 girls [50.3%]), including 925 participants with suicidal ideation and 63 participants with suicide attempts. Among those 7140 participants, 729 had African ancestry (self-reported race or ethnicity: 569 Black, 71 Hispanic, and 89 other), 276 had admixed American ancestry (self-reported race or ethnicity: 265 Hispanic, 3 White, and 8 other), 150 had East Asian ancestry (self-reported race or ethnicity: 67 Asian, 18 Hispanic, and 65 other), 5718 had European ancestry (self-reported race or ethnicity: 7 Asian, 39 Black, 1142 Hispanic, 3934 White, and 596 other), and 267 had other ancestries (self-reported race or ethnicity: 70 Asian, 13 Black, 126 Hispanic, 48 White, and 10 other). Three genome-wide polygenic scores were significantly associated (false discovery rate P < .05) with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among all participants: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21; P = .001), schizophrenia (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.17-1.93; P = .002), and general happiness (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P = .002). In the analysis including only children with European ancestry, 3 additional genome-wide polygenic scores with false discovery rate significance were associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors: autism spectrum disorder (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31; P = .002), major depressive disorder (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.21; P = .003), and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.21; P = .004). A significant interaction between genome-wide polygenic scores and environment was found, with genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorder and the level of early life stress associated with increases in the risk of overall suicidal ideation and overall suicidal thoughts and behaviors (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.35; P = .002). A machine learning model using multitrait genome-wide polygenic scores and additional self-reported questionnaire data (Child Behavior Checklist and Family Environment Scale) produced a moderately accurate estimate of overall suicidal thoughts and behaviors (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.81; accuracy, 0.67) and suicidal ideation (AUROC, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.80; accuracy, 0.66) among children with European ancestry only. Among all children in the multiethnic cohort, the integrated model also outperformed the baseline model in estimating the risk of overall suicidal thoughts and behaviors (AUROC, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.67-0.75; accuracy, 0.68) and suicidal ideation (AUROC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78; accuracy, 0.67).

Conclusions and Relevance
In this cohort study of preadolescent youths in the US, higher genome-wide polygenic scores for psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, were significantly associated with a greater risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. The findings and quantitative models from this study may help to identify children with a high risk of suicide, potentially assisting with early screening, intervention, and prevention.

Parent-adolescent agreement in reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, Dooley EE, Ganson KT, Conroy AA, Gabriel KP. Parent-adolescent agreement in reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Public Health 22, 332 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-12530-4

Purpose
To describe the agreement between parent- and adolescent- reports of adolescent moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and to determine sociodemographic factors associated with MVPA reporting differences during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods
We analyzed data collected in May 2020 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD, N = 4841), a U.S. prospective cohort study. We quantified past weekly adolescent MVPA levels as reported by the parent and adolescent (referent). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine the degree of agreement between parent- and adolescent- reports.

Results
When quantifying adolescent MVPA during the same recall period, median (p25, p75) MVPA (h∙wk.− 1) was 2.17 (0.00, 6.00) as reported by adolescents and 1.52 (0.29, 4.75) by parents with a mean difference of 4.89. Statistically significant differences in reports of MVPA were found in households with income > $75,000: on average, adolescents reported higher MVPA levels than their parents. Bland-Altman plots illustrated that, among adolescents reporting no or little MVPA, there was higher parent-adolescent agreement. However, among adolescents reporting high levels of MVPA, there was less agreement between the parent- and adolescent- reports.

Conclusions
Despite more time spent together at home during the pandemic, there was generally low agreement between parent- and adolescent- reports of adolescent MVPA. Future research could examine parent-adolescent agreement of MVPA within the context of device-based measures (e.g., accelerometers), determine reasons for differences in parent-adolescent reporting of MVPA, and inform interventions for improved parental involvement and monitoring of MVPA.

Companion Animals and Adolescent Stress and Adaptive Coping During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Mueller MK, King EK, Halbreich ED, Callina KS. Companion Animals and Adolescent Stress and Adaptive Coping During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Anthrozoös, Published online 11 Feb 2022, https://doi.org/10.1080/08927936.2022.2027093

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant social disruptions for youth caused by lockdowns, school closures, and a lack of in-person social interactions. Companion animals are prevalent in United States households and may provide a source of emotional support and motivation for youth to engage in adaptive coping behaviors during social challenges. The goals of this study were to assess if dog owners, non-dog pet owners, and non-pet owners differed in stress levels, positive affect, and use of adaptive coping strategies such as increased time outdoors, regular walking, and healthy behaviors. This study used data collected during the COVID-19 pandemic from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM (ABCD) Study, a large, nationally representative dataset of American youth. In a cross-sectional sample of 6,069 adolescents, there were significant, but small, relationships between owning a non-dog pet and lower levels of positive affect, and both dog owners and non-dog pet owners reported higher perceived stress compared with non-pet owners. Dog ownership was associated with higher odds of using healthy coping strategies compared with non-pet owners, but this relationship was not significant when controlling for demographic variables. Dog owners reported higher odds of having a walking routine and spending time outdoors compared with non-pet owners. Overall, the results suggest no buffering effect of pet ownership on youth mental wellbeing, but dog ownership is associated with some healthy coping behaviors linked to walking.

Measuring Retention within the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD)SM Study

Feldstein Ewing SW, Dash GF, Thompson WK, Reuter C, Diaz VG, Anokhin A, Chang L, Cottler LB, Dowling GJ, LeBlanc K, Zucker RA, Tapert SF, Brown SA, Garavan H. (2022). Measuring Retention within the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD)SM Study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 54, April 2022, 101081.

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD)SM study aims to retain a demographically diverse sample of youth and one parent across 21 sites throughout its 10-year protocol while minimizing selective (systematic) attrition. To evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, the ABCD Retention Workgroup (RW) has employed a data-driven approach to examine, track, and intervene via three key metrics: (1) which youth completed visits late; (2) which youth missed visits; (3) which youth withdrew from the study. The RW actively examines demographic (race, education level, family income) and site factors (visit satisfaction, distance from site, and enrollment in ancillary studies) to strategize efforts that will minimize disengagement and loss of participating youth and parents. Data showed that the most robust primary correlates of late visits were distance from study site, race, and parental education level. Race, lower parental education level, parental employment status, and lower family income were associated with higher odds of missed visits, while being enrolled in one of the ancillary studies was associated with lower odds of missed visits. Additionally, it appeared that parents who were primary Spanish speakers withdrew at slightly higher rates. These findings provide insight into future targets for proactive retention efforts by the ABCD RW.

Multivariate, Transgenerational Associations of the COVID-19 Pandemic Across Minoritized and Marginalized Communities

Yip SW, Jordan A, Kohler RJ, Holmes A, Bzdok D. Multivariate, Transgenerational Associations of the COVID-19 Pandemic Across Minoritized and Marginalized Communities. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online February 9, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.4331

Importance
The experienced consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic have diverged across individuals, families, and communities, resulting in inequity within a host of factors. There is a gap of quantitative evidence about the transgenerational impacts of these experiences and factors.

Objective
To identify baseline predictors of COVID-19 experiences, as defined by child and parent report, using a multivariate pattern-learning framework from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort.

Design, Setting, and Participants
ABCD is an ongoing prospective longitudinal study of child and adolescent development in the United States including 11 875 youths, enrolled at age 9 to 10 years. Using nationally collected longitudinal profiling data from 9267 families, a multivariate pattern-learning strategy was developed to identify factor combinations associated with transgenerational costs of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. ABCD data (release 3.0) collected from 2016 to 2020 and released between 2019 and 2021 were analyzed in combination with ABCD COVID-19 rapid response data from the first 3 collection points (May-August 2020).

Exposures
Social distancing and other response measures imposed by COVID-19, including school closures and shutdown of many childhood recreational activities.

Main Outcomes and Measures
Mid–COVID-19 experiences as defined by the ABCD’s parent and child COVID-19 assessments.

Results
Deep profiles from 9267 youth (5681 female [47.8%]; mean [SD] age, 119.0 [7.5] months) and their caregivers were quantitatively examined. Enabled by a pattern-learning analysis, social determinants of inequity, including family structure, socioeconomic status, and the experience of racism, were found to be primarily associated with transgenerational impacts of COVID-19, above and beyond other candidate predictors such as preexisting medical or psychiatric conditions. Pooling information across more than 17 000 baseline pre–COVID-19 family indicators and more than 280 measures of day-to-day COVID-19 experiences, non-White (ie, families who reported being Asian, Black, Hispanic, other, or a combination of those choices) and/or Spanish-speaking families were found to have decreased resources (mode 1, canonical vector weight [CVW] = 0.19; rank 5 of 281), escalated likelihoods of financial worry (mode 1, CVW = −0.20; rank 4), and food insecurity (mode 1, CVW = 0.21; rank 2), yet were more likely to have parent-child discussions regarding COVID-19–associated health and prevention issues, such as handwashing (mode 1, CVW = 0.14; rank 9), conserving food or other items (mode 1, CVW = 0.21; rank 1), protecting elderly individuals (mode 1, CVW = 0.11; rank 21), and isolating from others (mode 1, CVW = 0.11; rank 23). In contrast, White families (mode 1, CVW = −0.07; rank 3), those with higher pre–COVID-19 income (mode 1, CVW = −0.07; rank 5), and presence of a parent with a postgraduate degree (mode 1, CVW = −0.06; rank 14) experienced reduced COVID-19–associated impact. In turn, children from families experiencing reduced COVID-19 impacts reported longer nighttime sleep durations (mode 1, CVW = 0.13; rank 14), less difficulties with remote learning (mode 2, CVW = 0.14; rank 7), and decreased worry about the impact of COVID-19 on their family’s financial stability (mode 1, CVW = 0.134; rank 13).

Conclusions and Relevance
The findings of this study indicate that community-level, transgenerational intervention strategies may be needed to combat the disproportionate burden of pandemics on minoritized and marginalized racial and ethnic populations.

Causal effects of psychostimulants on neural connectivity: a mechanistic, randomized clinical trial

Wang Y, Kessel E, Lee S, Hong S, Raffanello E, Hulvershorn LA, Margolis A, Peterson BS, Posner, J. Causal effects of psychostimulants on neural connectivity: a mechanistic, randomized clinical trial. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 09 Feb 2022, https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13585.

Background
Psychostimulants are frequently used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but side effects are common leading to many patients discontinuing treatment. Identifying neural mechanisms by which psychostimulants attenuate symptoms may guide the development of more refined and tolerable therapeutics.

Methods
We conducted a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) of a long-acting amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine (LDEX), in patients with ADHD, ages 6–25 years old. Of the 58 participants who participated in the RCT, 49 completed pre- and post-RCT magnetic resonance imaging scanning with adequate data quality. Healthy controls (HCs; n = 46) were included for comparison. Treatment effects on striatal and thalamic functional connectivity (FC) were identified using static (time-averaged) and dynamic (time-varying) measures and then correlated with symptom improvement. Analyses were repeated in independent samples from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (n = 103) and the ADHD-200 Consortium (n = 213).

Results
In 49 participants (25 LDEX; 24 Placebo), LDEX increased static and decreased dynamic FC (DFC). However, only DFC was associated with the therapeutic effects of LDEX. Additionally, at baseline, DFC was elevated in unmedicated-ADHD participants relative to HCs. Independent samples yielded similar findings – ADHD was associated with increased DFC, and psychostimulants with reduced DFC. Static FC findings were inconsistent across samples.

Conclusions
Changes in dynamic, but not static, FC were associated with the therapeutic effects of psychostimulants. While prior research has focused on static FC, DFC may offer a more reliable target for new ADHD interventions aimed at stabilizing network dynamics, though this needs confirmation with subsequent investigations.

Resilience to COVID-19: Socioeconomic Disadvantage Associated With Positive Caregiver–Youth Communication and Youth Preventative Actions

Marshall AT, Hackman DA, Baker FC, Breslin FJ, Brown SA, Dick AS, Gonzalez MR, Guillaume M, Kiss O, Lisdahl KM, McCabe CJ, Pelham III WE, Sheth C, Tapert SF, Van Rinsveld A, Wade NE, Sowell ER. Resilience to COVID-19: Socioeconomic Disadvantage Associated With Positive Caregiver–Youth Communication and Youth Preventative Actions. Front. Public Health, 09 February 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.734308

Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with larger COVID-19 disease burdens and pandemic-related economic impacts. We utilized the longitudinal Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study to understand how family- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage relate to disease burden, family communication, and preventative responses to the pandemic in over 6,000 youth-caregiver dyads. Data were collected at three timepoints (May–August 2020). Here, we show that both family- and neighborhood-level disadvantage were associated with caregivers’ reports of greater family COVID-19 disease burden, less perceived exposure risk, more frequent caregiver-youth conversations about COVID-19 risk/prevention and reassurance, and greater youth preventative behaviors. Families with more socioeconomic disadvantage may be adaptively incorporating more protective strategies to reduce emotional distress and likelihood of COVID-19 infection. The results highlight the importance of caregiver-youth communication and disease-preventative practices for buffering the economic and disease burdens of COVID-19, along with policies and programs that reduce these burdens for families with socioeconomic disadvantage.

Classification of suicidal thoughts and behaviour in children: results from penalised logistic regression analyses in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study

van Velzen LS, Toenders YJ, Avila-Parcet A, Dinga R, Rabinowitz JA, Campos AI, Jahanshad N, Rentería ME, Schmaal L. Classification of suicidal thoughts and behaviour in children: results from penalised logistic regression analyses in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study. Br J Psychiatry. 2022 Feb 9:1-9. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2022.7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35135639.

Background: Despite efforts to predict suicide risk in children, the ability to reliably identify who will engage in suicide thoughts or behaviours has remained unsuccessful.

Aims: We apply a novel machine-learning approach and examine whether children with suicide thoughts or behaviours could be differentiated from children without suicide thoughts or behaviours based on a combination of traditional (sociodemographic, physical health, social-environmental, clinical psychiatric) risk factors, but also more novel risk factors (cognitive, neuroimaging and genetic characteristics).

Method: The study included 5885 unrelated children (50% female, 67% White, 9-11 years of age) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We performed penalised logistic regression analysis to distinguish between: (a) children with current or past suicide thoughts or behaviours; (b) children with a mental illness but no suicide thoughts or behaviours (clinical controls); and (c) healthy control children (no suicide thoughts or behaviours and no history of mental illness). The model was subsequently validated with data from seven independent sites involved in the ABCD study (n = 1712).

Results: Our results showed that we were able to distinguish the suicide thoughts or behaviours group from healthy controls (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve: 0.80 child-report, 0.81 for parent-report) and clinical controls (0.71 child-report and 0.76-0.77 parent-report). However, we could not distinguish children with suicidal ideation from those who attempted suicide (AUROC: 0.55-0.58 child-report; 0.49-0.53 parent-report). The factors that differentiated the suicide thoughts or behaviours group from the clinical control group included family conflict, prodromal psychosis symptoms, impulsivity, depression severity and history of mental health treatment.

Conclusions: This work highlights that mostly clinical psychiatric factors were able to distinguish children with suicide thoughts or behaviours from children without suicide thoughts or behaviours. Future research is needed to determine if these variables prospectively predict subsequent suicidal behaviour.

Associations between social behaviors and experiences with neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation in middle childhood

Geckeler KC, Barch DM, Karcher NR. Associations between social behaviors and experiences with neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation in middle childhood. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2022 Feb 8. doi: 10.1038/s41386-022-01286-5. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35136189.

Emotion regulation is essential for successful social interactions and function, which are important aspects of middle childhood. The current study is one of the first to examine associations between neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation and indices of social behavior and experience during late middle childhood. We examined neural activation during the implicit emotion regulation condition of the Emotional N-back task using data from 8987 9- to 11-year-olds from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ study. The brain regions assessed included areas linked to social cognition, social behavior, and emotion recognition, including the amygdala, insula, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe. Greater number of close friends was associated with significantly higher activation of the fusiform gyrus, insula, temporoparietal junction, inferior parietal lobe, and superior temporal gyrus during implicit emotion regulation. Greater reciprocal social impairments were linked to decreased fusiform gyrus activation during implicit emotion regulation. More experiences of discrimination were associated with a significantly lower activation in the middle temporal gyrus during implicit emotion regulation. This study provides evidence that both positive and negative indices of children’s social experiences and behaviors are associated with neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation during late middle childhood. These findings suggest that both positive and negative indices of social behavior and experience, including those within and not within the youth’s control, are associated with generally unique neural correlates during implicit emotion regulation.

Associations between potentially traumatic events and psychopathology among preadolescents in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study®

Thompson EL, Lever NA, Connors KM, Cloak CC, Reeves G, Chang L. Associations between potentially traumatic events and psychopathology among preadolescents in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study®. J Trauma Stress. 2022 Feb 8. doi: 10.1002/jts.22793. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35132700.

The current cross-sectional study aimed to extend the literature on childhood adversity by examining the unique associations between potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and a range of mental health concerns, including domain-specific versus comorbid concerns. Participants were 11,877 preadolescents (47.8% female, 15.0% Black, 20.3% Hispanic/Latinx, Mage = 9.5 years) taking part in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® . The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was used to measure PTEs and caregiver- and child-reported mental health concerns. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were used for the outcomes of interest. Overall, PTEs were consistently associated with increased odds of experiencing comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders, significant AORs = 1.34-4.30, after accounting for children’s experiences of other PTEs and polyvictimization. In contrast, PTEs were generally not associated with meeting the criteria for diagnoses within only one domain (i.e., internalizing-only or externalizing-only diagnoses). We also found PTEs to be differentially related to the various mental health outcomes. In particular, witnessing domestic violence was consistently associated with children’s psychopathology. Other PTEs, such as witnessing community violence, were not associated with children’s psychopathology in the final model. Associations between PTEs and mental health concerns did not differ as a function of sex. Overall, the results support the notion that PTEs are associated with comorbid concerns rather than individual disorders. These findings have important implications for the screening of PTEs, continued research on the conceptualization of traumatic stress, and the importance of accounting for comorbidities across mental health domains.